Language Selection

English French German Italian Portuguese Spanish

Muktware

Syndicate content
The Benefit of Open Source IT
Updated: 1 hour 50 min ago

Headless Installation of Raspbian OS

Sunday 19th of November 2017 08:07:15 PM

How to install Raspbian OS on Raspberry Pi without using monitor and keyboard.

I am using Raspberry Pi 3 for a musical light set-up for Christmas. The device is meant to be used in headless mode. However, you do need keyboard, mouse and an HDMI monitor to install and configure an operating system on the Pi.

Can’t I install OS in headless mode so that I don’t have to unplug these devices from my main system so RPi 3 can borrow them for installation.

Yes, we can.

tl;dr: Flash RaspbianOS and `touch ssh` on the root of 'boot' partition of your SDCard. https://t.co/Hjm84JAqyx

— Omer Akram (@om26er) November 19, 2017

#1 Download Raspbian OS from the official Raspberry Pi page.

# 2 Download Etcher from the official page and install the application.

# 3 Plug in the mirco SD to your PC. Open Etcher app and browse the downloaded image of Raspbian

In the second step, select the microSD card. Please be extra careful to select the correct USB device. Then hit the ‘Flash’ button and it will start copying files to the micro SD card.

Enable SSH for headless configuration

Your OS is ready but for security reasons Raspbian disables ‘ssh’ by default. We need to enable it. But how can you enable it without booting into the system? There is a neat work-around. All you need to do is place an empty file called ‘ssh’ in the root directory of your newly installed Raspbian OS and it will enable SSH.

Open the root directory of the newly install Raspbian OS on your micro SD card and create an empty file named ‘ssh’, don’t give it any extension. You can easily create a file from the file manager of Windows 10 and desktop Linux, but Finder of macOS is not capable of doing so. That’s where I resorted to using the terminal.

Open the Terminal app and change directory into the micro SD card:

cd /Volumes/path_of_micro_sd_card/

Then create an empty ssh file

touch ssh

Before we unplug the micro SD card, make sure that ssh file is present:

Remove the card from your PC, plug it into a Raspberry Pi, power the pi with 5v USB cable.

In order to ssh into your Pi, you need to know the IP address of the Pi. Either you find it out from your router settings or you can use Pi Finder app to do so. Download the Pi Finder client from the developer and open it. Run the app and it will find the IP address of your Raspberry Pi.

Once you have the IP address, open terminal (now Windows 10 also has support for Linux bash) and ssh into your pi

ssh pi@IP_ADDRESSS

When asked, provide it with the password for pi

raspberry

Now you are sshed into pi. The first thing you need to do is run the rasp-config file to configure your system

sudo raspi-config

I am assuming you know how to proceed from there.

Enjoy your pi.

 

The post Headless Installation of Raspbian OS appeared first on The BenefIT.

Sage Sharp talks about increasing diversity in open source

Saturday 18th of November 2017 02:42:54 AM

The Southern California Linux Expo 14x (SCaLE 14x) concluded on January 24 with a keynote from open source developer Sage Sharp (formerly Sarah Sharp), who made waves in October, 2015 with a blog post explaining why they stepped down as a Linux kernel developer. Here are some highlights from their presentation.

Sharp opened their talk by giving a nod to SCaLE for being one of the most diverse Linux and open source conferences. Sharp then called on white males in the audience to repeat after them: “Increasing diversity in open source is my responsibility.”

Sharp explained it is their responsibility because often in the tech world minorities have to shoulder the unpaid emotional work of increasing diversity. “We have to look at our privileges that shows bias. Each of us have identities and skills that society values and some of us have identities that society discriminates against. Recognizing that we have privilege helps us seek out diverse voices,”Sharp said.

Sharp also talked about the popular notion of meritocracy in the open source world. They pointed at a study by MIT that showed that companies that were described as meritocratic had more bias towards men when it comes to salary versus those who were not described as meritocratic.Sharp said that the reason could be that “when an organization describes as meritocratic we make excuses for why there is disparity.”

Sharp urged the audience to reconsider their privilege and unconscious bias and figure out how to increase diversity and bring equality.

Sharp then talked about time. Geeks, for example, need to go into ‘deep hack’mode: when you sit down on your computer for the world to melt away around you and you are absorbed in your work, doing whatever you love doing. And you need uninterrupted time to work. But for a lot of people uninterrupted time is a precious commodity, particularly people who are caretakers looking after children or elderly relatives. A majority of women from different cultural backgrounds work as caretakers because they can’t afford full time care for their children.

Sharp said that in open source project we assume people will invest all of their time into the project, but even if these women want to contribute they can’t give their full time as it’s not a luxury they can afford. So open source projects should consider that and try to be inclusive of such people. Events and conferences can offer childcare so women can come, drop their kids and attend the conference. Linux Foundation, for example, has started offering child care at their LinuxCon event.

Sharp also pointed out that when we go out to hire people we look at their GitHub page, how many commits they have made. But caregivers can’t have that much commitment as they don’t have the luxury of time. Sharp said that next time when you go through resumes don’t set aside the ones you know are minorities and may not have a GitHub account.

There are many companies that are adopting non traditional ways to get people in tech. PayPal, for example, offers Recharge program where they have job offerings for women who have taken a break to take care of family; such programs help them in getting back. There is also a pilot program at Etsy where they are offering coaching, mentoring to new moms so that they can talk about how to juggle their time commitments.

Sharp pointed at another notable problem in the US: access to computers. They said that according to the US Census there is a racial disparity in which households own a computer. Sharp said that African-American and Latino households are less likely to own a computer and even if they do they are not the most powerful computers. Then consider who in the family gets to use it, and in what order of priority.

Access to internet is also a challenge in many emerging economies like India where wired broadband is rare and a majority of people are using mobile Internet where they have to pay for every bit they use.

Open source projects can take these points into consideration to be inclusive of such people. We can create sandboxed servers so people with less powerful computers can test and compile their code on the server. Sharp pointed out that Canonical’s Launchpad bug tracking system takes 10 clicks to file a report. It will be too expensive for an Indian contributor using the mobile broadband to file a bug report.

Sharp said that open source project should consider how they can reduce the development footprint for the users who are on unreliable internet access. Sharp urged that if your project has documentation, please ship with your documentation so that user doesn’t have to go to the internet to access the documentation.

Sharp also talked about bringing new people into open source because a majority of open source projects, like Linux kernel, have an aging developer base. This is a point that was once mentioned during LinuxCon Europe, and it’s serious. “In the open source world we tend to let long standing contributors shoulder a lot of burdens and responsibilities. And as a result they get burned out. We should be focusing on growing new leaders and new contributors to our community,”Sharp said.

In order to create successors, next leaders of your project, you should document how you do releases and other stuff so it’s easy for other people to take over. If you don’t do that the chances are that your project will die as there won’t be the next leader.

In the end Sharp shared their own story of how their dad got them into computers, how their husband assisted them as an ally and how other men such as Andrew Greenberg and Bart Massey brought them to the open source world. Their point was: everyone of us can play a role in increasing diversity in the open source world.

Sharp finished their talk with these words: “Improving diversity in open source community is your responsibility, don’t be a bystander.”

Their talk ended with a standing ovation.

Sharp deserved it.

Ed note: Sarah legally changed their name to Sage in 2017. Originally published in CIO.com

The post Sage Sharp talks about increasing diversity in open source appeared first on The BenefIT.

CNCF orchestrates standardization around Kubernetes

Thursday 16th of November 2017 07:20:10 PM

Irrespective of what you think about the Linux Foundation, one of the greatest contributions of the organization has been as a catalyst in the standardization of open source technologies, without the bureaucracy of standardization bodies.

The foundation, through its Collaborative Projects, is doing it at code, developer and stakeholder level. While OCI (Open Container Initiative) standardized container runtime and image format, Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) is now standardizing Kubernetes.

Isn’t Kubernetes open source? Why do we need standardization?

First things first. Kubernetes is a fully open source project created by Google, which was donated to CNCF as an anchor project. It’s an upstream project, so why do they have to worry about standardization? It’s the same code across the board and most Kubernetes consumers/contributors like CoreOS and Docker stick to the upstream version either way.

The fact is, Kubernetes is spreading like wildfire. Everyone is using it, including Docker, Cloud Foundry, Microsoft, AWS, Alibaba, Red Hat, SUSE, Canonical, Mirantis… the list goes on.

Among these players, there are many who don’t consume the upstream project. There are many players that offer Kubernetes distributions with their own patches and tweaks. Most customers consume these Kubernetes distributions.

As these companies take the upstream and ‘polish’ it, there is an increasing risk of different kubernetes instances becoming incompatible with each other. That creates a serious problem of fragmentation and interoperability. It creates the risk of vendor lock-in.

However, that can’t happen. Not under the watch of CNCF. The foundation has launched a certificate program to ensure portability and interoperability across the Kubernetes ecosystem.

“The new Certified Kubernetes Conformance Program gives enterprise organizations the confidence that workloads that run on any Certified Kubernetes Distribution or Platform will work correctly on any other version,” said Dan Kohn, Executive Director, Cloud Native Computing Foundation.

What weight does this certification program really carries?

According to CNCF, a Certified Kubernetes product guarantees that the complete Kubernetes API functions as specified, so users can rely on a seamless, stable experience.

32 major and smaller companies have already committed to the certification program. Some of the big companies include Alibaba, Google, Microsoft, CoreOS, Docker, Red Hat, SUSE, Canonical and many more.

“Docker Enterprise Edition (Docker EE) offers an unmodified version of Kubernetes with the added value of the Docker platform including security, management, a familiar developer workflow and tooling, broad ecosystem compatibility and an adherence to industry standards,” said Banjot Chanana, Head of Product Management for Docker.

Development of the certification program involved close collaboration between CNCF and the rest of the Kubernetes community, especially the Testing and Architecture Special Interest Groups (SIGs).

The Kubernetes Architecture SIG is the final arbiter of the definition of API conformance for the program. The program also includes strong guarantees that commercial providers of Kubernetes will continue to release new versions to ensure that customers can take advantage of the rapid pace of ongoing development. Kubernetes is one of the highest velocity software projects in the history of open source.

“The interoperability that this program ensures is essential to Kubernetes meeting its promise of offering a single open source software stack supported by many vendors that can deploy on any public, private or hybrid cloud,” said Kohn.

Certified Kubernetes implementations are permitted to use the new Certified Kubernetes logo and also are allowed to use the Kubernetes mark in combination with their product name (e.g., XYZ Kubernetes Service).

CNCF is inviting vendors to run the conformance test suite and submit conformance testing results for review and certification by the CNCF. End users should make sure their vendor partners certify their Kubernetes product and can confirm that certification using the same open source test suite.

The post CNCF orchestrates standardization around Kubernetes appeared first on The BenefIT.

Solomon Hykes switches containers, becomes Chief Architect of Docker

Tuesday 14th of November 2017 01:13:51 PM

“I think of myself more as an enabler; more of a coach than a player. It’s pretty fun, actually.” – Solomon Hykes

Solomon Hykes, the founder of Docker has stepped up from the position of CTO and taken a new position of Chief Architect and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors.

It’s more of a strategic position, than operations. Hykes have been working on being one step removed from the technology side of Docker and is contributing indirectly. In my interactions with Hykes, I see him as a visionary and an entrepreneur who looks at the larger picture and tackles bigger challenges that Docker customers face. In a previous interview, Hykes told me, “I think of myself more as an enabler; more of a coach than a player. It’s pretty fun, actually.”

He is now officially a coach.

Docker went through some reshuffling earlier this year when Ben Golub, the then CEO of Docker was replaced by Steve Singh, the former CEO of Concur Technologies Inc.

Docker now has another industry veteran on its board of directors. Kodak CEO, Jeff Clarke, has joined the company’s board of directors.

All these changes are happening as containers are becoming the cornerstone of modern IT infrastructure, and Docker needs to tread carefully as the landscape is changing really fast.

The post Solomon Hykes switches containers, becomes Chief Architect of Docker appeared first on The BenefIT.

More in Tux Machines

SUSE: Change of Plans and Disclosure

  • SUSE Dropping Mainline Work On Their In-Kernel Bootsplash System
    For those that were excited over the months of ongoing work by SUSE to bring up an in-kernel boot splash system that could be better than Plymouth for at least some use-cases and was interesting many readers, unfortunately it's not panning out for mainline. Max Staudt who has been leading this project has sent out his latest version of the patches today, but he's decided to drop pursuing it for mainline. The German Linux developer commented, "found that it doesn't currently make sense to continue working on the splash code, given the low practical interest I've received on LKML...I'll be happy to rebase it and continue to work on it if interest arises."
  • cPanel Provides Project with Network Cards
    The hosting platform cPanel has provided the openSUSE Project with two new network cards to assist the project with its infrastructure needs. The network cards will soon be integrated into the openSUSE infrastructure to improve the Open Build Service.

Kernel: Kernelci.org, Tripwire, Linux Foundation, R600 Gallium3D

  • Kernelci.org automated bisection
    The kernelci.org project aims at continuously testing the mainline Linux kernel, from stable branches to linux-next on a variety of platforms. When a revision fails to build or boot, kernel developers get informed via email reports. A summary of all the results can also be found directly on the website.
  • Securing the Linux filesystem with Tripwire
    While Linux is considered to be the most secure operating system (ahead of Windows and MacOS), it is still vulnerable to rootkits and other variants of malware. Thus, Linux users need to know how to protect their servers or personal computers from destruction, and the first step they need to take is to protect the filesystem. In this article, we'll look at Tripwire, an excellent tool for protecting Linux filesystems. Tripwire is an integrity checking tool that enables system administrators, security engineers, and others to detect alterations to system files. Although it's not the only option available (AIDE and Samhain offer similar features), Tripwire is arguably the most commonly used integrity checker for Linux system files, and it is available as open source under GPLv2.
  • Open Source Networking and a Vision of Fully Automated Networks
    Arpit Joshipura, Networking General Manager at The Linux Foundation, discussed open source networking trends at Open Source Summit Europe. Ever since the birth of local area networks, open source tools and components have driven faster and more capable network technologies forward. At the recent Open Source Summit event in Europe, Arpit Joshipura, Networking General Manager at The Linux Foundation, discussed his vision of open source networks and how they are being driven by full automation. “Networking is cool again,” he said, opening his keynote address with observations on software-defined networks, virtualization, and more. Joshipura is no stranger to network trends. He has led major technology deployments across enterprises, carriers, and cloud architectures, and has been a steady proponent of open source. “This is an extremely important time for our industry,” he said. “There are more than 23 million open source developers, and we are in an environment where everyone is asking for faster and more reliable services.”
  • R600 Gallium3D Gets Some Last Minute Improvements In Mesa 18.0
    These days when Dave Airlie isn't busy managing the DRM subsystem or hacking on the RADV Vulkan driver, he's been spending a fair amount of time on some OpenGL improvements to the aging R600 Gallium3D driver. That's happened again and he's landed some more improvements just ahead of the imminent Mesa 18.0 feature freeze.

OSS Leftovers

  • Reliance Jio and global tech leaders come together to push Open Source in India
    The India Digital Open Summit which will be held tomorrow at the Reliance Corporate Park campus in Navi Mumbai -is a must-attend event for industry leaders, policymakers, technologists, academia, and developer communities working towards India’s digital leadership through Open Source platforms. The summit is hosted by Reliance Jio in partnership with the Linux Foundation and supported by Cisco Systems.
  • Open-source software simulates river and runoff resources
    Freshwater resources are finite, unevenly distributed, and changing through time. The demand—and competition—for water is expected to grow both in the United States and in the developing/developed world. To examine the connection between supply and demand and resulting regional and global water stresses, a team developed Xanthos. The open-source hydrologic model is available for free and helps researchers explore the details and analyze global water availability. Researchers can use Xanthos to examine the implications of different climate, socioeconomic, and/or energy scenarios over the 21st century. They can then assess the effects of the scenarios on regional and global water availability. Xanthos can be used in three different ways. It can operate as an independent hydrologic model, driven, for example, by scenarios. It can serve as the core freshwater supply component of the Global Change Assessment Model, where multiple sectors and natural systems are modeled simultaneously as part of an interconnected, complex system. Further, it can be used by other integrated models and multi-model frameworks that focus on energy-water-land interactions.
  • “The Apache Way” — Open source done well
    I was at an industry conference and was happy to see many people stopping by the Apache booth. I was pleased that they were familiar with the Apache brand, yet puzzled to learn that so many were unfamiliar with The Apache Software Foundation (ASF). For this special issue, “All Eyes On Open Source”, it’s important to recognize not just Apache’s diverse projects and communities, but also the entity behind their success. Gone are the days when software and technology, in general, were developed privately for the benefit of the few. As technology evolves, the challenges we face become more complex, and the only way to effectively move forward to create the technology of the future is to collaborate and work together. Open Source is a perfect framework for that, and organizations like the ASF carry out a decisive role in protecting its spirit and principles.
  • ​Learn how to run Linux on Microsoft's Azure cloud
  • LLVM 6.0-RC1 Makes Its Belated Debut
    While LLVM/Clang 6.0 was branched earlier this month and under a feature freeze with master/trunk moving to LLVM 7.0, two weeks later the first release candidate is now available. Normally the first release candidate comes immediately following the branching / feature freeze, but not this time due to the shifted schedule with a slow start to satisfy an unnamed company seeking to align their internal testing with LLVM 6.0.
  • Hackers can’t dig into latest Xiaomi phone due to GPL violations
     

    Yet another Android OEM is dragging its feet with its GPL compliance. This time, it's Xiaomi with the Mi A1 Android One device, which still hasn't seen a kernel source code release.  

    Android vendors are required to release their kernel sources thanks to the Linux kernel's GPLv2 licensing. The Mi A1 has been out for about three months now, and there's still no source code release on Xiaomi's official github account.

  • 2017 - The Year in Which Copyright Went Beyond Source Code
    2017 was a big year for raising the profile of copyright in protecting computer programs. Two cases in particular helped bring attention to a myth that was addressed and dispelled some time ago but persists in some circles nonetheless. Many lawyers hold on to the notion that copyright protection for software is weak because such protection inheres in the source code of computer programs. Because most companies that generate code take extensive (and often successful) measures to keep source code out of the hands of third parties, the utility of copyright protection for code is often viewed as limited. However, copyright also extends to the “non-literal elements” of computer programs, such as their sequence, structure and organization, as well as to things such as screen displays and certain user interfaces. In other words, copyright infringement can occur when copying certain outputs of the code without there ever having been access to the underlying code itself.
  • Announcing WebBook Level 1, a new Web-based format for electronic books
    Eons ago, at a time BlueGriffon was only a Wysiwyg editor for the Web, my friend Mohamed Zergaoui asked why I was not turning BlueGriffon into an EPUB editor... I had been observing the electronic book market since the early days of Cytale and its Cybook but I was not involved into it on a daily basis. That seemed not only an excellent idea, but also a fairly workable one. EPUB is based on flavors of HTML so I would not have to reinvent the wheel. I started diving into the EPUB specs the very same day, EPUB 2.0.1 (released in 2009) at that time. I immediately discovered a technology that was not far away from the Web but that was also clearly not the Web. In particular, I immediately saw that two crucial features were missing: it was impossible to aggregate a set of Web pages into a EPUB book through a trivial zip, and it was impossible to unzip a EPUB book and make it trivially readable inside a Web browser even with graceful degradation. When the IDPF started working on EPUB 3.0 (with its 3.0.1 revision) and 3.1, I said this was coming too fast, and that the lack of Test Suites with interoperable implementations as we often have in W3C exit criteria was a critical issue. More importantly, the market was, in my opinion, not ready to absorb so quickly two major and one minor revisions of EPUB given the huge cost on both publishing chains and existing ebook bases. I also thought - and said - the EPUB 3.x specifications were suffering from clear technical issues, including the two missing features quoted above.
  • Firefox 58 Bringing Faster WebAssembly Compilation With Two-Tiered Compiler
    With the launch of Mozilla Firefox 58 slated for next week, WebAssembly will become even faster thanks to a new two-tiered compiler.
  • New Kernel Releases, Net Neutrality, Thunderbird Survey and More
    In an effort to protect Net Neutrality (and the internet), Mozilla filed a petition in federal court yesterday against the FCC. The idea behind Net Neutrality is to treat all internet traffic equally and without discrimination against content or type. Make your opinions heard: Monterail and the Thunderbird email client development team are asking for your assistance to help improve the user interface in the redesign of the Thunderbird application. Be sure to take the survey.

IBM code grandmaster: what Java does next

Reports of Java’s death have been greatly exaggerated — said, well, pretty much every Java engineer that there is. The Java language and platform may have been (in some people’s view) somewhat unceremoniously shunted into a side ally by the self-proclaimed aggressive corporate acquisition strategists (their words, not ours) at Oracle… but Java still enjoys widespread adoption and, in some strains, growing use and development. Read more