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The Benefit of Open Source IT
Updated: 35 min 55 sec ago

Headless Installation of Raspbian OS

Sunday 19th of November 2017 08:07:15 PM

How to install Raspbian OS on Raspberry Pi without using monitor and keyboard.

I am using Raspberry Pi 3 for a musical light set-up for Christmas. The device is meant to be used in headless mode. However, you do need keyboard, mouse and an HDMI monitor to install and configure an operating system on the Pi.

Can’t I install OS in headless mode so that I don’t have to unplug these devices from my main system so RPi 3 can borrow them for installation.

Yes, we can.

tl;dr: Flash RaspbianOS and `touch ssh` on the root of 'boot' partition of your SDCard. https://t.co/Hjm84JAqyx

— Omer Akram (@om26er) November 19, 2017

#1 Download Raspbian OS from the official Raspberry Pi page.

# 2 Download Etcher from the official page and install the application.

# 3 Plug in the mirco SD to your PC. Open Etcher app and browse the downloaded image of Raspbian

In the second step, select the microSD card. Please be extra careful to select the correct USB device. Then hit the ‘Flash’ button and it will start copying files to the micro SD card.

Enable SSH for headless configuration

Your OS is ready but for security reasons Raspbian disables ‘ssh’ by default. We need to enable it. But how can you enable it without booting into the system? There is a neat work-around. All you need to do is place an empty file called ‘ssh’ in the root directory of your newly installed Raspbian OS and it will enable SSH.

Open the root directory of the newly install Raspbian OS on your micro SD card and create an empty file named ‘ssh’, don’t give it any extension. You can easily create a file from the file manager of Windows 10 and desktop Linux, but Finder of macOS is not capable of doing so. That’s where I resorted to using the terminal.

Open the Terminal app and change directory into the micro SD card:

cd /Volumes/path_of_micro_sd_card/

Then create an empty ssh file

touch ssh

Before we unplug the micro SD card, make sure that ssh file is present:

Remove the card from your PC, plug it into a Raspberry Pi, power the pi with 5v USB cable.

In order to ssh into your Pi, you need to know the IP address of the Pi. Either you find it out from your router settings or you can use Pi Finder app to do so. Download the Pi Finder client from the developer and open it. Run the app and it will find the IP address of your Raspberry Pi.

Once you have the IP address, open terminal (now Windows 10 also has support for Linux bash) and ssh into your pi

ssh pi@IP_ADDRESSS

When asked, provide it with the password for pi

raspberry

Now you are sshed into pi. The first thing you need to do is run the rasp-config file to configure your system

sudo raspi-config

I am assuming you know how to proceed from there.

Enjoy your pi.

 

The post Headless Installation of Raspbian OS appeared first on The BenefIT.

Sage Sharp talks about increasing diversity in open source

Saturday 18th of November 2017 02:42:54 AM

The Southern California Linux Expo 14x (SCaLE 14x) concluded on January 24 with a keynote from open source developer Sage Sharp (formerly Sarah Sharp), who made waves in October, 2015 with a blog post explaining why they stepped down as a Linux kernel developer. Here are some highlights from their presentation.

Sharp opened their talk by giving a nod to SCaLE for being one of the most diverse Linux and open source conferences. Sharp then called on white males in the audience to repeat after them: “Increasing diversity in open source is my responsibility.”

Sharp explained it is their responsibility because often in the tech world minorities have to shoulder the unpaid emotional work of increasing diversity. “We have to look at our privileges that shows bias. Each of us have identities and skills that society values and some of us have identities that society discriminates against. Recognizing that we have privilege helps us seek out diverse voices,”Sharp said.

Sharp also talked about the popular notion of meritocracy in the open source world. They pointed at a study by MIT that showed that companies that were described as meritocratic had more bias towards men when it comes to salary versus those who were not described as meritocratic.Sharp said that the reason could be that “when an organization describes as meritocratic we make excuses for why there is disparity.”

Sharp urged the audience to reconsider their privilege and unconscious bias and figure out how to increase diversity and bring equality.

Sharp then talked about time. Geeks, for example, need to go into ‘deep hack’mode: when you sit down on your computer for the world to melt away around you and you are absorbed in your work, doing whatever you love doing. And you need uninterrupted time to work. But for a lot of people uninterrupted time is a precious commodity, particularly people who are caretakers looking after children or elderly relatives. A majority of women from different cultural backgrounds work as caretakers because they can’t afford full time care for their children.

Sharp said that in open source project we assume people will invest all of their time into the project, but even if these women want to contribute they can’t give their full time as it’s not a luxury they can afford. So open source projects should consider that and try to be inclusive of such people. Events and conferences can offer childcare so women can come, drop their kids and attend the conference. Linux Foundation, for example, has started offering child care at their LinuxCon event.

Sharp also pointed out that when we go out to hire people we look at their GitHub page, how many commits they have made. But caregivers can’t have that much commitment as they don’t have the luxury of time. Sharp said that next time when you go through resumes don’t set aside the ones you know are minorities and may not have a GitHub account.

There are many companies that are adopting non traditional ways to get people in tech. PayPal, for example, offers Recharge program where they have job offerings for women who have taken a break to take care of family; such programs help them in getting back. There is also a pilot program at Etsy where they are offering coaching, mentoring to new moms so that they can talk about how to juggle their time commitments.

Sharp pointed at another notable problem in the US: access to computers. They said that according to the US Census there is a racial disparity in which households own a computer. Sharp said that African-American and Latino households are less likely to own a computer and even if they do they are not the most powerful computers. Then consider who in the family gets to use it, and in what order of priority.

Access to internet is also a challenge in many emerging economies like India where wired broadband is rare and a majority of people are using mobile Internet where they have to pay for every bit they use.

Open source projects can take these points into consideration to be inclusive of such people. We can create sandboxed servers so people with less powerful computers can test and compile their code on the server. Sharp pointed out that Canonical’s Launchpad bug tracking system takes 10 clicks to file a report. It will be too expensive for an Indian contributor using the mobile broadband to file a bug report.

Sharp said that open source project should consider how they can reduce the development footprint for the users who are on unreliable internet access. Sharp urged that if your project has documentation, please ship with your documentation so that user doesn’t have to go to the internet to access the documentation.

Sharp also talked about bringing new people into open source because a majority of open source projects, like Linux kernel, have an aging developer base. This is a point that was once mentioned during LinuxCon Europe, and it’s serious. “In the open source world we tend to let long standing contributors shoulder a lot of burdens and responsibilities. And as a result they get burned out. We should be focusing on growing new leaders and new contributors to our community,”Sharp said.

In order to create successors, next leaders of your project, you should document how you do releases and other stuff so it’s easy for other people to take over. If you don’t do that the chances are that your project will die as there won’t be the next leader.

In the end Sharp shared their own story of how their dad got them into computers, how their husband assisted them as an ally and how other men such as Andrew Greenberg and Bart Massey brought them to the open source world. Their point was: everyone of us can play a role in increasing diversity in the open source world.

Sharp finished their talk with these words: “Improving diversity in open source community is your responsibility, don’t be a bystander.”

Their talk ended with a standing ovation.

Sharp deserved it.

Ed note: Sarah legally changed their name to Sage in 2017. Originally published in CIO.com

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CNCF orchestrates standardization around Kubernetes

Thursday 16th of November 2017 07:20:10 PM

Irrespective of what you think about the Linux Foundation, one of the greatest contributions of the organization has been as a catalyst in the standardization of open source technologies, without the bureaucracy of standardization bodies.

The foundation, through its Collaborative Projects, is doing it at code, developer and stakeholder level. While OCI (Open Container Initiative) standardized container runtime and image format, Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) is now standardizing Kubernetes.

Isn’t Kubernetes open source? Why do we need standardization?

First things first. Kubernetes is a fully open source project created by Google, which was donated to CNCF as an anchor project. It’s an upstream project, so why do they have to worry about standardization? It’s the same code across the board and most Kubernetes consumers/contributors like CoreOS and Docker stick to the upstream version either way.

The fact is, Kubernetes is spreading like wildfire. Everyone is using it, including Docker, Cloud Foundry, Microsoft, AWS, Alibaba, Red Hat, SUSE, Canonical, Mirantis… the list goes on.

Among these players, there are many who don’t consume the upstream project. There are many players that offer Kubernetes distributions with their own patches and tweaks. Most customers consume these Kubernetes distributions.

As these companies take the upstream and ‘polish’ it, there is an increasing risk of different kubernetes instances becoming incompatible with each other. That creates a serious problem of fragmentation and interoperability. It creates the risk of vendor lock-in.

However, that can’t happen. Not under the watch of CNCF. The foundation has launched a certificate program to ensure portability and interoperability across the Kubernetes ecosystem.

“The new Certified Kubernetes Conformance Program gives enterprise organizations the confidence that workloads that run on any Certified Kubernetes Distribution or Platform will work correctly on any other version,” said Dan Kohn, Executive Director, Cloud Native Computing Foundation.

What weight does this certification program really carries?

According to CNCF, a Certified Kubernetes product guarantees that the complete Kubernetes API functions as specified, so users can rely on a seamless, stable experience.

32 major and smaller companies have already committed to the certification program. Some of the big companies include Alibaba, Google, Microsoft, CoreOS, Docker, Red Hat, SUSE, Canonical and many more.

“Docker Enterprise Edition (Docker EE) offers an unmodified version of Kubernetes with the added value of the Docker platform including security, management, a familiar developer workflow and tooling, broad ecosystem compatibility and an adherence to industry standards,” said Banjot Chanana, Head of Product Management for Docker.

Development of the certification program involved close collaboration between CNCF and the rest of the Kubernetes community, especially the Testing and Architecture Special Interest Groups (SIGs).

The Kubernetes Architecture SIG is the final arbiter of the definition of API conformance for the program. The program also includes strong guarantees that commercial providers of Kubernetes will continue to release new versions to ensure that customers can take advantage of the rapid pace of ongoing development. Kubernetes is one of the highest velocity software projects in the history of open source.

“The interoperability that this program ensures is essential to Kubernetes meeting its promise of offering a single open source software stack supported by many vendors that can deploy on any public, private or hybrid cloud,” said Kohn.

Certified Kubernetes implementations are permitted to use the new Certified Kubernetes logo and also are allowed to use the Kubernetes mark in combination with their product name (e.g., XYZ Kubernetes Service).

CNCF is inviting vendors to run the conformance test suite and submit conformance testing results for review and certification by the CNCF. End users should make sure their vendor partners certify their Kubernetes product and can confirm that certification using the same open source test suite.

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Solomon Hykes switches containers, becomes Chief Architect of Docker

Tuesday 14th of November 2017 01:13:51 PM

“I think of myself more as an enabler; more of a coach than a player. It’s pretty fun, actually.” – Solomon Hykes

Solomon Hykes, the founder of Docker has stepped up from the position of CTO and taken a new position of Chief Architect and Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors.

It’s more of a strategic position, than operations. Hykes have been working on being one step removed from the technology side of Docker and is contributing indirectly. In my interactions with Hykes, I see him as a visionary and an entrepreneur who looks at the larger picture and tackles bigger challenges that Docker customers face. In a previous interview, Hykes told me, “I think of myself more as an enabler; more of a coach than a player. It’s pretty fun, actually.”

He is now officially a coach.

Docker went through some reshuffling earlier this year when Ben Golub, the then CEO of Docker was replaced by Steve Singh, the former CEO of Concur Technologies Inc.

Docker now has another industry veteran on its board of directors. Kodak CEO, Jeff Clarke, has joined the company’s board of directors.

All these changes are happening as containers are becoming the cornerstone of modern IT infrastructure, and Docker needs to tread carefully as the landscape is changing really fast.

The post Solomon Hykes switches containers, becomes Chief Architect of Docker appeared first on The BenefIT.

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