Language Selection

English French German Italian Portuguese Spanish

Ubuntu Buzz

Syndicate content
Unofficial Ubuntu BlogUnknownnoreply@blogger.comBlogger1538125Ubuntubuzz
Updated: 9 hours 16 min ago

Linux Mint with Windows 7 Theme

Thursday 23rd of January 2020 03:54:00 PM
(Mint with Windows 7 desktop theme and bluish wallpaper)
This article explains step by step to change GNU/Linux Mint operating system user interface to mimic W7 especially after its official support ended in this January 2020. You can practice this tutorial in Cinnamon Edition and you will install 2 types of theme plus 1 original wallpaper here. By this tutorial, I want to help people who find it's easier to migrate to Free Software if their desktop looks like their previous OS. I believe helping them are good and useful. And I hope by publishing this more people will come to help B00merang Project and others alike to develop these themes. I hope your switch from W7 to GNU/Linux goes easier, smoother, and perfect. Enjoy!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.


  • Copy desktop theme folder into ~/.themes/
  • Copy icon theme folder into ~/.icons/
  • Change 4 points in Themes Settings: Window borders=Windows 7.2.1, Icons=Windows-8-master, Controls=Windows-7-master, and Desktop=Windows-7.2.1. See picture below.
  • Change your background into the original blue wallpaper mentioned above.

Desktop in a whole now should look like this:

 (Final desktop)
Window borders (outer frames) and taskbar:

(Firefox web browser)
(LibreOffice Writer, Calc, and Impress; also look at the taskbar icons)
File manager:

File manager with image preview disabled and tooltip enabled:

Control panel:

Some Issues
We will find that the start menu part is still not satisfying despite the icons are almost all perfect.

Further References
 This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

How To Download elementary OS for Beginners

Wednesday 22nd of January 2020 03:51:00 PM

elementary is a very popular modern operating system even non-technical people want to use it. It's not strange if some of them felt difficulty in downloading the OS. But it is highly beneficial to help them because by doing so we have more people using it and big chance also more donations can go to empower the development. Beyond that, I saw the internet at the moment lacks step-by-step tutorial to do this important thing. For that reason, I make this simple guide in how to download elementary OS for new users by using standard and alternative methods everyone may choose. I hope this article helps you a lot and let's go use elementary!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

  • Free storage space 2GB or more. 
  • Internet access.
  • Web browser.
  • BitTorrent client program, if you want alternative way to download.

1. Where To Download
Go to and you should see "Pay What You Want" section with "Purchase" button. That is the download area. Please note that I write this in January 2020 when elementary reached version 5.1 "Hera" so all screenshots here are from this time and some may change in the future.

 Picture 1.1(Download section on elementary OS official website)
2. Download It
There are two ways to download, either by donating or not. For most people, you can use not donating. For people who love to help fund the development, go ahead by donating. However, even if you download without donating, you can still donate to the project by Funding Page or purchase merchandises by the Store.

Without donating:
    1. Select custom price
    2. Type 0
    3. Click download button
    4. The dialog 'Choose a Download' appears and click 'Download' button.
    5. You download an ISO image file
    6. Wait some time as the file size is big
      Picture 2.1(The dialog 'Choose a Download')
      With donating:
      1. Select $10, $20, or $30 from options available
      2. Alternatively, select custom and type amount you wish, for example $5 or $100
      3. Click 'Purchase elementary OS' button
      4. Wait a minute
      5. A small dialog appears from elementary, Inc. asking for your debit/credit card information
      6. Enter your card information
      7. Click "Pay" button
      8. The dialog 'Choose a Download' appears and click Download button.
      9. You download an ISO image file

       Picture 2.2 (This payment form is provided by Stripe Checkout service --an alternative to PayPal-- and if you want there is a video explanation)
      3. Wait
      With a standard broadband connection, for example 5MB/s, the download process should finish in under 10 minutes. However, internet access is sometimes slow so wait patiently until it's finished completely.

      Picture 3.1(Firefox web browser downloading the ISO file)
      4. Result
      The file downloaded should be named elementaryos-[version]-[stable]-[release_date].iso with size no less than 1GB. Up to this step, you downloaded elementary OS successfully. Congratulations!

       Picture 4.1(The operating system stored as a file with .iso extension just like any other OSes)
      5. Alternative Download
      Technically, above mentioned way of downloading is called "HTTP Download". That is standard. But there is an alternative download method, called "BitTorrent Download", that is far more faster and reliable, you can resume download at any time and make sure the file downloaded will never be corrupted. To download in BitTorrent way, you need a BitTorrent client program, for example Transmission (Ubuntu, Mint, Manjaro) or KTorrent (Kubuntu), both are free software. If you are using Windows or macOS, I recommend Transmission. If you want alternative method instead, follow these:
      1. Go to
      2. Repeat above steps to download until 'Choose a Download' dialog appears
      3. Click 'U' button next to 'Download' button (it is called 'Torrent Magnet Link')
      4. Your BitTorrent client appears with folder options to store the file
      5. Click OK
      6. Your download starts in the BitTorrent client window
       Picture 5.1(The dialog 'Choose a Download' with a torrent magnet link button)
      Picture 5.2(KTorrent, a bittorrent client program, downloading the same elementary OS but with faster speed)
      Happy downloading!

      Further Readings

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      Guide to Install and Use LibreOffice on elementary OS

      Tuesday 21st of January 2020 01:58:00 PM

      LibreOffice is not included by default in elementary OS unlike in other distros. But because you will need it, and many Windows users switching will also need it, I write this tutorial to install and to use it. LibreOffice is free (as in freedom) software, it fulfills rights of all users and community, so it's better than MSO or WPS/Kingsoft and that's why most GNU/Linux distros include it by default and I present it to you here. Enjoy!
      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
      • About LibreOffice
      • Several Methods to Install
      • Installation (Standard Method)
      • Installation (Alternative Methods)
      • User Guide

      About LibreOffice
      LibreOffice, formerly, is the most successful free software office suite that supports OpenDocument Format (ODF) and Microsoft Format (OOXML) among other digital document formats. LibreOffice comprises of 6 programs: Writer word processor, Calc spreadsheet, Impress presentation, Math equation editor, Draw chart & vector editor, and Base database manager. Visit the official website at

      Several Ways to Install
      On MS Windows, you have one way to install LibreOffice, that is to download the EXE from internet and double-click it. But on elementary OS, there are several ways to install LibreOffice you may choose one you like the most:
      • normal method (APT command | standard, clear & easy, worldwide community supports it)
      • AppCenter method (GUI | easy, but complicated)
      • portable method (AppImage | easy, quickest, similar to Windows' way)
      • Flatpak method (Flatpak command | not easy, big size)

      Open your Terminal and type this command:
      $ sudo apt-get install libreoffice
      Then find LibreOffice Writer, Calc, Impress, Draw, Base, and Math on your menu.

      • You can do this installation even in LiveCD session.
      • This method is standard: Ubuntu, Debian, Mint users all can help you if you encounter some errors.

      Alternative Methods
      (1) AppCenter method:
      • Run AppCenter.
      • Search for name "libreoffice".
      • Click Install button.
      • You will see progress bar moving while installing, but without download speed. Keep it up.
      • Installation finished. 
      • Find LibreOffice on your menu. 

      (2) Portable method:
      • Download LibreOffice AppImage version.
      • You get a file named LibreOffice-[version]-[architecture].appimage.
      • Right-click that file > Properties > Permissions > give check mark "Executable" > OK. 
      • Double-click that file. 
      • LibreOffice runs.
      • Repeat steps above to run it next time. 

      (3) Flatpak method:
      • Make sure your elementary OS has been installed & you don't run this on LiveCD.
      • Run command line:
      $ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
      • Restart your computer.
      • Run command line:
      $ flatpak install org.libreoffice.LibreOffice
      • It needs to download huge size of files (>500MB) so wait patiently.
      • LibreOffice installed with Flatpak way. 
      • Run it by command line:
      $ flatpak run org.libreoffice.LibreOffice
      Note: Flatpak method is mentioned here because starting from version 5.1, elementary OS includes Flatpak support by default.

      User Guide
      I have written articles about using LibreOffice Writer you can read:

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      User Guide to Pantheon Desktop of elementary OS

      Monday 20th of January 2020 04:46:00 PM
      (This beautiful desktop is Pantheon)
      Unlike Windows, user interface in elementary OS has a name, and it is Pantheon Desktop. It is a beautifully designed and easy to use desktop environment. This article wants to be a user guide to Pantheon Desktop that is simple to read and practice. You will learn about basic concepts of Pantheon and then practice to use it for daily tasks. You will see here how to use Wingpanel (top panel), Slingshot (start menu), Plank (taskbar), Switchboard (system settings), plus understand Headerbars and Multitasking mode. Of course I also include frequently used Keyboard Shortcuts so you can work more quickly. For your information, I use elementary OS 5.0 Juno as basis of this tutorial. I hope everybody could take benefit from this article and next time I could refer here if I write again about elementary. Enjoy!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
      • What is Pantheon?
      • Pantheon Components
      • Wingpanel & Plank
      • Icons
      • 1. How To Play
      • 2. Start Menu
      • 3. Window
      • 4. Dialogs
      • 5. System Tray & Clock
      • 6. Dock
      • 7. Get Accustomed to Tooltips
      • 8. Playback
      • 9. Multitasking
      • 10. Controlling
      • Shortcut Keys
      • Further Readings

      What is Pantheon Desktop?
      Picture A(This awesome, smooth & pretty user interface is called Pantheon)
      There is GNU/Linux, there is elementary OS, and there is Pantheon Desktop.
      • GNU/Linux - all computer operating systems that are variant of GNU that combined with a kernel named Linux. 
      • elementary OS - a variant of GNU/Linux developed by two talented designers Daniel Rabbit & Cassidy James from the U.S.
      • Pantheon desktop - the user interface within elementary OS that is similar to Apple MacOS but designed very differently by the two founders. 

      For Windows and MacOS users, welcome to the Free Software Community, a community where we all talk about GNU/Linux and stuffs, including talking about various distros and various desktop environments, those two are things you do not find on Windows or MacOS. In our community, software diversity is unlimited, choices are plenty, and even there are many choices of user interface. Pantheon, hence, one among user interface (called "desktop environment" by us) we can choose for our computer. The secret is, by mastering the use of the user interface we master the operating system: by mastering Pantheon we master elementary OS.

      Pantheon Desktop Components
      Talking about Pantheon is talking about 4 things: there are Wingpanel, Plank, Slingshot, and Switchboard.

      • Wingpanel is your top panel, the "chameleon" bar that switch colors according to your activities.
      • Plank is the bottom dock, that feels similar to "dock" in Apple MacOS.
      • Slingshot is the start menu, yes start menu, but here with a name.
      • Switchboard is the system settings, the "control panel" everybody knows, where you rely on to control your system.

      Picture B(Pantheon with Wingpanel, Slingshot, and Plank Dock)
      Wingpanel and Plank
      Top panel has a name, Wingpanel, that comprises of 3 parts left, center, and right and switches color from no color, transparent, and black according to conditions. Its left part displays the start menu (Slingshot), middle part displays the clock, and right part displays the system tray. The rest of this article explains mostly about this top panel.

      Picture C(Top: Wingpanel with no color when the wallpaper background is light | Middle: top panel with half transparent color when the background is dark | Bottom: Wingpanel with black color when a window is maximized)
      Bottom panel also has a name, it's Plank, the taskbar of Pantheon Desktop. Plank is a dock, that is, a small taskbar panel to place (to dock) application shortcuts; it hides itself automatically whenever a window goes maximized.

      Picture D(This is Plank)
      Pantheon is a very iconic desktop. The user interface is designed to rely on icons. Everything is visible, easily recognizable, thanks to these beautifully designed icons.

      Picture E(Aesthetic icons in elementary OS are important parts of Pantheon Desktop)

      1. How To Play
      Pantheon desktop is:

      1. Designed differently.
      2. Everything is simple.
      3. No icons on wallpaper area.
      4. No titlebar, but headerbar.
      5. No menubar.
      6. No minimize.
      7. No global menu.
      8. No right-click on desktop.
      9. Click (once) to open an application or a file.
      10. Minimum preferences in apps. 

      2. Working with Start Menu
      The start menu is located on top. This Pantheon's start menu is called Applications Menu. You open it by click top-left corner of screen or alternatively by Super+Space key (Win key+Spacebar). 
      Picture 1.1(A. Slingshot by default appearance, default mode | B. Slingshot by list/categorized mode | C. Searching for apps | D. Searching, with different keyword)
      On MS Windows, this is called "Start Menu", but on elementary OS it is called Applications Menu on screen and behind the screen it is called Slingshot Launcher
      3. Working with Window
      There is no titlebar on every window, but headerbar, a modern style titlebar that combines toolbar & icons in same space to make your vertical space larger. A window is an application you are running on screen as a rectangle with grey-metal color frame surrounding it. You work with a window by 6 things on its headerbar:
      • closing, click X button on left side of headerbar (or press Alt+F4)
      • maximizing, double-click empty area on headerbar
      • moving, drag empty area, or hold Super key and drag any part of window
      • un-maximizing, double-click empty area on headerbar of maximized window
      • resizing, hover cursor to a corner of window and drag it in / out, and
      • minimizing it, right-click empty area on headerbar > Minimize.

      Picture 3.1(Behind: Code Text Editor's headerbar | Middle: Files File Manager's headerbar | Front: Epiphany Web Browser's headerbar)
      4. Working with Dialogs
      A dialog is a small window appears whenever you do 'Save File' or 'Open File'. For example, when you save a web page on Epiphany Web Browser, you display a Save File dialog, indicated by Name textbox and Save button on bottom: to change file name to be saved. On the other hand, when you instruct a program to open some file, you display an Open File dialog,indicated by no textbox and Open button: to navigate folders & open some file. Other than these names, people also call these File Chooser dialogs.

      Picture 4.1(A. Save File dialog | B. Open File dialog)
      5. Working with System Tray & Clock
      Similar to Windows and MacOS, Tray is the place of notifications, network connections, and Shutdown buttons.
      Picture 5.1(A. Sound volume | B. Wifi & Network connections | C. Power (battery) & brightness | D. Notifications area | E. Shutdown & logout)
      But unlike other systems, Clock is located in the middle of panel instead of joining the tray. The Clock is functioning also as mini Calendar Applet if you click it. If you have events on Calendar, you will also see events on this applet. 
      Picture 5.2(A. Clock on the middle of Wingpanel showing day, month, date, but without year | B. Calendar Applet displayed if you click the Clock, and clicking a date shows its Events | C. Events you create on Calendar will be displayed on B)
      6. Working with Dock
      Bottom part of screen is called "Taskbar" on Windows, "Dock" on MacOS, and Plank on Pantheon Desktop. It is place where all running apps displayed as icons - you can show / hide between them by click. You work with dock by 6 things:
      • click an icon - run the application.
      • drag a file onto a running app - copy / open that file into the app. 
      • drag-and-drop icon from Application Menu - place new app.
      • right-click icon and uncheck "Keep" - remove app from Plank.
      • maximize a window - hide Plank.
      • push cursor to bottom edge of screen - reveal hidden Plank.

      Picture 6.1(Plank)
      7. Get Accustomed to Tooltips
      A tooltip is a small description text appears once you hover cursor to a part of screen. A tooltip appears on start menu, on almost every button, on icon, and other places. Every tooltip explains things you can do with its button.

      Picture 7.1(Top: tooltips of Epiphany buttons | Middle: tooltips of Photos buttons | Bottom: tooltips of Files buttons)
      8. Playback
      Similar to Windows and MacOS,
      • to play individual audio/video: double-click an audio file to play it on Music Player | double-click a video file to play it on Videos Player. 
      • to play multiple audio/video at once: copy the audio files into Home/Music directory | copy the video files into Home/Videos directory; the program will scan them automatically.

      But perhaps it's unusual, do not drag-and-drop audio/video from File Manager into Music or Videos Player, because you cannot do that. Do either one of two things above. That's it.

      Picture 8.1(Music Player scans and plays audios stored in Home/Music folder)
      9. Multitasking at Heart
      Yes, Pantheon is a modern desktop for modern operating system. It supports multitasking at heart. You work with multitasking by 5 things:
      • Super+W - display all running applications. 
      • Ctrl+Super+Left - resize half-screen left current app.
      • Ctrl+Super+Right - resize half-screen right current app.
      • Alt+Tab - switch between running apps. This is no different to other systems.
      • Super+S - activate multiple desktop mode. In this mode, you can drag and drop a window to other desktop, as if you have multiple monitors.
      Picture 9.1(A. Press Super+W to see overview of currently running apps | B. Side by side windows in one screen is automatically arranged by dragging and push them to each side | C. Press Alt+Tab to switch between running apps | D. Press Super+S to create multiple desktop, to have multiple monitors without actually having physical monitor)
      10. Controlling
      On Pantheon Desktop, all settings are centralised in one place. That place is named Switchboard, the control panel, or the system settings of elementary OS. There are 4 sections in Switchboard:
      • Personal - default apps-filetypes associations, changing language, Pantheon & wallpaper preferences, notifications, and security & privacy stuffs.  
      • Hardware - keyboard & shortcut keys management, mouse/touchpad, monitor & resolution, battery & power management, printing, sound & microphone stuffs. 
      • Network & Wireless - LAN and wifi, creating hotspot, VPN stuffs.
      • Administration - detailed system info, timezone selection, accessibility, and  changing your password stuffs. 
      As example, even to change desktop wallpaper you need to open Switchboard > Personal > Desktop > select a wallpaper > wallpaper changed. Another example, to connect to a wifi hotspot, you need to go to Switchboard > Network & Wireless > Devices > select your wireless device > a list of hotspots displayed > choose a hotspot > type hotspot's password > you are connected. 

      Picture 10.1(Switchboard, the control panel of Pantheon Desktop)
      Shortcut Keys
      You work with keyboard faster than work with mouse.

      • Super - show table of shortcut keys.
      • Super+S - multitasking mode.
      • Super+W - overview mode.
      • Super+Space - open start menu.
      • Super+Left/Right - switch desktop to left/right. It is similar to move your body position to face other monitor --if you have multiple ones.
      • Alt+F4 - close a window.
      • Alt+F2 - run a command.
      • Ctrl+C - copy.
      • Ctrl+V - paste.
      • F2 - rename.
      • Shift+Del - permanent delete.
      • Shift+Ctrl+N - create new folder.
      Picture F(Shortcut list overlay whenever you press Super key alone)
      Further Readings
      I am not the only person writing about Pantheon Desktop. You can find more nice writings on the net:

      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

      LibreOffice Writer: Inserting Tables

      Friday 17th of January 2020 09:35:00 AM
      Table is an item of rows and columns. In Writer, you can create table in any size, control its horizontal & vertical lines, merge & split cells, even apply a color theme for it, and finally to automatically sort out table contents as you wish. You will learn by examples once again in this tutorial. Happy learning!

      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

      • What is a table?
      • Table Toolbar in Writer
      • 1. Create Table
      • 2. Fill Table
      • 3. Resize Table
      • 4. Add/Delete
      • 5. Borders & Lines
      • 6. Coloring
      • 7. Sorting

      What is a table?
      Table is a union of rows and columns. In other words, a table is a collection of cells. A table normally comprises of lines both horizontally and vertically wrapping the cells within.

      (A table with 5 cells x 5 cells in a Writer document)Table Toolbar
      This is table toolbar in full length. This toolbar is hidden by default except cursor is in or selecting a table.

      To see it clearer, I divided this long toolbar into 7 parts below:

      • (A) Add
      • (B) Remove
      • (C) Merge & Split
      • (D) Align Contents & Coloring
      • (E) Borders & Lines
      • (F) Numbering Format
      • (G) Functions

      1. Create Table
      • See toolbar.
      • Click Insert Table button.
      • Move your cursor so you see blue boxes over white boxes.
      • Click.
      • A table created based on how many row x column you chose.

      2. Fill Table
      • Put cursor in a cell.
      • Type anything.
      • Put cursor in another cell.
      • Type anything. 
      • Finish all cells.

      Picture 2.1(A 3x4 table with some text contents)
      3. Resize Table
      • move cursor to a vertical line, either left, center, or right one.
      • cursor changed to a left-right arrow. 
      • drag cursor horizontally.
      • table resized horizontally
      • move cursor to a horizontal line, drag, table resized vertically.

      Picture 3.1(Resizing a table by dragging its outer edges)
      4. Add/Delete Rows & Columns
      Whenever cursor placed in a cell, Table Toolbar appears with 7 buttons below:

      Add row / column:
      • Put cursor at a cell.
      • Click 1st button to add new row to top.
      • Click 2nd button to add new row to bottom.
      • Click 3rd button to add new column to left.
      • Click 4th button to add new column to right.

      Remove row / column:
      • Put cursor at a cell. 
      • Click 5th button to delete current row.
      • Click 6th button to delete current column.
      • Click 7th button to delete entire table.

      5. Borders & Lines
      A table may have complete lines both outer and inner ones. A table may also have incomplete lines, with variations, for example only top and bottom horizontal borders, or only inner vertical lines, you can control that with Borders. A table's lines may have a certain styles, for example, dotted or doubled ones, you can control that with Border Style.

      Picture 5.1(A. Borders: table borders mode selection | B. Border style selection)



      Picture 5.2(A. Table without border | B. Table with horizontal borders only | C. Table with outer borders only | D. Table with only one cell completely bordered)
      6. Manual & Automatic Coloring
      A table can be colored per cell, per column, and per row. You can do it manually with Background Color button. Other than that, Writer provides multiple color themes you can choose for your table from menubar Table > Autoformat Styles.

      6.1. Manual:

      • Select several cells.
      • See Formatting Toolbar, see Background Color button.
      • Click Background Color and select a color e.g. green.
      • Selected cells are now colored.

      Picture 6.1(A table with first row colored in light green)
      6.2. Automatic:
      • Create a table.
      • Select all cels. 
      • Go to menubar Table > Autoformat Styles. 
      • A dialog appears. 
      • Select a color template from left panel e.g. Box List Green.
      • OK.
      • Table colored as color template selected. 

      Automatic method is basically a special autoformat for tables, not only about colors, but also about currency and number formatting. However, we use it here merely for the colors. The important thing is that you can select from the 5 selections available Number format, Borders, Font, Pattern, and Alignment to apply completely the theme or not.

        Picture 6.2((A) Menu location | (B) Autoformat dialog selecting Box List Green theme)
        As practice, below is the example. Before is a table with 3 columns and 4 rows. After is the same table colored with 4 different colors from themes available at Autoformat Styles. Pay attention at the table first & last row colors, and how the rest of rows are different thanks to grey-write coloring. Also, the resulting tables are all without borders.



        Picture 6.3(Red, Orange, Blue, and Green color themes applied into a same table)
        I use LibreOffice for this example. Your version perhaps has different color selections.

        7. Sorting
        Text contents in a table can be sorted automatically.

        • Make sure a table has at least 2 columns full with text.
        • Select all cells that want to be sorted.
        • Click Sort button.
        • Sort dialog appears.
        • Select Column 1 to sort table based on Column 1, select Column 2 to sort table based on Column 2, and so on. 
        • OK.
        • Table sorted automatically.

         Picture 7.1(Sort dialog to determine sorting criteria)
        As example, you can try to sort out a distro list based on their names and then based on their initial years. To sort based on the former, choose Column 1, and choose Column 2 for the latter. The result is a table that lists distros from Arch to Zorin, or, a table that shows history from 1993 until 2015 for that GNU/Linux distros.

        There is an unsorted table with distros and their years of initial release in only two columns. There are A until Z, from Arch to Zorin.


        When we sort based on name (yellow on left), the years follow the name. And when we sort based on years (yellow on right), the names follow the year.

         Picture 7.2(Left: table sorted by first column "Name" showing A-Z | Right: table sorted by second column "Year" showing 1993-2015)
        Happy writing!

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Telegram Desktop Account Recovery When Phone is Broken

        Thursday 16th of January 2020 07:49:00 AM
        Last night, I experienced power outage and my laptop has no battery when I was talking on Telegram Desktop on my Neon GNU/Linux operating system. When I turned my laptop on, my Telegram Desktop was in logged out state. It was locked by its own security system. But that means I cannot see chats & groups anymore. The ultimate thing is that my phone is broken so I also cannot access my Telegram Mobile account: I cannot read verification code sent by Telegram official. Fortunately, I managed to recover my Telegram Desktop successfully without phone at all by using my spare operating system in the same laptop. Perhaps you experienced an unfortunate state like me, so I share with you my recovery story below. I wish you can recover your account too!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
        All about Telegram: Install Guide | Phone Number Recovery | GNU/Linux Communities |

        1. Walkthrough
        1. Run second operating system.
        2. Run Telegram Desktop that is still normal in that second OS.
        2. Open the partition where first operating system exists.
        3. Run Terminal in Telegram/ folder in first operating system partition.
        4. Run command line ./Telegram -many -workdir ../../.TelegramDesktop/
        5. Now 2 different Telegram Desktop are running on the same screen: one normal (second OS) and one broken (first OS).
        6. Login to the broken Telegram Desktop (first OS) with your Telegram's phone number.
        7. The normal Telegram Desktop (second OS) will receive verification code.
        8. Insert verification code to the broken Telegram Desktop (first OS).
        9. Telegram Desktop is now fixed successfully.
        10. Go back to first operating system and Telegram Desktop should work without asking for login anymore.

        Picture 1.1(Left: broken Telegram from first OS running from command line by using its own workdir | Right: normal Telegram from second OS, Trisquel, receiving verification code)
        2. My Conditions
        Before doing walkthrough above, note carefully that my conditions are as below:
        • I have 1 laptop.
        • I have 1 phone but it's broken I could not use.
        • I have 2 operating systems (dualboot) in 1 laptop.
        • I installed Telegram Desktop by official package from
        • I have Telegram Desktop installed in all my OSes. 
        • My first OS is KDE Neon, my second OS is Trisquel GNU/Linux.
        • My broken Telegram Desktop is in the first OS.
        • My Telegram Desktop in the second OS is still normal, I can see all my chats & groups.

        In other words, although I do not have phone, I still have a spare normal Telegram instance that can run simultaneously with the broken one. It is the same as having one Telegram desktop and one Telegram mobile running simultaneously. If your condition is different, I'm sorry I do not know if you can perform the walkthrough at all.

        3. Things You Need To Know
        Every Telegram instance works with a work directory ("workdir"). So, see my case above, when power outage happened, that Telegram will lock itself, and this lock information is stored. Where? Yes, it is stored in that "workdir". If your Telegram executable file is located in directory ~/Downloads/Telegram/, then your workdir is located in directory ~/.TelegramDesktop/. If you have 2 OSes, then you have 2 different Telegram workdirs.

        To put it simply, if that workdir says "LOCK" then your Telegram is broken, if it says "UNLOCK" then your Telegram is normal, in its own OS partition.

        If you want to recover that broken Telegram, the secret is to run it as a separate instance from another OS but with its own workdir, to write "UNLOCK" into its own workdir. To do that, we need special command line ./Telegram -many -workdir [address_of_workdir] as stated above. When you go back to that Telegram, it runs normal again, and finally you can see all chats & groups just like before.

        Picture 3.1(Left: Trisquel file manager showing Neon OS partition in the directory where Telegram executable stored | Right: Trisquel terminal running the special command line with Neon OS's workdir)

        Things To Learn
        From this experience, I realized how important is to have laptop battery. Having one broken (like mine) is too dangerous. I wish you all to never experience broken battery nor broken Telegram account forever. Happy messaging!

        My Gratitude
        I would love to say big thank you to mostafa from that answered case like mine in 2017. Your answer saved my Telegram account that I use to teach GNU/Linux & Free Software in Indonesia. You have my gratitude!

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Convert MP4 to MP3 with FFmpeg

        Monday 13th of January 2020 10:05:00 AM

        This tutorial covers a handy command line to convert MP4 video to MP3 audio. That command is called FFmpeg that is available in most GNU/Linux distros including Ubuntu and Trisquel. Although we know VLC can do conversion as well, but I figured out that FFmpeg does converting faster and better. By this, you can make an MP4 video playable as audio in your phone, portable player, and other devices other than computer. To do it, you should be able to do at least basic command lines as you can learn by the beginner's guide. I write this tutorial so I can refer to next time I write about multimedia. Enjoy!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
        • 1. Command
        • 2. Result
        • 3. Command Variations
        • 4. Process

        1. Command
        The most basic command line is this:
        $ ffmpeg -i video.mp4 audio.mp3
        with assumption the video filename is video.mp4 and the result audio filename is audio.mp3.

        2. Result
        A conversion of 80MB MP4 video produces a 9MB MP3. With variations (see section 3), we can produce smaller MP3 files by reducing each audio bitrate. Picture below shows several MP3 files, their sizes, and their bitrates respectively, in a folder with the source MP4 video.

          Picture 2.1(An MP4 video by 80MB and several MP3 files in various sizes)
        3. Command Variations
        By default, bitrate of resulting audio is 128kb/s. It's known that same audio with smaller bitrate has smaller file size. You can compress audio file size by reducing the bitrate. However, please note that smaller bitrate represents lower audio quality.

        To make it 64kb/s:
        $ ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -b:a 64K audio.mp3
        To make it 32kb/s:
        $ ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -b:a 32K audio.mp3
        To make it 16kb/s:
        $ ffmpeg -i video.mp4 -b:a 16K audio.mp3 
        thus, the option to determine a bitrate is -b:a and the notation is [number][K].

        Picture 3.1(Example in how to type the FFmpeg command line against the MP4 file)
        4. Process
        While converting, the terminal will show text moving informing bit by bit the conversion being processed. Process duration depends on file size and your computer speed. Finished conversion should stop its text movement and it goes back to shell prompt. The result should be available if you see the folder where conversion took place (see section 2).

        Picture 4.1(A conversion is taking place: "Input" line tells the source video name, "Output" line tells the resulting audio being processed), "size=" line is growing by size representing the audio file being created)

        Picture 4.2(VLC showing "Bitrate=128kb/s" for the first converted MP3 file above)
        While playing the result MP3 audio, with VLC for example, you can find out the bitrate by seeing Tools > Media Information > Codec.

        Further Reading

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        New elementary OS 5.1 Changes

        Wednesday 8th of January 2020 06:53:00 AM

        elementary OS 5.1 is a "service pack" update of 5.0 released recently at 3 December 2019. It brings really a lot of new features and redesigns. This article tries to cover 6 things from the beginning to the end including the new redesigns, its ISO contents, and Flatpak support. Enjoy the new elementary OS!
        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
        • About elementary OS
        • Download
        • 1) ISO
        • 2) New Design
        • 3) New AppCenter & Flatpak
        • 4) New Permission & Icons
        • 5) New System Settings
        • 6) Technical Things
        • Notes
        • My Comments
        • You Can Contribute

        About elementary OS
        elementary OS is a user-friendly Ubuntu-based operating system that emphasizes visual beauty founded by Daniel Fore and Cassidy James from United States since 2011. Its slogan is The fast, open, and privacy-respecting replacement for Windows and macOS. elementary OS has uniqueness compared to other GNU/Linux distros, most notably among them are 5 things: its "e" logo, its user interface Pantheon, its design (the HIG) that resembles Apple system, its file manager, and its software publishing central AppCenter. Its official website is

        1. Download
        Get elementary OS 5.1 at its official website.

        Picture 1.1(System Details of elementary OS now says "Hera" as its codename)
        2. ISO File & Size & Contents
        • Filename: elementaryos-5.1-stable.20191202.iso
        • Size: 1.4GB
        • SHA256SUM: cd66c32d53eab6f789b8e69e499305b7af0c9b3083ed54d50b111136d2795ea1

         Picture 2.1(ISO Image file size)
        When we are talking about contents of ISO image, we are talking about where are the kernel and the initrd files. In the 5.1 ISO image, they are located under /boot/casper/ with file names vmlinuz 6MB and initrd.lz 60MB. This information is important to create a multiboot flash drive with GLIM or Aguslr's Multibootusb script-based tools.

        Picture 2.2(Left: ISO image file of elementary OS 5.1 | Right: contents of that ISO file)
        3. New Designs on User Interface
        Now, whenever you have multiple user accounts in 5.1, your login screen displays those users beautifully with each own wallpaper. This is the new star of elementary OS.

        Picture 3.1(The new login screen)
        Following Mint, Deepin, and Manjaro, now elementary OS also features a Welcome Screen. You will see a warm message Welcome to elementary OS! whenever you login for the first time after the system installation. This is called Onboarding and is also the new star of 5.1.

        Picture 3.2(Overview of the new Greeter with 6 pages)

        Picture 3.3(1st: links to online help & documentation | 2nd: toggle GPS | 3rd: toggle "Redshift" feature | 4th: choices whether to automatically empty temporary & "Recycle Bin" | 5th: link to open the AppCenter | 6th: link to open "Control Panel")
        Among other improvements, I like this greeter the most. It explains elementary OS to new user as well as letting them to go to certain points or immediately change frequently used features.

        Picture 3.4(New tooltip with "Alt+F2" message addition | Example menu search goes deep into System Settings)
        Start menu (or Applications Menu) now features deep search so that you can type touchpad to instantly find out Touchpad Settings at control panel and other examples you can figure them out by yourself.

        Picture 3.5(Calendar applet on top panel | Colors categories for events | Categories selection on every event creation)
        Picture 3.6(Calendar app features Today's, Tomorrow's, and This Month's schedules)
        Calendar and top panel is now integrated and got new design with multiple colors available.

        4. AppCenter & Flatpak
        Following Fedora and Mint, now elementary OS becomes a Flatpak distro as well because it is already built-in 5.1. The new feature is the integration, officially named Sideload, that runs every time you want to install applications from Flathub Flatpak Repository.

        Picture 4.1(Web browser displays website on Inkscape page | Drop-down download menu | Install untrusted app dialog is the one called Sideload)
        If you go to Flathub website, then --for example-- choose Inkscape Vector Editor application there, and click "INSTALL" button, you download a file with .flatpakref extension. That is how Flathub works for any other application. When you click that .flatpakref file, Sideload appears showing details like file size & security information, and finally click Install to get that application.

        Picture 4.2(Left: new warning bar appears while there is no internet connection | Right: simultaneously multiple app installation | Bottom: more colorful app categories now available)
        AppCenter receives many improvisations, from a faster start, and new categories, until yellow bar notifying if internet access is off.

        5. New Permission Dialog & New Icons
        Whenever Calendar app needs an online geolocation service, a reminder dialog asks us whether to Allow or Deny such things. Also, it includes a link to open System Settings on Privacy.
        Picture 5.1(A new privacy dialog)
        There are new network and mic icons. Now, when an application uses your microphone, top panel shows a mic indicator reminding that you are in record. For instance, I run Jitsi Meet (a popular video conference application) and immediately a mic icon appears on the panel.

        Picture 5.2(Left: new network icon | Right: mic icon)
        6. New System Settings
        The System Settings got really a lot of improvements. One among them is the Display Settings where you can change monitor resolution there. Now it is simpler to switch resolution by clicking the gear button and selecting one from resolutions available.

        Picture 6.1(System Settings -> Display -> Resolution)
        Technical Things
        elementary OS 5.1 is based on Ubuntu 18.04.3. This means, 5.1 is based on 3th "starter pack" update of Ubuntu Bionic Beaver LTS. That means you will see "bionic" name frequently if you install software on elementary OS today.

         Picture 5.1(Terminal: apt-get command showing URLs both from "bionic" and elementary's PPA's software sources)
        Picture 5.1(Terminal: showing detailed information such as kernel version 5.0.0, codename "Hera", apt version 1.6.12,  the inclusion of Flatpak preinstalled, and Gala window manager version 0.3.1)
        elementary OS apps have unique command line names. You cannot run Music simply by invoking "music", nor run Files simply by invoking "files", but instead you should run each app with its correct name like below.

        • Greeter: io.elementary.greeter
        • Sideload: io.elementary.sideload
        • Onboard: io.elementary.onboard
        • Music:
        • Videos: io.elementary.videos
        • Files: io.elementary.files
        • System Settings: io.elementary.switchboard

        My Note & Wish

        • I advise you to not logout from LiveCD session because I figured out that I will not be able to login again. 
        • I wish elementary OS got hardware vendor endorsements so people can purchase laptops & desktops with it preinstalled. 
        • Iwish elementary OS got its own KDE Connect so smartphone users can integrate all their devices seamlessly like KDE users.
        • I wish you enjoy the new elementary OS!

        You can help developing elementary OS by many ways. You can donate money or buy merchandises to fund them. If you have coding capabilities, there are many software development activities need your help. If you are a bug bounty hunter, they opens many bounties, as elementary is the first OS to open such bounty in computer field.

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Take Screenshot of LightDM Login Screen in 2020

        Friday 3rd of January 2020 10:38:00 AM

        There are not many clear tutorials available in taking picture of the login screen of latest Ubuntu, Mint, and elementary OS. Their login screen technology is called LightDM. You cannot simply press Printscreen key in the login screen to create its screenshot. Instead, you need a complicated way with superuser access to do so. This might give you frustration if you do not know the way especially if you are a writer like me. Fortunately, it is easy and everybody can do it like my explanations below. You can do this both in LiveCD session and in an installed system. I write this tutorial by testing it first on elementary OS 5.1 Hera that released recently at the end of 2019. After a long time, I am happy to finally figure out this method. Enjoy!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

        Important to Know
        You need to know 4 things:

        • 1) Xorg server within your system, 
        • 2) the address of the screen, 
        • 3) the file path of Xauthority, and 
        • 4) the actual command that capture the screenshot. 

        Explanations about these are available at the end.

        In this tutorial, I use elementary OS Hera, in which the TTY is located at Ctrl+Alt+F2 up to Ctrl+Alt+F6 while the Graphical Desktop is located at Ctrl+Alt+F7. This means in elementary OS, tty2 up to tty6 are console and tty7 is the desktop. Other GNU/Linux distros are just the same or at least similar you can figure it out by yourself. You need to note where is the console tty and where is the desktop one.

        1. Create Script
        Write this code as file with text editor program.
        $ sleep 10s; DISPLAY=:0 XAUTHORITY=/var/run/lightdm/root/:0 xwd -root -out ~/loginscreen.xwd; convert ~/loginscreen.xwd ~/loginscreen.png; rm ~/loginscreen.xwd
        I would love to say thank you to Karim Buzdar from as he enlightened me with this script, a collection of 4 different commands, that works.

        Explanation also goes below at the end.

        2. Logout Graphically
        Exit from your desktop session so you can see your login screen.

        3. Login to TTY
        • Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 so you can see your tty2.
        • You are asked to login here.
        • Type your username.
        • Type your password.
        • You logged in at tty2.

        4. Run Script from TTY
        $ sudo ./

        5. Go To Graphic Login Screen
        Press Ctrl+Alt+F7 so you see your login screen once again.

        6. Wait
        Wait for 10 seconds as the script says.

        7. Login Graphically
        Login to your desktop with your username.

        8. Result
        You find a new picture in your Home folder that is the screenshot of your login screen. Congratulations!

        Here I am trying to explain 2 things, first the important things from the beginning and second the meaning of the commands used above. 
        The important things:
        This tutorial works with Xorg-based system but not in Wayland-based system. Ubuntu, Mint Cinnamon, and elementary OS latest versions are all Xorg-based. So this tutorial should works there. Figure this out by command line: $ ps aux | grep -i xorg .

        The address of the screen is like :0 or :1 or :2, that is the name of graphical desktop according to the operating system. You will figure this out by invoking command line: $ echo $DISPLAY .

        The Xauthority file is located under folder: /var/run/lightdm/root/ with file name like :0 or :1 or :2. Yes, it might look strange but it is true.

        On GNU/Linux, there is a unique command called xwd, that "dumps an image of an Xorg Window", which means we can use to dump a picture of Login Screen. However, the image file produced is still need to be converted so we could see it.

        The commands:

        $ sleep 10s;This is a command to delay the execution of the next command. The delay is 10 seconds. The purpose is to give you enough time to switch from tty console into Graphical Login Screen and wait there. You may change it to 20 or 30 if you like.

        DISPLAY=:0 XAUTHORITY=/var/run/lightdm/root/:0 xwd -root -out ~/loginscreen.xwd;The actual command is xwd -root -out ~/[filename].xwd and the two long variables before it are important signs that first determine this command to work in :0 address and second determine the Xauthority file that related to that address. These are the requirements for xwd to capture the screen.

        convert ~/loginscreen.xwd ~/loginscreen.png;This is an ImageMagick command to convert raw picture in .xwd format into a PNG picture. Fortunately, elementary OS Hera includes it by default.

        rm ~/loginscreen.xwdThis is the last command to delete the remaining .xwd file as we do not need it.

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Trisquel 9.0 Beta Review from January 2020

        Thursday 2nd of January 2020 07:07:00 AM
         (A beautiful desktop of Trisquel 9 LiveCD Session)
        Trisquel 9.0 is a new version in development of Trisquel GNU/Linux operating system based on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. On the end of December 2019, a good news comes that the 9.0 ISO Image is already available for us to test & report bug. This is a short review I made from LiveCD session of Trisquel 9 beta dated 12 December 2019 so you can see what's new, unchanged, and missing things. In short, I do not find any problem with this Beta, instead, I feel it is already smooth and useful. We really wish final version released soon and I hope this article introduces you well to Trisquel 9. Enjoy!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

        1. About Trisquel Beta
        2. Download
        3. ISO File & Size
        4. ISO Contents
        5. User Interface
        6. Start Menu
        7. LibreOffice & MATE Apps
        8. Unchanged, Missing, and New Things
        9. More Details
        10. My Opinions

        1. About Trisquel Beta
        Trisquel is a completely free software desktop operating system based on Ubuntu GNU/Linux that is endorsed by Free Software Foundation. Trisquel Project begins in 2004 (16 years ago) in Spain. Current Trisquel is version 8.0 available for all and next one is 9.0 still in development. Trisquel 9.0 codenamed Etiona started its development since April 2018 according to official announcement. In late 2019, there is a good news in Trisquel Forum announced by chaosmonk that Etiona ISO image beta version is already available for testing purpose. Everybody can download and test Trisquel either in LiveCD or Installed mode thanks to this. has many articles about Trisquel you can read here.

        2. Download
        Currently, the beta ISO can be downloaded at Please note that when the final stable released, this download link will change.

        3. ISO Image File & Size
        Trisquel 9  in 2020 is available in two architectures, 32-bit and 64-bit,in contrast to latest Ubuntu that does not support 32-bit anymore since 2018. The file names:

        Note I: I strongly recommend you to download via direct link i.e. not torrent link as new ISO published frequently.

        Note II: Jenkins is the software on the server that automatically-continuously produces Trisquel ISO image from thousands of software packages. If you wonder how Trisquel developed, see excellent explanation here.

        4. ISO Contents
        Like Ubuntu and previous Trisquel versions, we can see contents of the ISO file before we download it. This means we can see what packages and their versions contained within each ISO without downloading the ISO at all. This thanks to MANIFEST file that accompanies every ISO. Read MANIFEST 32-bit here and read MANIFEST 64-bit here. For example, picture below shows that Trisquel 9 64-bit ISO includes Linux (libre) kernel version 4.15.0 because the MANIFEST file says there is linux-image-4.15.0 package name.

        (Picture 4.1)
        5. User Interface
        Here is how Trisquel 9.0 looks like for now. It is the same as Trisquel 8.0 anyway: a Redmond-like MATE Desktop Environment with start menu & with 3 controls on each app window. Of course, you still can put icons on desktop by drag-and-drop. The user interface theme is still the same too. If you are familiar with Trisquel 8.0, you will find no difficulties in operating the 9.0. However, the wallpaper is still using 8.0's one.

         (Picture 5.1)
        6. Start Menu

        Actually, the start menu is not different to the prior version. But I love to present all 7 sections here so you can see. Picture below shows menu ites from first section (Internet) to seventh (Other). There, you will notice several new things which are Back In Time, Electrum Bitcoin Wallet, Viewnior Image Viewer. And, you will notice also there is one thing missing, which is, Synaptic Package Manager.

         (Picture 6.1)

        7. LibreOffice and MATE Applications
        Trisquel 9.0 includes LibreOffice 6.0. It features MATE 1.20 hence all MATE Applications in it reach that version.

        (Picture 7.1)
        8. Unchanged, Missing, and New Things
        (UNCHANGED) There are many things 9.0 keeps from 8.0. The biggest example is most apps are still the same except they are updated, the inclusion of MATE Tweak Tool with several profiles. Of course, this insight is just from this 9.0 Beta and this might change over time until the final stable version.

        (MISSING) Synaptic Package Manager is absent here. I hope in the final version it will be included out of the box.

        (NEW!) Back in Time

        It is a backup utility software that is user-friendly. It is very interesting however, as Ubuntu and GNU/Linux Mint already have similar tools called DejaDup and Timeshift respectively, then now Trisquel follows them by this tool. This is a good news especially for people who need regular-automatic backup with their computers. Back In Time is a well-documented software, as you can see its Website, Docs, Wikipedia, and HTG, MTE, among other resources available.

         (Picture 8.1)
        (NEW!) Viewnior Image Viewer

        It is a lightweight image viewer with crop feature. I think it is smart choice as this could replace Shotwell. See more information at its web.


        (NEW!) Electrum Bitcoin Wallet

        It is one among most popular Bitcoin wallet tools. I think the Developers want to reach more modern users with this especially those who trade digital currency.

        9. More Details
        • Kernel: 4.15
        • Codename: Etiona
        In short, Trisquel 9 uses Systemd as init, Linux-libre 4.15 as kernel, and MATE 1.20 as desktop environment. More technically, it does not include either Snapd nor Packagekit nor Flatpak, the background processes that often "eat up" bandwidth without user's concern.

        (Picture 9.1)
        10. My Opinions
        In my last 2018 review, I said Trisquel 8.0 was successful freedom because it is the only one oldest desktop-oriented free distro with latest basis (Ubuntu 16.04 LTS at that time) and active community (Trisquel Forum). Limited to this beta of 9.0 LiveCD, I feel it is smooth already to use and I don't find problems. I see that the desktop operations are functional, we can do things we do everyday like accessing files, writing documents, web browsing, mailing, playing video & audio, and many more. I can say that this new version would benefits all users because it keeps the user experience by its Redmond-like user interface (unlike radical changes between Ubuntu's Unity and GNOME) so no user --either existing or new-- would need to re-learn to use it. I wish the development goes well and quickly releases the final version. I wish I contribute to the whole community by publishing this review. Thank you all Trisquel Developers!

        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        Making Slackware 14.1 Works with GLIM Multiboot USB

        Tuesday 31st of December 2019 04:57:00 PM
        (Slackware as 1st option in my multiboot USB)
        This tutorial explains the configuration files for Slackware 14.1 DVD 64-bit to work in LiveUSB multiboot mode with GLIM. This way you can have one flash drive containing multiple GNU/Linux OS installers including Slackware64 among them. This is my first time to ship Slackware USB ever and I am happy finally I could make it with GLIM. This is the result of my shipment to Sulawesi, Indonesia at December 2019. Happy hacking!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

        Get Slackware
        Slackware is the oldest GNU/Linux distro. I use version 14.1 for this shipment despite 14.2 is already available. Anyway, you can get Slackware at

        ISO Name
        The filename is slackware64-14.1-install-dvd.iso with 2.3GiB size.

        p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; }

        ISO Internal Structure
        Once again, I open that ISO image with Ark Archive Manager to find out 2 things: kernel and initrd files. By this, it is clear that their exact locations inside ISO are:
        • - for kernel: /kernels/huge.s/bzImage
        • - for initrd: /isolinux/initrd.img

        grub.cfg for isofile in ${isopath}/slackware/slackware*.iso; do
        if [ -e "$isofile" ]; then
        menuentry "Slackware >" --class slackware {
        configfile "${prefix}/inc-slackware.cfg"
        Explanation: this code finds out the ISO file name no matter it is 32-bit or 64-bit. This code also calls the slackware.png logo by issuing the code "--class slackware". The most important thing is the call to inc-slackware.cfg file.

        inc-slackware.cfg # Slackware GNU/Linux
        for isofile in $isopath/slackware/slackware*.iso; do
        if [ ! -e "$isofile" ]; then break; fi
        regexp \
        --set 1:isoname \
        --set 2:version \
        --set 3:arch \
        --set 4:variant \
        "^${isopath}/slackware/(slackware([^-]+)-([^-]+)-([^-]+)\.iso)\$" "${isofile}"
        menuentry "Slackware Live ${version} ${arch} ${variant}" "${isofile}" "${isoname}" --class slackware {
        set isofile=$2
        set isoname=$3
        bootoptions="livemedia=/dev/disk/by-uuid/$rootuuid:$isofile load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 rw printk.time=0 kbd=us tz=localtime locale=us_EN.utf8"
        loopback loop $isofile
        linux (loop)/kernels/huge.s/bzImage $bootoptions
        initrd (loop)/isolinux/initrd.img

        Example: this is the file you must create. This configuration is represented on bootloader screen as the second page after you choose to enter Slackware from the first page. This code is called from grub.cfg section Slackware. The important thing is that this code sets a special boot options line and then call the kernel with that boot options line along with initrd. This code runs Slackware DVD in loopback mode as shown by the use of "loopback loop $isofile" code and then "linux (loop)/bla/bla/bla" and "initrd (loop)/bla/bla/bla".

        You must provide a 16x16 pixels icon of Slackware. Take icon below and put it in /boot/grub/themes/invader/icons/ along with other icons.

        Code Screenshot
        This is how those 2 codes appear when I edit them using a text editor.

        Picture below is the bootloader in action. Notice that Slackware is the 1st choice there.

        This photo depicts Slackware 14.1 shell prompt. Notice the "slackware login:" question on the last line.


        This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

        LibreOffice Writer: Inserting Pictures

        Monday 30th of December 2019 07:56:00 AM
        (A Writer document with my favorite Inkscape picture "Moon Dawn" by Luciano)
        This tutorial explains the ways to insert pictures into document in LibreOffice Writer. This is a preparation for you to work with multiple photos, graphics, logos, etc. You will learn how to do it manually and automatically, with menubar, copy-paste, and drag-and-drop, including to resize & arrange them within text, and finally to crop them. I also include download links to beautiful pictures like above and I hope with this article you can compose good documents. Happy learning!

        Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
        On LibreOffice: User Interface | Basic Saving | Basic Formatting | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 

        What is a picture?
        A digital picture or simply picture is an information stored in computer as a certain file with a certain picture format file extension. There are several most popular formats of digital picture, they are, PNG, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, and SVG. A picture file is identified with extensions such as .png, .jpeg, .svg, or .gif. This means you may see in your computer a beach picture in file named beach.png or a mountain picture in file named mountain.jpeg or other examples depends on how that picture created by its creator.

        LibreOffice Writer supports wide range of formats:
        • BMP - Windows Bitmap
        • PNG - Portable Network Graphics
        • GIF - Graphic Interchange Format
        • JPEG - Joint Picture Experts Group
        • TIFF - Tagged Image File Format
        • SVG - Scalable Vector Graphic
        • PSD - Photoshop Document
        • DXF - AutoCAD Drawing
        • WMF - Windows Metafile
        • EPS - Encapsulated Postscript

        1. Insert from Menu
        Go to menubar Insert > Image > a new dialog appears > browse folders in that dialog window > select a file > Open > picture inserted.

        (Picture 1.1)
        2. Insert by Copy-Paste
        1. Open your file manager.
        2. Select a picture.
        3. Right-click > Copy.
        4. Open Writer.
        5. Right-click > Paste. 
        6. Picture inserted into document.


        Picture 2.1 below shows copying a picture file from file manager into a Writer document by first right-click > Copy file and then right-click > Paste. This method is quicker than using menubar.

        (Picture 2.1)

        Quick tip: you can use Ctrl+C to copy and Ctrl+V to paste.
        3. Insert by Drag-and-Drop
        1. Open your file manager.
        2. Select a picture.
        3. Hold click on a picture,
        4. keep hold and move your mouse pointer to Writer,
        5. release click.
        6. Picture inserted into document.


        Picture 3.1 below shows mouse pointer movement doing drag-and-drop a picture file from file manager into a Writer document. This method is also quicker than menubar, and in many cases even quicker than doing copy-paste.

          (Picture 3.1)
          4. Result
          This is the result from inserting picture by 3 different ways above. I put the picture right below a paragraph. The picture is in full size hence its length filled text margin. Selected picture shows 6 green handles on its edges and an anchor on top-left corner.

          (Picture 4.1)

          5. Resize & Arrange
          After inserting, you need to arrange the picture.

          To resize a picture:
          1. Select picture.
          2. The 6 green handles appear.
          3. Hold click, move one handle to other side.
          4. Release click.
          5. Picture resized.
          To arrange a picture within text:
          1. Select a picture.
          2. Toolbar Image appears on toolbar place. (deselecting hides this toolbar again)
          3. The 4 arrangement button appear on that toolbar.
          4. Select Wrap Off: to free the image top-bottom from text.
          5. Select Page Wrap: to put the picture surrounded by text in four sides.
          6. Select Optimal Page Wrap: like Page Wrap, but one sided only.
          7. Select Wrap Through: to put the picture in front of text.


          Picture 5.1 below shows the same picture copied and resized differently. 

          (Picture 5.1)
          • Wrap Off, Page Wrap, Optimal Page Wrap, Wrap Through

          Picture 5.2 below shows text with 4 pictures and 4 different wrappings. First picture uses Page Wrap, second picture uses Optimal Page Wrap, third picture use Wrap Off, and fouth picture uses Wrap Through. Learn by seeing how text flows around each picture. However, becasuse it is easier, usually beginners use Wrap Off more often than any other wrappings.
          (Picture 5.2)
          Note: if you wonder where I got those beautiful pictures, go to Inkscape Free Vector Drawing Software website.
          6. Crop
          LibreOffice version 5.0 onwards can crop pictures. With it, you do not need external program or more works anymore to cut off a picture as you wish. Cropping is cutting a picture with a rectangle shape with size you control by drag-and-drop.

          To crop a picture:
          1. Select a picture.
          2. Picture shows 6 green handles.
          3. Right-click > Crop.
          4. Picture handles change into 6 red handles.
          5. Hold click, move a handle to inner part of picture.
          6. Release click.
          7. Picture cropped.

          (Picture 6.1)
          Happy writing!

          This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

          LibreOffice Writer: Working with Text

          Sunday 29th of December 2019 09:48:00 AM
           (A document with text formatting like bold, italic, colors, and more)
          This tutorial explains the basic text works in LibreOffice Writer. You will learn basically how to type, select, delete, copy & paste, undo & redo, bold-italic-underline, color & highlight, bullets & numberings, use of headings, align left-center-right, and finally making columns. Happy learning!

          Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
          On LibreOffice: User Interface | Basic Saving | Basic Formatting | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 

          You will learn 10 skills:
          • 1. Typing
          • 2. Selecting
          • 3. Deleting
          • 4. Copy & Paste
          • 5. Undo & Redo
          • 6. Formatting
          • 7. Bullets and Numberings
          • 8. Writing
          • 9. Titles & Subtitles
          • 10. Columns

          1. Typing
          This is the basic thing. Click your mouse pointer on the page and type with your keyboard.

          (Picture 1.1)
          Continue typing until you got a paragraph.

          (Picture 1.2)
          2. Selecting
          Put your pointer in a point, hold press it, and move mouse horizontally, you see the text selected. Selected text is ready to be formatted. Without selecting, you cannot format the text.

          (Picture 2.1)
          3. Deleting
          Press Backspace once you delete a letter. Press Backspace twice you delete two letters. And so on.

          (Picture 3.1)
          Select a word, press Backspace, you delete a word. Select two words, press Backspace, you delete two words. And so on.

          (Picture 3.2)
          Select a sentence, press Backspace, you delete a sentence. Select a paragraph, press Backspace, you delete a paragraph.

          (Picture 3.3)
          Press Ctrl+A, you select whole text in a document, press Backspace, you delete whole text in a document.

          (Picture 3.4)
          4. Copy & Paste
          Select a text, right-click > Copy, put cursor else, right-click > Paste, you copied that text.

          (Picture 4.1)
          To copy a word, or a sentence, or a paragraph, or whole text, the method is the same. Picture 4.2 below shows a Hello! word copied 10 times.

           (Picture 4.2)

          5. Undo & Redo
          Whenever you did a mistake, press Undo button, you revert back to before mistake happened.

          Whenever you did an Undo you dislike, press Redo button, you Undo what you did Undo.

          6. Formatting
          Text formatting involves changing font (typeface) selection, font size, making bold-italic-underline, and coloring and highlighting.

          • Font selection, font size

          • Bold, Italic, Underline

            • Color and highlight


            Picture below compares first paragraph without formatting and second one below it with color, Bold-Italic-Underline, and highlight.

            (Picture 6.1)

            7. Bullets and Numberings 
            To make automatic bulleted or numbered items, we use Bullets & Numberings buttons. We can choose either to use black dots, black diamonds, black boxes, or else for bullets; and we can choose either to use 1. or I. or A. for numberings.

            • Bullets, Numberings


            Here's same text divided in two parts. Top part is a list with bullets and bottom part is a list with numberings.

            (Picture 7.1)
            8. Writing Word, Sentence, Paragraph
            • New Line, New Page
            To create a new line, place the cursor, press Enter. To create new page, press Ctrl+Enter.


            • Align Left, Center, Right, Justified


            See the position of "Hello!" words below. And the unique of Justified is that right-end is aligned the same way as the left-end.

            (Picture 8.1)

            • Vertical spacing, horizontal spacing

            Spacing is the measurement between a line and line below it. There are 1pt, 1.5pt, and 2pt measures. This is vertical spacing. Indent is the measurement between beginning of a line/paragraph and page margin. This is horizontal spacing. Picture 8.2 below compares vertical spacing on first row and horizontal spacing on second row.

            (Picture 8.2)
            9. Writing Titles & Subtitles
            A very important yet useful feature of word processor is heading, the ability to identify every important point of text. Heading is not to be confused with header, as that is a different thing. Heading is also called Paragraph Style or simply Style. There are Default Style, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, and so on available for us to use. A heading has 2 possible uses, first is to easily and automatically create Table of Contents, second is to create our own custom text style as we wish per heading.

            • Default Style, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, ...

            To understand the concept, let's compare doing things manually and automatically:
            • - Manually: there are 10 subtitles that must be bold-italic-underlined, that means you bold each one 10x, you italicize 10x, you underline 10x.
            • - Automatically: simply create a "Heading 1" with bold-italic-underlined characteristics, then apply Heading 1 to each subtitle. 

            To create headings:
            • Type several subsections text like 1. Parents, and then below it 1.1 Son, 1.2 Daughter.
            • Select the first subsection text, click heading selector, select Heading 1.
            • Select the second subsection text, click heading selector, select Heading 2.
            • Select the third subsection text, click heading selector, select heading 2.


            Typing on Writer basically uses Default Style heading. That is the default. Mostly, we will use headings to create subtitles (subsections) like 1.1 My Preamble or 2.1.1 My Explanations under every of its parent section. Picture 9.1 below shoes a document with 2 chapter headings (Heading 1) and 6 subtitles (Heading 2).

            (Picture 9.1)
            10. Columns
            Column is a way to divide a page in two vertical sections or more. Columns save more spaces and can reduce papers for printing.
            • - To create 2 columns: select all paragraph > menubar Format > Columns > choose 2 columns > OK. 
            • - To create 3 columns: same, but choose 3 columns instead of 2 > OK.  


            Picture 10.1 below compares same document divided with 2 columns and 3 columns.

            (Picture 10.1)
            Happy writing!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Making OpenMandriva Lx 4.0 Works with GLIM Multiboot USB

            Wednesday 25th of December 2019 09:21:00 AM
            (OpenMandriva runs in live multiboot mode from a USB flash drive)
            Continuing PCLinuxOS, this tutorial explains the configuration file for OpenMandriva Lx 4.0 --a beautiful RPM-KDE based operating system-- to boot in multiboot USB using GLIM tool. If you don't know GLIM, read first the tutorial. If you wonder, multibooting is important to save cost as you can run multiple distro installers by just one flash drive, without having multiple flash drives. To speak about config, OpenMandriva is very different to Ubuntu (even different to PCLinuxOS too) both in bootloader code and its internal ISO file structure. Thus, it will not boot from multiboot flash drive unless we write the correct code. I managed to ship a USB with it twice in Indonesia this month only. That's why I share my success with you here. Happy hacking!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            You will edit 3 different files:

            • grub.cfg - global configuration file
            • inc-openmandriva.cfg - specific configuration to boot OpenMandriva
            • openmandriva.png - OpenMandriva logo

            Get OpenMandriva
            You can download OpenMandriva Lx 4.0 GNU/Linux at no cost from official website.

            ISO file name
            The file is OpenMandrivaLx.4.0-plasma.x86_64.iso with size 2.4GiB. 

            ISO content
            By opening the ISO file with Ark Archive Manager, we see the kernel filename is vmlinuz0 and initrd filename is  liveinitrd.img both located under /boot/ directory.

            1. grub.cfgfor isofile in ${isopath}/openmandriva/OpenMandriva*.iso; do
            if [ -e "$isofile" ]; then
            menuentry "OpenMandriva >" --class openmandriva {
            configfile "${prefix}/inc-openmandriva.cfg"

            Explanation: this code first finds out the file name of OpenMandriva ISO, hence it uses * sign and to save the file name in variable $isofile. This code is responsible to draw "OpenMandriva >" sign you can choose on the USB bootloader among other distros. The code --class openmandriva is the one responsible to show openmandriva.png logo before the OS name on the bootloader.

            2. inc-openmandriva.cfg# OpenMandriva
            for isofile in $isopath/openmandriva/OpenMandriva*.iso; do
            if [ ! -e "$isofile" ]; then break; fi
            regexp \
            --set 1:isoname \
            --set 2:version \
            --set 3:arch \
            --set 4:variant \
            "^${isopath}/openmandriva/(OpenMandriva([^-]+)-([^-]+)-([^-]+)\.iso)\$" "${isofile}"
            menuentry "OpenMandriva ${version} ${arch} ${variant}" "${isofile}" "${isoname}" --class openmandriva {
            set isofile=$2
            set isoname=$3
            boot_default="rootfstype=auto ro rd.luks=0 rd.lvm=0 acpi_osi=Linux acpi_osi='!Windows 2012' acpi_backlight=vendor audit=0 logo.nologo"
            loopback loop $isofile
            probe --label --set=cd_label (loop)
            bootoptions="iso-scan/filename=$isofile $boot_default root=live:LABEL=$cd_label $boot_locale quiet rhgb splash=silent"
            linux (loop)/boot/vmlinuz0 $bootoptions
            initrd (loop)/boot/liveinitrd.img
            Explanation: this code runs the actual command to boot the OpenMandriva operating system. It works with loopback technology represented by (loop) code. In short, loopback is like mounting an ISO image on your file manager so you can access the files within it.  The booting command is divided in two, linux to call the kernel file, and initrd to call the initrd file. Before that, there is a long boot options specific to OpenMandriva (means different to Ubuntu's) that is divided in three sections combined in one.

            3. Icon
            You should have a 16x16 pixels PNG icon of OpenMandriva Lx with file name openmandriva.png in /boot/grub/themes/invader/icons/ directory so it appears properly at the booting time. Without icon, the entry will have no logo. GLIM current version does not support OpenMandriva so there is no its logo there. So I share my icon below so you just need to add it.


            How to put the icon:

            How codes look in text editor:

            By seeing this, you know how the code should be written.

            Booting the multiboot flash drive can boot the OpenMandriva Lx 4.0 in live mode. It works.

            First bootloader:
            See OpenMandriva Lx entry with its blue logo there.

            Live session:
            OpenMandriva Lx successfully runs.

            (OpenMandriva on my laptop while testing the USB before shipping)

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Introducing Inkscape

            Monday 23rd of December 2019 04:07:00 PM
            (Inkscape 0.91 showing a beautiful vector drawing)
            Inkscape is a professional free software for vector graphic design. If you know your friends use CorelDRAW or Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape is a replacement and alternative to them, but unlike them Inkscape is unlimited and available for all operating systems. Started in 2003 as a modification of Sodipodi software, in 2019 Inkscape grew into a world-wide famous and beloved illustration tool with great community. In this article, you will find its format is SVG, its color is RGB, and its uniqueness is Extensions. You can find here Inkscape artwork inspirations & tutorial, plus plenty of forums for you to join. Its popularity is now on par with Blender 3D with its great people and links. As a person using Inkscape everyday, I hope this article really introduces Inkscape so you can use it too. Enjoy!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
            1. Graphic Design, Inkscape, and SVG in Brief
            Talking about graphic design means talking about 3 kinds of graphic editing software: bitmap editor, vector editor, and desktop publishing. Inkscape is a vector editor. As comparison, GIMP or Photoshop is bitmap editor while Scribus or PageMaker is desktop publishing tool (abbreviated DTP). Speaking simply, when we talk about bitmap (also called raster), we talk about .png, .jpeg, .gif; but when we talk about vector, we talk about .svg, .ai, .cdr. The purpose of a vector editor is to manipulate shapes freely, without breaking when scaling, to finally export the result into bitmap picture. In contrast, a bitmap editor directly edits the bitmap picture, and stretching will break it.

             (A picture by Bayu Rayes --the 2019 world champion of graphic design contest held by Inkscape community-- is best example of vector graphic downloadable in SVG format)
            1.1 Vector Graphics

            Vector graphic is technically a kind of digital picture that is based on shapes rather than pixels. That means scaling a vector picture does not reduce its quality. On the contrary, scaling a bitmap (raster) one does reduce its quality. See a comparison from Wikipedia:

            (Image source)
            1.2 Inkscape

            Inkscape is a vector graphic editor, a computer program to create vector graphics. It is not a bitmap editor, unlike GIMP or Photoshop, as vector is not the same as bitmap. To give you simple depiction, with bitmap editor you draw a picture with brush and keep brushing, while with vector editor you draw with shape and then keep editing that shape.

            (Inkscape running on Ubuntu system by showing its logo picture on its canvas)
            • Name: Inkscape
            • OS support: GNU/Linux, Windows, macOS, BSD
            • Language support: 60+
            • First release: 0.1
            • Latest release: 0.92.4 (per December 2019)
            • Programming language: C++
            • Developer: The Inkscape Project 
            • Funding: shop, donation
            • License: free software, GNU GPL 
            • Commercial use: yes, unlimited use and selling
            • Royalties: no, user does not required to pay for every artwork sold
            • Website:
            • Source code:
            • Documentation: Help, Wiki, Tutorials
            • Community: official forum, mailing list, IRC 
            • Native document format: SVG
            • Bitmap format support: PNG, JPEG, GIF
            • Vector format support: SVG, CDR, PS, EPS, AI, VSD
            • Editing capability: basic shapes, stroke & fill, pen line, brush line, eraser, coloring, layering
            • Extensibility: yes, through plug-ins and Python programming
            • Color mode: RGB
            • PDF support: yes

            1.3 Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)

            Inkscape document format is SVG. However, it also supports EPS, CDR, and AI.

            (File manager --with dark interface-- shows several SVG logo files from Ubuntu Official Brands)
            SVG is a worldwide recognized vector graphic format standardized by World Wide Web Consortium, the people who created our internet world. All web browsers can display SVG pictures. An SVG file is noted with a .svg extension for example flowers.svg or mydrawing.svg. Any bitmap picture can be converted into vector picture by help of a vector graphic editor like Inkscape. And then any vector picture by help of such tool can also be exported into bitmap.

            2. What You Can Make with Inkscape
            It is faster to understand what is Inkscape by seeing the artworks made. I selected several artworks like logo, icon, poster, brochure, flyer, and so on here. Of course these are examples and you can create many more artworks by yourself.

            Banner, Business Card, Poster, Brochure(Artworks I made with Inkscape few years ago)

            UI Mockups
            (A user interface mockup design for elementary OS by BassUltra)

             ([dot]BlendMagz, a 2009's digital magazine by Blender Indonesia community led by Hizaro)
            More artwork examples:

            3. Features
            In short, Inkscape is about 3 things: SVG, RGB, and Extensible. It's a vector editor with mainly save in SVG format (with other vector formats supported of course). Its color space is Red Green Blue (RGB) rather than CMYK. It's extensible by plugins (called "Extensions" here) and by Python programming (if you have coding capability). That's Inkscape in brief.

             (, the official website, explains the features you could use)
            Format Support
            • Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
            • PostScript (PS)
            • Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
            • Adobe Illustrator (AI)
            • CorelDRAW (CDR)
            • Microsoft Visio Drawing (VSD) 
            • and more formats supported via extensions and Uniconvertor.

            Editing Capabilities
            • Basic tools: select, move object, move nodes, scale, duplicate, make round, ...
            • Path: add, delete, join, bend with handles, bend manually
            • Color: colorbar, color wheel, alpha, blur, opacity, 
            • Object Positions: move to front and back, automatic alignment, automatic arrangement
            • Basic shapes: rectangle, ellipse, star, swirl
            • Measurements: ruler, guide lines, grid, axonometric grid, snapping  
            • Text: font select, font size, spacing between lines, spacing between letters, spacing between words, font editor, ...
            • Filters: blur, bevel, blend, color, transparency, ...

            • Ability to add new features by installing extensions
            • Ability to create new filters by combining & editing existing ones. 
            • Lorem ipsum, 3D perspective, 3D extrude, ...
            • Web slicer, calendar maker, presentation maker, animation maker, ...

            • Availability of official documentations, help, tutorials.
            • There are many video tutorials on YouTube teaching Inkscape.
            • Plenty of online courses available. 
            • Plenty of forums & groups discussing Inkscape worldwide.

            3. Appearance
            Briefly, here is how Inkscape looks like. 

            (Inkscape window on Ubuntu operating system with right sidebar)
            Above is how it looks usually with its traditional colorbar on bottom and properties panel on right. The object being edited is placed on the white page at center surrounded with guide lines to help keeping its position.

            The sidebar is very hand as you can detach every one of it and attach it and freely rearrange the position. There are several sidebars, among frequently used are Ctrl+Shift+F (Fill & Stroke) and Ctrl+Shift+E (Export). See picture below.

            (From left to right: Inkscape window, Transform, Arrange, Fill and Stroke, Export, and Layers sidebars)

            4. Friends & Community
            Inkscape is friendly. It is a free software, that is, software that respects user's freedom and community. It respects your rights to share and to change the program both individually and socially. You may get Inkscape at no cost (gratis) but at the same time you are permitted to sell copies of the program (thanks to GNU GPL license chosen by the developers for us).

            (The newly established Inkscape official forum)
            Speaking about social, with friends in community you can find solutions to CMYK and printing problems, for example, and even establish businesses. All things are possible because software is social.  

            4.1 What are your rights over Inkscape?

            You may:
            • use Inkscape freely without limits for any purpose
            • sell, rent, lend, share, give away Inkscape software to anybody
            • sell your artworks for any price without paying royalties to any Inkscape developer
            • modify Inkscape software either privately or publicly for yourselves or others, with or without price
            • you have the right to access its source code

            4.2 What are Inkscape communities available?

            There are so many and they're growing:

            4.3 Who are great Inkscape artists?

            There are many Inkscape artists worldwide. I admire several great Inkscape artists:
            • Tamvjong Bah (France): I always consider him as the father of Inkcape and SVG.
            • Nick Saporito (United States): he is the man behind YouTube videos everybody now watching about Inkscape.
            • Sokhibi Imgos (Indonesia): he is the first man to write Inkscape manual and book in Indonesian language. He teaches Inkscape at many schools
            • Hizaro (Indonesia): he is a Blender 3D artist and among the first truly talented persons using Inkscape I know. Without his magazine (done by Inkscape etc.), [dot]BlendMagz, I would never create Rootmagz.
            • Hervy Qurrotul Ainur (Indonesia): he is the man behind many artworks in the national & international conferences of openSUSE, GNOME, KLAS, and other free software communities.
            • Muhammad Irfan (Indonesia): first person I ever see combining between Inkscape, Synfig, and Kdenlive to create animation.
            • Richard Querin (Canada): the artist behind Screencasts Heathenx, the 100+ video tutorials admired by many including me.

            5. Getting the Program
            You can have Inkscape right now by downloading:

              5.1 Source code

              Source code is available at

              5.2 Installation

              On each GNU/Linux system, you can install Inkscape with commands:
              # Ubuntu:
              $ sudo apt-get install inkscape

              # Fedora:
              $ sudo dnf install inkscape

              # openSUSE:
              $ sudo zypper install inkscape

              # Arch:
              $ sudo pacman -S inkscape
              On Windows, download the EXE and double-click and go though clicking Next buttons until it's finished.

              On MacOS, download the DMG and run it.

              Donate To Inkscape
              Inkscape development is funded mainly by donations. By donating, you help facilitating and improving Inkscape. You can help by donating to

              Further Readings

              This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

              LibreOffice Writer: Create, Save, and Open Document

              Friday 20th of December 2019 02:05:00 PM
              In this article, you will learn the basics of LibreOffice Writer which are how to create, save, and open document & understand what formats are supported. You will learn the menubar, dialog window, and options available for that. You will find Writer useful because it supports both Open's and Microsoft's formats which are ODT and DOCX along with others like PDF, EPUB, RTF, and HTML. By learning this article, you will be able to create any document with any format on Writer. Happy learning!

              Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly. On LibreOffice: User Interface | Basic Saving | Basic Formatting | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 

              Things To Learn
              • Files
              • Formats Supported
              • Create
              • Save
              • Open

              How We See A Document File
              We see documents as icons on computer. Particularly, we see using program called File Manager inside a certain folder that stores our document files. A document file is an icon with name and extension. For example, there are 4 files in picture below, libreoffice-solusinya.odp is a document file, where libreoffice-solusinya is the name and .odp is the extension. Same goes for pricetable.ods, where pricetable is name and .ods is extension. No difference with bookindex.odt, where bookindex is name and .odt is extension. Finally, emacs.pdf is also the same where emacs is name and .pdf is extension. All of these 4 files have icons, we see, respectively, to represent the programs to open them. Name represents the document, extension represents the format. A document format determines how we open that file, with program A or program B, just like that.

              (A file manager shows Ubuntu's Home/Documents/learning folder which stores 4 document files with ODT, ODS, ODP, and PDF formats)

              There is another way to see document files. Method mentioned above is normal method everybody knows. Another method is to see files using console. It is an advanced method. On GNU/Linux system, a console is often called Terminal. On Windows, it is called Command Prompt. See for example those 4 files mentioned above in console:


              With this, you know in computer, information is stored as files with extensions to distinguish one to another so you can open a file with appropriate application. In this example, you open .odt  or .docx format with LibreOffice Writer. On the contrary, you do not open .ods or .pdf with it, for example. This is the brief introduction to basic concept of file here.

              Formats Supported
              In general, LibreOffice supports 3 different kinds of digital document formats:
              • ODF: OpenDocument Format, native format of LibreOffice.
              • Microsoft: both old 2003 and new 2007 formats.
              • Others: text document formats other than LibreOffice's or Microsoft's.
              This means Writer supports read-write these formats:
              • .odt
              • .doc .docx .rtf
              • .txt .html .xml
              Beyond that, Writer also supports export these formats:
              • .pdf
              • .epub
              • .png .jpg .jpeg

              See examples below. These are text documents in ODT, HTML, RTF, DOCX, and DOC, and EPUB formats. LibreOffice supports all of these formats.

              Here is a brief explanation of these document formats:
              • ODT - OpenDocument Text, default format of Writer (.odt)
              • DOC - Word 1997-2003 format, old standard (.doc)
              • DOCX - Word 2007-2016 format, new standard (.docx)
              • RTF - Rich Text Format, a basic text can contain formatting and images (.rtf)
              • HTML - also called web page, a document that can be opened with web browser
              • PDF - Portable Document Format, non-editable document that can be read on all computers and smartphones
              • EPUB - Electronic Publication, ebook format that can be read on ebook readers, smartphones, and computers

              Beyond these, Writer also supports many other formats.

              1. Create
              To create a new document:
              1. Click menubar File > New > Text Document.
              2. A new document opened in new window.
              Alternatively, you can press Ctrl+N instead. 

              (Basic way to create new Writer Document is by menubar New)
              2. Save
              Document we are writing on screen is not yet stored. If we close Writer after editing, we lost that document. In order to store it, we need to save it, so the document exists as a file with extension such as mydocument.odt depicted above.

              To save a document:
              1. Click menubar File > Save.
              2. A Save dialog appears.
              3. Type a name in the text box for the document.
              4. Select a format, for example ODF Text Document (.odt) or Microsoft Office 2007 (.docx) in the selection box.
              5. Select folder to store it on left sidebar of Save dialog.
              6. Click Save button.
              If the document already has name, doing File > Save does not show Save dialog anymore.  If you want to save a document with another name or format, use menubar File > Save As and repeat steps above.

              (Basic way to save a document in Writer is by menubar Save
              Alternatively, you can press Ctrl+S for Save and Ctrl+Shift+S for Save As.
                Save As:
                Save As is used if a document needs to be saved with another filename or another format. In other words, to change the name or the format. The filename example is to save mydocument.odt into fatherdocument.odt. The format example is to save mydocument.odt into mydocument.docx (this is MS Word 2007's format) or mydocument.doc (this is MS Word 2003's format).

                • Save as Word 2007 (.docx):
                Click the right button "Use Word 2007... Format" instead of the left one.

                • Save as Word 2003 (.doc):
                Click the right button "Use Word 2003... Format" instead of the left one.

                3. Open
                To open an existing document, go to menubar File > Open > a dialog appears > navigate to folder where the file exists > select the file name > click Open button. To dismiss this action, click Cancel button instead.

                (Basic way to open a document in Writer is by menubar Open)
                Alternatively, you can do open a document by 3 other ways:
                • 1. Go to your system file manager > find a document > double-click it > Writer opens the document.
                • 2. On Writer, click Folder button on toolbar, that is the same as clicking menubar Open.
                • 3. On Writer, press Ctrl+O, that is also the same as Open.

                Up to this point, you should be able to create, save, and open documents in LibreOffice Writer. You will be able to do more things with it by experiences. Happy learning!

                Further Readings
                1. Document Liberation Project (why LibreOffice support so many formats)
                2. Comparison between Writer-Word
                3. What is ODF Format
                4. Open Document Format Explanation by the FSF
                5. Let Us Support ODF Format!
                6. Save/Open as ODF Format in Microsoft Word
                7. Make Microsoft Word To Always Save in LibreOffice Writer's Format

                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  LibreOffice Writer: The User Interface

                  Monday 16th of December 2019 03:36:00 PM
                   (Writer 6 appearance on Ubuntu operating system)
                  This tutorial explains briefly how we work with LibreOffice Writer's user interface. This includes its Menubar, Toolbar, Sidebar, Statusbar, and Window in general, particularly frequently used buttons. The goal is for us to familiarize the most important features first in Writer. This article is intended for beginning LibreOffice users even if they are also new in computing. Happy learning!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.On LibreOffice: Startup | Table of Contents | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 

                  Things To Learn
                  • 1. Screen
                  • 2. Titlebar
                  • 3. Menubar & Toolbar
                  • 4. Submenu
                  • 5. Main Area & Sidebar
                  • 6. Statusbar
                  • 7. Important Buttons
                  • 8. Important Menus

                  Starting Point
                  See Running LibreOffice Writer about starting the program. 

                  Whenever you start LibreOffice, you may encounter its welcome dialog with buttons to create new documents in Writer word processor, Calc spreadsheet, Impress presentation, and others. It shows you recently edited documents if any. The more you edit documents, the more recent items showed here. The purpose of this starting point is to ease you to access all of your existing documents and create new ones. To create new Writer document, simply click blue button Writer Document on the left.

                  1. Window
                  A LibreOffice Writer window looks like this on version 6.2. Whether you run Writer on other OS or with other version number, the look should be similar. There are 6 parts of Writer window:
                  • 1. Titlebar
                  • 2. Menubar
                  • 3. Ruler
                  • 4. Page area
                  • 5. Sidebar
                  • 6. Statusbar

                  2. Titlebar
                  A titlebar is top part of a Writer window where you can see file name of your document. A new document normally displays "Untitled" followed by a number as its title. An opened document displays filename with extension, for example, bookindex.odt, where bookindex is filename and .odt is extension.

                  3. Menubar and Toolbar
                  Menubar is the top panel below titlebar which starts with File, Edit, View, etc. ends with Help individual menus. Toolbar is the colorful buttons panel starts with New, Open, Save, PDF, Print buttons.

                  3.1 Menubar

                  To understand menubar quickly, I picked first three menus:
                  • File
                  • Edit
                  • View
                  (Red: File menu, yellow: Edit menu, Green: view menu; notice the shortcut keys in dashed-line boxes)
                  Every menu contains functionalities. For example, first menu File, covers functionalities such as creating, opening, and saving file; second menu Edit, covers functionalities such as undo, redo, copy & paste, and find to manipulate text; third menu View covers functionalities such as changing display mode, enabling/disabling certain user interface parts, and zoom; and so on.

                  3.2 Toolbar

                  To understand toolbar quickly, let's see 1st line toolbar:

                  Toolbar consists of buttons. Some buttons can only be clicked, some others --with black triangle sign-- can show menus. First line one is called Standard Toolbar, while second one below is Formatting Toolbar, and beyond these there are still many other toolbars you can enable under menubar View > Toolbar.
                  First line, Standard Toolbar, consists of important buttons such as New, Open, Save, etc. It is actually a summary of menubars File, Edit, and Insert.
                  Then let's see 2nd line toolbar:

                  Second line, Formatting Toolbar, consists of finer editing buttons, such as (like picture above): heading, font (typeface), and its size selections; following font color, bullets & numberings, and spacing selections. The standard formatting, Bold-Italic-Underline buttons, are also there.

                  4. Submenu
                  Every menu may have submenu. Here we will learn from first menu, File, as using other menus are not different.

                  4.1 File > New

                  See the first submenu, File > New > you see options like Text Documents, Spreadsheet, Presentation, ..., until Templates. With that, you create a new document file.

                  4.2 File > Recent Documents

                  Another example, see second submenu File > Recent Documents > you see latest opened document files. For example if there are 5 file names there, you can select file number 1 to open the most recent document.

                  4.3 File > Wizards > Letter / Fax / Agenda

                  Last example, third submenu File > Wizards > Letter / Fax / Agenda. This menu is an automatic maker for mentioned things. For example, you can generate a professional letter with Letter submenu.

                  5. Main Area and Sidebar
                  Largest area of a word processor is the page area where we write there. LibreOffice Writer displays a white A4-sized page surrounded by grey background as the main area. On this main area, you will find a blinking cursor for keyboard and a text editing symbol for mouse. Whenever you type with keyboard, blinking cursor will follow your keystroke. Whenever you move your mouse over white page, the pointer will turn into editing symbol.

                  On the right side, there is Sidebar, a multipurpose panel that provides formatting, page formatting, styles, gallery, and navigator. Sidebar can be shown/hidden by clicking the vertical handle with white triangle on right side.

                  6. Statusbar
                  This part displays page number, number of words, selected text style, language, page display mode, and zoom slider. Statusbar is about seeing: it's handy to quickly see status of current document & adjust its view so you can look the pages better. Statusbar is also about instant changing: right-click one part to change the status quickly.

                  There are 10 parts of Writer statusbar:
                  • 1. Page number/total
                  • 2. Word count, character count
                  • 3. Page style
                  • 4. Language of document
                  • 5. Typing mode
                  • 6. Selection mode
                  • 7. Save status
                  • 8. Signature status
                  • 9. Page display mode
                  • 10. Zoom

                  6.1 Page Number

                  It shows current page against total page numbers.

                  6.2. Words and chars

                  It shows total words and total characters in a Writer document.

                  6.3. Page Style

                  It shows style of selected page where the cursor currently placed. To change style, right-click this and select one among styles available.

                  6.4 Language

                  It shows language of current document. Language here means the Spelling & Grammar Suggestion system to help you type without mistakes in language you choose. To change language, right-click this and select language available.

                  6.5 Insert/Overwrite

                  By default typing mode in Writer is called Insert. This mode does not show any text on statusbar. This mode means normal, your typing types letter like usual. In contrast, there is another mode called Overwrite, where your cursor turns thicker and typing will overwrite letter under it. To change between modes, press Insert key or simply click this 5th part statusbar.

                  6.6 Selection Mode

                  There are several modes of selection: Standard, Extended, Adding, and Block. The normal mode is Standard. This allows you to select text by moving hold-click (mouse) or by Shift+Arrow Keys (keyboard).

                  For example, compare between:

                  Normal selection, and

                  block selection:

                  6.7 Change Indicator

                  Grey means unmodified since last saved. Red means changed and unsaved.

                  6.8 Signature

                  Digitally signed document shows signature logo. Unsigned document does not show anything.

                  6.9 Display Mode

                  By default display mode of Writer is Single View. But there are Multiple-Page View and also Book View available. Normally user uses the first, but to see many pages in 1 screen user may use second one; and use third one to see dual-paging like reading a book.

                  (Example of a document displayed in multiple-page view can display 5x2 pages in 1 screen)

                  6.10 Zoom

                  To zoom out (see text smaller) or zoom in (see text larger), slide the slider button or click the - / + buttons. Alternatively, hold Ctrl key and scroll up (Zoom In) or scroll down (Zoom Out) with mouse.

                  7. Important Menus
                  There are some 10 menus that are important for every Writer user including how to open Settings dialog.

                  File > Save
                  To save document.

                  File > Save As
                  To save document but with a new name.

                  File > Open
                  To open an existing document.

                  File > Export as > Export as PDF
                  To save document as PDF with options.

                  File > Print
                  To print out document with printer machine.

                  Edit > Copy
                  Copy selected text.

                  Edit > Paste
                  Paste copied text.

                  Edit > Find
                  To find a text in whole text.

                  Edit > Find & Replace
                  To find text and replace it with new text.

                  View > Full Screen
                  Enlarge page area and hide all toolbars to make editing space wider.

                  Tools > Options
                  Open Settings dialog to enable/disable features or adjust/switch options in Writer.

                  More menus you will discover by experiences over time.

                  8. Important Buttons
                  There are some 10 buttons you will often use in Writer. These buttons are also often used in other word processor programs.

                  Create new file in Writer.

                  Save document.

                  Export as PDF
                  Save as Portable Document Format (PDF) file, readable in all computers and smartphones.

                  Open document.

                  Make selected text thicker.

                  Make selected text slants slightly to the right.

                  Make horizontal line under selected text.

                  Make selected text striked out .

                  Make selected text UPPERCASED.

                  Make selected text lowercased.

                  Make selected text raised vertically.

                  Make selected text dropped vertically.

                  Go back one step before a change made. 

                  Go further one step after an undo made.

                  Create a table by drag and drop rows x columns.

                  More buttons you will also discover by experiences.

                  Further Reading
                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  LibreOffice Writer: Starting The Program

                  Wednesday 11th of December 2019 03:12:00 PM

                  On our computer, if LibreOffice is installed, then we will find Writer word processor in the start menu. This article explains how to run and close Writer on Ubuntu GNU/Linux as an example for other systems. I also added advanced method here we can use whenever some problem occurred. Let's start learning.

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                  On LibreOffice: Table of Contents | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 

                  1. Starting Writer
                  On Ubuntu, press start menu button from the panel and type "writer" without quotes and click LibreOffice Writer blue logo appears.

                  2. Writer Running
                  You should see Writer window appears on your screen. As an additional indication it running, you should also see its logo blue document being active on your panel. On Ubuntu 19.04 onwards, this is indicated by a colored dot on that logo.

                  3. Closing Writer
                  Click "X" button on top-right corner of Writer window. Another option is either by pressing Alt+F4 or clicking menubar File > Quit. However, the latter one also closes all other running LibreOffice windows if any.

                  Alternatively, right-click Writer logo > Quit on panel can also close the program. This is a common way all computer users familiar with.

                  Advanced Method
                  There is another way to start LibreOffice Writer that is using command line on Terminal. This is for advanced user whenever facing some issues like program crashes. 

                  • First, open your Terminal Emulator from start menu:
                  • Second, type this command line and press Enter:
                  $ libreoffice --writer
                  • Third, LibreOffice Writer should appear and your Terminal should go back to prompt.

                  • Either use this command and let all LibreOffice windows closed:
                  $ killall soffice.bin
                  • or use this command, you cursor changed, then click Writer window, and also all LibreOffice windows closed:
                  $ xkill

                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  Making PCLinuxOS 2019 Works with GLIM Multiboot USB

                  Tuesday 10th of December 2019 02:27:00 PM
                   (PCLinuxOS works in Live multiboot mode!)
                  This tutorial explains the configuration file for PCLinuxOS 2019 to work in multiboot mode with GLIM. I have tested this in a USB flash drive I shipped this month to South Sulawesi, Indonesia along with Slackware, Vector, KNOPPIX, and OpenMandriva Lx (I will write about their configs next time). What we need to do is to modify grub.cfg and create a new inc-pclinuxos.cfg configuration files. It may sounds simple, but PCLinuxOS needs special codes that are different to Debian and are not available on GLIM latest version yet. I explain them below with pictures. I would love to say thanks to all GLIM and Multibootusb community I finally could finish this. Enjoy!

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                  RequirementsYou will edit 3 different files:
                  • grub.cfg - global configuration file
                  • inc-pclinuxos.cfg - specific configuration to boot PCLinuxOS
                  • pclinuxos.png - PCLinuxOS logo

                  grub.cfgfor isofile in ${isopath}/pclinuxos/pclinuxos*.iso; do
                  if [ -e "$isofile" ]; then
                  menuentry "PCLinuxOS >" --class pclinuxos {
                  configfile "${prefix}/inc-pclinuxos.cfg"
                  inc-pclinuxos.cfg# PCLinuxOS GNU/Linux
                  # KNOPPIX GNU/Linux
                  for isofile in $isopath/pclinuxos/pclinuxos64*.iso; do
                  if [ ! -e "$isofile" ]; then break; fi
                  regexp \
                  --set 1:isoname \
                  --set 2:version \
                  --set 3:arch \
                  --set 4:variant \
                  "^${isopath}/pclinuxos/(pclinuxos64([^-]+)-([^-]+)-([^-]+)\.iso)\$" "${isofile}"
                  menuentry "PCLinuxOS ${version} ${arch} ${variant}" "${isofile}" "${isoname}" --class pclinuxos {
                  set isofile=$2
                  set isoname=$3
                  bootoptions="root=UUID=$rootuuid bootfromiso=$isofile livecd=livecd vga=788 keyb=us quiet splash=silent"
                  loopback loop $isofile
                  linux (loop)/isolinux/vmlinuz $bootoptions
                  initrd (loop)/isolinux/initrd.gz

                  Code in text editor:Codes above should look like these selected areas in editor.

                  Explanation:I try to explain things I understand here. GLIM code to boot a specific distro is separated in two files, one in grub.cfg, and one in inc-distroname.cfg. The former is the global declaration that points to the latter, the actual code to run the ISO image of that distro. Thus, there are 2 explanations,

                  1) Regarding grub.cfg:
                  ${isopath}/pclinuxos/pclinuxos*.isoThis code instructs computer to find ISO image file name started with pclinuxos and ended with .iso. This matches with pclinuxos64-kde.iso file name for example.
                  PCLinuxOS >This code appears on the first page of the bootloader (see pictures below). On bootloader, you select this and press Enter to go to second page with PCLinuxOS ISO selection.
                  --class pclinuxosInstructs computer to use pclinuxos.png logo stored at /boot/themes/icon/invader/. This is why the logo is PCLinuxOS logo and not Ubuntu logo.
                  configfile "${prefix}/inc-pclinuxos.cfg"This code calls the specific configuration from /boot/grub/ directory. Every distro should have one specific configuration file.

                  2) Regarding inc-pclinuxos.cfg:
                  bootoptions="root=UUID=$rootuuid bootfromiso=$isofile livecd=livecd vga=788 keyb=us quiet splash=silent" This is the boot options specific to PCLinuxOS (different to Debian's) and particularly the 2019 one I tested. This code is declared once and later being called from the boot command. I could not understand this code, unless at least we know here that PCLinuxOS booting here relies on UUID, needs declaration of $isofile manually, and runs in livecd mode. I am sorry I could not explain better.
                  loopback loop $isofile
                  linux (loop)/isolinux/vmlinuz $bootoptions
                  initrd (loop)/isolinux/initrd.gzThis code is crucial. This means PCLinuxOS runs in loopback mode. And finally, the ultimate duo commands, linux and initrd, being performed respectively to call kernel and initramfs, with directory addresses following the content of PCLinuxOS ISO image file. For you not familiar with this duo, you might ask question why your GNU/Linux system could boot, the answer is because GRUB bootloader works by running these two commands for every GNU/Linux system.

                  The secret:
                  The secret resides inside the ISO image file. We should know what is exactly the file name of the kernel and the initramfs, and then where exactly they are. I opened the ISO with Ark Archive Manager and you should see the kernel is vmlinuz and the initramfs is initrd.gz under isolinux directory. By knowing this, I could edit codes above and PCLinuxOS could run.

                  Icon:Put a logo file named pclinuxos.png in /boot/grub/themes/invader/icons/ along with other logos.

                  Result, bootloader:Now PCLinuxOS should appears on the USB's bootloader.


                  Result, live session:For the first time, after many failures, I could make PCLinuxOS runs in multiboot USB. You could too!

                  See you next time for either Slackware, Vector, KNOPPIX, or OpenMandriva configurations.

                  This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                  LibreOffice Writer: How To Make Table of Contents

                  Monday 9th of December 2019 03:07:00 PM
                   (LibreOffice Writer with table of contents)
                  This tutorial explains steps to automatically create table of contents of a document in LibreOffice Writer. This way, your document presents an index of page titles & page numbers just like what you saw on books. I will supply example you can download & practice yourself.

                  Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.On LibreOffice: User Interface | Basic Saving | Basic Formatting | Table of Pictures | Cropping | Columns | Lorem Ipsum | Portable Version | A/F/S | Version 6.2 | Bibliography | Zotero 


                  exercise (ODT)
                  final (PDF)
                  To learn this exercise, you need new document with:
                  • 10 pages
                  • 10 first level headings
                  • 10 second level headings

                  • Create 10 pages.
                  • First page, type "First Page".
                  • Second page, type "Second Page".
                  • Third page, type "Third Page".
                  • Continue until "Tenth Page". 

                    1. Create Headings 
                    • Click "First Page"
                    • Click Default Style combo box on toolbar > select Heading 1.
                    • Click "Second Page"
                    • Also apply Heading 1.
                    • Click "Third Page".
                    • Also apply Heading 1.
                    • Continue until "Tenth Page" got Heading 1 as well.

                    Change Default Style combobox into Heading 1 for every title text selected like below.

                    After changing them all, now your document should look like below.

                      2. Create Table of Contents
                      • Go to first page
                      • Create a new page
                      • Call table of contents

                      On LibreOffce 6.2, you find the menu under Insert > Table of Contents and Index > Table of Contents, Index, or Bibliography.

                      This menu opens Table of Contents dialog where you could control the title, how deep, and see the preview. For first time, all default options are okay and just click OK.

                      After making it, a Table of Contents appears on the first page.

                      Print Preview:
                      If you print preview your document, the table of contents looks normal without grey background.

                      3. Multiple Level
                      Now you know how to utilize Heading 1 as 1st level page-title. What you need to do is to type "Subtitle 1" until "Subtitle 10" right under every page-title. Then apply Heading 2 to all "Subtitles".

                      After applying Heading 2, right-click existing table of contents > Update Index > it updated.
                      After updating, current table of contents should have subtitles with tidy indentations like below.

                      Print preview:
                      Here's above table of contents looks like if being printed.

                      4. Real Examples
                      Here's an example table of contents from a book about computer. Notice there are 3 levels of heading, manual numbering, and 7 pages total.

                      Here's another example with more subtitles and two columns.

                      Do more experiments and happy writing!
                      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                      More in Tux Machines

                      Games: Out of Space, Dead Cells, Aquamarine, Children of Morta and More

                      • Clean up a filfty spaceship in 'Out of Space', now out in full with Linux support

                        Out of Space from developer Behold Studios (Chroma Squad, Galaxy of Pen & Paper) just recently released, and they added Linux support just before leaving Early Access. It's an odd and quite amusing game, where you and friends are basically space janitors cleaning up your spaceship. With support for local and online multiplayer (matchmaking and invites possible), as well as Steam Remote Play, there's plenty of opportunities to team up with someone to play.

                      • Dead Cells: The Bad Seed now available for Linux on GOG

                        DRM-free your thing? Shop on GOG regularly? Good news, Motion Twin/Evil Empire have now sorted the DLC situation for Linux on GOG with Dead Cells. Now even more people can enjoy the awesome looking and brilliant combat in Dead Cells, with the expanded content in the recent Dead Cells: The Bad Seed DLC which is absolutely worth picking up. It's helped me personally enjoy the game for quite a few more hours as it nicely mixes up with early game and the extras are excellent.

                      • Quiet survival adventure 'Aquamarine' is fully funded and on the way to Linux

                        Some good news to share today, as Aquamarine from Moebial Studios has managed to push through the noise and get fully funded on their Kickstarter campaign. This means another sweet looking game is on the way to Linux, plus with their funding level they managed to hit a few of their special stretch-goals to work on more features. With the campaign now over, they ended on $18,763 in funding so the game should be more lively thanks to the $15K goal of more animations and the $17K goal of an expanded soundtrack and audio effects.

                      • Children of Morta still heading to Linux, developer Dead Mage confirms

                        After a successful crowdfunding campaign in 2015, Dead Mage went onto launch their story-driven action RPG to a lot of positive reviews last year but so far Linux has been missing. It was a confirmed platform for release on their Kickstarter but since release, things have been a little quiet. The publisher, 11 bit studios didn't reply to our messages and the developer has been practically silent about it on their Steam page. Thankfully, Dead Mage themselves did email me early this morning to say "We are working on the Linux version and we are doing this because we love what Linux is all about :).". A short, sweet and to the point message. Not much to go in since the last reply in October 19 but good that it's happening.

                      • Alternate-history WWII Story-driven tactical RPG 'Broken Lines' is out

                        Set in an alternate version of WWII, Broken Lines from developer PortaPlay and is a story-driven tactical RPG and it's out with Linux support. A squad of soldiers crash land in the middle of enemy territory. With no leaders alive and no available orders, the group must find a way to deal with their situation and internal conflicts, before a mysterious fog engulfs them and enemy forces hunt them down. Broken Lines is a game about a group of soldiers under immense pressure, losing hope and directions, while still trying to put up a fight.

                      • GOG update their refund policy giving gamers more time to decide

                        Today, the DRM-free store GOG announced a few changes to how they will handle refunds for games purchased through them. In short you will now get 30 days to refund a title from GOG, which includes games currently in development which previously only gave you two weeks. Even if you've downloaded it and played it, GOG say if it's within 30 days of asking they will give you a refund. A good policy, 30 days is a pretty good amount of time to refund a game. However, it can be open to abuse of course. Sounds like they will keep an eye on people doing it often though, as they said "we reserve the right to refuse refunds in individual cases".

                      • Speculation: porting studio Feral Interactive could be in some trouble (updated: they're fine)

                        Feral Interactive, the porting company that has made many games available on Linux (as well as macOS and mobile) may be in a spot of trouble. Reported first on Phoronix, as found out from the UK's Companies House, they're being given a "First Gazette notice for compulsory strike-off" which is not exactly a good sign for any company. What this means, is that they have a few months before they might cease to legally exist. There can be a few reasons for this, like not sending in their accounts or an annual confirmation statement. Looking at Feral, it seems theirs are overdue as they should have been done by 31 December 2019.

                      • Game Porting Firm Feral Interactive's Days Could Be Numbered With Compulsory Strike-Off

                        Prominent Linux and macOS game porting firm Feral Interactive looks like it may be dissolving, (edit) but fortunately turned out to be an accounting error.

                      • Stadia gets GRID, SteamWorld Dig 2 and SteamWorld Quest for March Pro subs - Spitlings is out

                        Another round-up is here for the Stadia game streaming service, going over some recent news and new games available. Google have announced that for Stadia Pro subscribers in March you're getting three games which are: GRID, SteamWorld Dig 2, and SteamWorld Quest. We already knew the SteamWorld games would be available for Pro subs, since that was mentioned in the announcement about them coming to Stadia but we didn't know it was so soon. GRID is quite a nice surprise though, that might even pull a few people back in since the initial Pro time for most people is now up. Farming Simulator 19 Platinum Edition will be leaving Stadia Pro, so if you do want it make sure you claim it before February 29.

                      • The T'au invade Warhammer 40,000: Gladius in a new expansion out now

                        Proxy Studios and Slitherine yesterday released a big new expansion for Warhammer 40,000: Gladius focusing on the T'au race, as they've joined the fight for the domination of Gladius Prime.

                      • Valve make some needed improvements to the Steam Search

                        After testing out a bunch of changes to the way Steam Search works in a Steam Labs experiment, Valve has now rolled it out for everyone with new features. Steam Labs is the area of Steam where they experiment more, let people opt into new features and they also pull in outside developers to do some prototypes. This expanded Steam Search is one of such experiments. Valve said the improvements to it started as "an exploration of new ranking algorithms, but based upon user feedback it expanded to include the many quality of life improvements in today's release".

                      Ubuntu 20.04 Makes Picking a Graphics Driver Easier

                      Now that the latest NVIDIA graphics are available in Ubuntu LTS releases directly (without the need for third-party repos or obtuse web downloads) dev are updating the look of the Software & Updates > Additional Drivers to better help users understand what it is they’re looking at. Here, for example, is how the graphics driver selection screen looks in Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS... Could be a touch clearer, couldn’t it? Ubuntu certainly thinks so too. It plans to adjust the order that ‘additional drivers’ are listed, and improve on the wording used to present them. For graphics drivers specifically this means overly technical terms like “ X server” and “metapackage” are being ditched, and more intelligible and concise labels introduced... Read more

                      Android Leftovers

                      Module and dev kit unleash TI’s AM65x

                      Mistral’s “AM65x Industrial SoM” module runs Linux or Android on a quad -A53 TI AM6548 with support for TSN and industrial Ethernet protocols. Features include up to 4GB DDR4 and 32GB eMMC and a dev kit with 3x GbE ports. Bangalore, India based Mistral has released a Linux-ready compute module and development kit that showcases Texas Instruments’ 1.1GHz, quad-core Cortex-A53 Sitara AM6548. This is only the second AM65x based product we’ve seen after Phytec’s phyCore-AM65x SOM. Read more