Attackers with a little more than a minute to spare can get their foot in the door on Linux boxes by holding down the Enter key for 70 seconds – an act that gifts them a root initramfs shell .
The simple exploit, which requires physical access to the system, exists due to a bug in the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) used in popular variations of Linux. With access to an initramfs environment shell, an attacker could then attempt to decrypt the encrypted filesystem by brute-force. The attack also potentially works on virtual Linux boxen in clouds.
The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is undoubtedly the most widely used protocol on the Internet today. If you have ever done an online banking transaction, visited a social networking website, or checked your email, you have most likely used TLS. Apart from wrapping the plain text HTTP protocol with cryptographic goodness, other lower level protocols like SMTP and FTP can also use TLS to ensure that all the data between client and server is inaccessible to attackers in between. This article takes a brief look at the evolution of the protocol and discusses why it was necessary to make changes to it.
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