So for my work, I need to use multiple programs which I store in the /opt/ directory. Every time I install a program, I have been adding the path to that program to my own path, and now, my path is getting to be quite large. I'm thinking that it would more efficient to create a single directory containing links to all programs I need, and only add that directory to my path. However, I'm relatively new to Linux, and don't know if that is the correct way to deal with this issue. I don't want to pick up any bad habits related to file maintenance, so I'd like to know what the correct way to approach this problem is?submitted by /u/MaskeAuf
I have a Btrfs filesystem on a backup server. This filesystem has a directory to hold backups for filesystems from remote machines. In this directory is a subdirectory for each machine. Under each machine subdirectory is one directory for each filesystem (ex /boot, /home, etc) on that machine. In each filesystem subdirectory are incremental snapshot subvolumes for that filesystem. The scheme is something like this:
<top>/backup/<machine>/<filesystem>/<many snapshot subvolumes>
I'd like to try to back up (duplicate) the file server filesystem containing these snapshot subvolumes for each remote machine. The problem is that I don't think I can use send/receive to do this. "Btrfs send" requires "read-only" snapshots, and snapshots are not recursive as yet. I think there are too many subvolumes which change too often to make doing this without recursion practical.
Any thoughts would be most appreciated.submitted by /u/oss542
I want to give Linux a try. So far my only experience with it is a raspberry pi / Retropie.
So I've installed a second hard drive on my pc. Unplugged the windows HD, and put Ubuntu on to the new one without issue. Plugged the windows HD back in and hit restart, go to bios to change boot order. It still boots to windows 10 automatically. So I unplug it again. Go back to Ubuntu, install grub/grub customizer. No difference. Then I try sudo boot repair. No difference. I go back to windows, turn off fast boot. Still no difference.
No matter what I try it goes to windows.submitted by /u/kappakingtut
Every GNOME Shell user will visit the official GNOME Shell Extensions website at least once. And if those users do so this weekend they’ll notice a small difference as the GNOME Shell Extensions website is sporting a minor redesign. This online repo plays host to a stack of terrific add-ons that add additional features and tweak existing ones.
This concerns an `2013 HP elitebook (8570w)
Basically you can mess around the whole day with efibootmgr and efivars and you will not be able to boot your new entry as default except if you label it as "Windows Boot Manager". After that, you do not even need a boot manager, you can use efistub to boot the kernel (with an initramfs).
This is beyond stupid.submitted by /u/nicman24
After attempting to install a new PCI ethernet driver (for a TP-Link TG-3269) and have run into a problem during install.
Compiled using Realtek driver r8168-8.044.02, extracted to ~Desktop (from official site):
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ uname -isorLinux 3.16.0-38-generic i686 GNU/Linux
m3talhead@m3talhead ~/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02 $ sudo make clean modulesmake -C src/ clean make: Entering directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src' make -C /lib/modules/3.16.0-38-generic/build SUBDIRS=/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src clean make: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' CLEAN /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/.tmp_versions CLEAN /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/Module.symvers make: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' make: Leaving directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src' make -C src/ modules make: Entering directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src' make -C /lib/modules/3.16.0-38-generic/build SUBDIRS=/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src modules make: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' CC [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168_n.o CC [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168_asf.o CC [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/rtl_eeprom.o CC [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/rtltool.o LD [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168.o Building modules, stage 2. MODPOST 1 modules CC /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168.mod.o LD [M] /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168.ko make: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' make: Leaving directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src'
m3talhead@m3talhead ~/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02 $ sudo make installNOTE: This is where I receive the private key error. Running as root v. sudo give the same message. make -C src/ install make: Entering directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src' make -C /lib/modules/3.16.0-38-generic/build SUBDIRS=/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src INSTALL_MOD_DIR=kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/realtek modules_install make: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' INSTALL /home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src/r8168.ko Can't read private key DEPMOD 3.16.0-38-generic make: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.16.0-38-generic' make: Leaving directory `/home/m3talhead/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02/src'
m3talhead@m3talhead ~/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02 $ sudo mkinitramfs -o /boot/initrd.img-3.16.0-38-genericWarning: No support for locale: en_US.utf8
m3talhead@m3talhead ~/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02 $ sudo echo "blacklist r8169" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.confNOTE: Not sure why sudo doesn't work here but su does (?) bash: /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf: Permission denied
m3talhead@m3talhead ~/Desktop/r8168-8.044.02 $ su
root r8168-8.044.02 # sudo echo "blacklist r8169" >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
root r8168-8.044.02 # sudo cp src/r8168.ko /lib/modules/3.16.0-38-generic/kernel/drivers/net/
root r8168-8.044.02 # sudo depmod -a
root r8168-8.044.02 # sudo modprobe r8168
root r8168-8.044.02 # reboot
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ ifconfiglo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1 RX packets:2186 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:2186 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:567048 (567.0 KB) TX bytes:567048 (567.0 KB)
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ /sbin/ip link1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ nm-toolNetworkManager Tool State: disconnected
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ sudo lshw -C network*-network UNCLAIMED description: Ethernet controller product: RTL8169 PCI Gigabit Ethernet Controller vendor: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. physical id: 1 bus info: pci@0000:03:01.0 version: 10 width: 32 bits clock: 66MHz capabilities: pm bus_master cap_list configuration: latency=64 maxlatency=64 mingnt=32 resources: ioport:d000(size=256) memory:f5000000-f50000ff memory:f4000000-f401ffff
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ ixni -MiNMachine: Mobo: Gigabyte model: G31M-S2L Bios: Award version: F6 date: 06/05/2008 Network: Card: Realtek RTL8169 PCI Gigabit Ethernet Controller IF: N/A state: N/A speed: N/A duplex: N/A mac: N/A
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ lspci -nnk | grep -i netNOTE: "Kernel driver in use: xxxxxxxx" is missing on the last line of lspci -nnk | grep -i net (after "Capabilities") when compared to other devices. Leads me to believe the kernel cannot see the .ko. Thinking it's due to the private key error during install. If so, what's the fix? [...] 03:01.0 Ethernet controller: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8169 PCI Gigabit Ethernet Controller (rev 10) Subsystem: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8169/8110 Family PCI Gigabit Ethernet NIC Flags: bus master, 66MHz, medium devsel, latency 64, IRQ 11 I/O ports at d000 [size=256] Memory at f5000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=256] [virtual] Expansion ROM at f4000000 [disabled] [size=128K] Capabilities: [dc] Power Management version
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ locate -i r8168/etc/modprobe.d/r8168-dkms.conf /lib/modules/3.16.0-38-generic/kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/realtek/r8168.ko /usr/share/doc/r8168-dkms /usr/share/doc/r8168-dkms/README /usr/share/doc/r8168-dkms/README.Debian /usr/share/doc/r8168-dkms/changelog.Debian.gz /usr/share/doc/r8168-dkms/copyright /usr/share/initramfs-tools/hooks/r8168-dkms /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00 /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/Makefile /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/dkms.conf /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/r8168.h /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/r8168_asf.c /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/r8168_asf.h /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/r8168_n.c /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/rtl_eeprom.c /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/rtl_eeprom.h /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/rtltool.c /usr/src/r8168-8.037.00/rtltool.h /var/cache/apt/archives/r8168-dkms_8.037.00-1_all.deb /var/lib/dkms/r8168 /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00 /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/source /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/.built-in.o.cmd /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/.tmp_versions /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/Makefile /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/built-in.o /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/dkms.conf /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/make.log /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/r8168.h /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/r8168_asf.c /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/r8168_asf.h /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/r8168_n.c /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/rtl_eeprom.c /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/rtl_eeprom.h /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/rtltool.c /var/lib/dkms/r8168/8.037.00/build/rtltool.h /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.conffiles /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.list /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.md5sums /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.postinst /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.preinst /var/lib/dpkg/info/r8168-dkms.prerm
m3talhead@m3talhead ~ $ dmesg | grep r8168NOTE: Assuming this is part of the previous failure to read private key error. [ 20.101374] r8168: module verification failed: signature and/or required key missing - tainting kernel
EDIT: formattingsubmitted by /u/M3talhead