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Updated: 2 hours 45 min ago

Canonical Outs Important Linux Kernel Security Update for All Ubuntu Releases

Tuesday 18th of June 2019 09:01:00 PM
Canonical has released an important Linux kernel security update for all supported Ubuntu Linux releases to address two critical security vulnerabilities that could crash users' systems.

In a recent security advisory, Canonical details two recently discovered security vulnerabilities (CVE-2019-11477 and CVE-2019-11478) affecting Linux kernel's TCP retransmission queue implementation when handling some specific TCP Selective Acknowledgment (SACKs). 

Both security vulnerabilities were discovered by Jonathan Looney and could allow a remote attacker to crash the affected systems by causing a denial of service. Known as SACK Panic, they affect all supported Ubuntu Linux releases, including Ubuntu 19.04, Ubuntu 18.10, Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.

"Jonathan Looney discovered several flaws in the way that ... (read more)

Canonical Will Drop Support for 32-bit Architectures in Future Ubuntu Releases

Tuesday 18th of June 2019 08:21:00 PM
Canonical announced today that it finally decided to completely drop support for 32-bit (i386) hardware architectures in future releases of its popular Ubuntu Linux operating system.

Last year, during the development cycle of the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) operating system series, Canonical announced that they won't offer 32-bit installation images (ISOs), a trend that was shortly followed by all official Ubuntu Linux flavors with the Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish) release. However, Ubuntu's 32-bit repositories were still available.

As Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) will be supported for the next five years, Canonical disabled upgrades from Ubuntu 18.04 LTS to Ubuntu 18.10 for 32-bit systems to avoid leaving users on a short-lived release, and now, they announced that starting with the upcoming Ubuntu 19.10 (Eoan Ermine) release, support for 32-bit system will no longer be provided.

"The Ubuntu engineering team has reviewed the facts before us and conclu... (read more)

Microsoft Edge for Linux: A Browser the Software Giant “Would Like to Do”

Friday 14th of June 2019 07:36:00 AM
Microsoft announced in late 2018 that it’d switch Edge browser to the Chromium engine, the same one that’s being used by Google Chrome.

This decision technically allows Microsoft to convert Microsoft Edge from a Windows 10-exclusive browser to a cross-platform application.

The company has already confirmed Microsoft Edge would be released beyond Windows 10, and existing preview builds also allow the browser to be installed on macOS.

The migration to Chromium would technically allow the company to bring Edge to Linux as well, and given its efforts to get more involved in the open-source world, such a release wouldn’t be surprising at all.

Linux version possible in the long term

And after Microsoft suggested that it’s indeed considering a Linux version of Edge back in May at the Build developer conference, the Edge tea... (read more)

Atari VCS Linux-Powered Gaming Console Is Now Available For Pre-Order for $249

Wednesday 12th of June 2019 06:05:00 PM
After last year's successful Indiegogo crowdfunding campaign, Atari announced that its long-anticipated Atari VCS retro gaming console is now finally available for online pre-orders at various online retail and Atari's official web store.

Atari issued a press release on Tuesday to announce that after many trials and tribulations it finally has a release date for the official launch of its Atari VCS retro gaming console, along with a release date for those who backed the project during its early days, as well as information about the first key retail partnerships that will have the console ready for pre-order starting today.

"Atari made a commitment to its fans to make the new VCS the best and most versatile game and home entertainm... (read more)

Debian GNU/Linux 10 "Buster" Operating System to Be Released on July 6th, 2019

Wednesday 12th of June 2019 04:10:00 PM
The Debian Project announced the proposed release date of their long-anticipated Debian GNU/Linux 10 "Buster" operating system, a major release that brings many new features and enhancements.

Work on the Debian GNU/Linux 10 "Buster" operating system series started two years ago, since early July 2017, a couple of weeks after the release of the Debian GNU/Linux 9 "Stretch" series, which is currently the latest stable version and with nine point releases already out the door.

Now, two years later, we finally have an official release date for Debian GNU/Linux 10 "Buster," which appears to hit the streets as soon as next month. Debian Project's Niels Thykier wrote in a recent mailing list announcement that they plan to release Debian GNU/Linux 10 "Buster" on July 6th, 2019.

"We plan to release on 2019-07-06," said Niels Thykier on behalf of the Debian release team. "In the last week pri... (read more)

KDE Plasma 5.16 Desktop Is Now Available for Kubuntu and Ubuntu 19.04 Users

Tuesday 11th of June 2019 03:00:00 PM
The Kubuntu development team announced today that the recently released KDE Plasma 5.16 desktop environment is now available for installation on Kubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo) systems.

KDE Plasma 5.16 launched earlier today as the latest and most advanced version of the acclaimed graphical desktop environment for Linux-based operating systems, adding several new features and enhancements like a totally revamped notifications system, improved System Settings pages, and revamped login, logout, and lock screens.

The KDE Plasma 5.16 release also brings better support for Wayland when using the Nvidia proprietary graphics drivers, improved networking, a much easier to use Plasma Discover graphical software manager, and a much-improved overall desktop experience with lots of polishing for themes, color schemes, widgets, and th... (read more)

KDE Plasma 5.16 Desktop Environment Officially Released, Here's What's New

Tuesday 11th of June 2019 12:25:00 PM
The KDE Project released today the KDE Plasma 5.16 desktop environment, a major release that adds a plethora of new features and enhancements, along with many improvements to make your Plasma experience more enjoyable and reliable.

The KDE Plasma 5.16 has been in development for the past few months and it's now the latest version of the acclaimed graphical desktop environment for Linux-based operating systems. It's a major release that introduces several new features, more polishing, and dozens of improvements.

"For this release, KDE developers have worked hard to polish Plasma to a high gloss. The results of their efforts provide a more consistent experience and bring new features to all Plasma users," reads today's announcement. "We hope you enjoy using Plasma 5.16 as much as we did making it."

Here's what's new in KDE Plasma 5.16

Highlights of the KDE Plasma 5.16 desktop environment... (read more)

First Arch Linux ISO Snapshot Powered by Linux Kernel 5.1 Is Now Available

Tuesday 11th of June 2019 11:06:00 AM
June 2019's Arch Linux snapshot has been released, and it's the first to ditch the Linux 5.0 kernel series and adopt the latest Linux kernel 5.1 branch.

Now that Linux kernel 5.0 reached end of life, which means that it will no long receive maintenance updates, the Arch Linux 2019.06.01 is here as the first ISO snapshot of the acclaimed Linux-based operating system to ship with a kernel from the latest Linux 5.1 series, namely Linux kernel 5.1.5.

Linux kernel 5.1 was released last month and comes with great additions, including more preparations for the year 2038, more scalable and faster asynchronous I/O, support for configuring Zstd compression levels in the Btrfs file system, better file system monitorization, and a new cpuidle governor called TEO.

It also adds support for booting to a device-mapper device w... (read more)

IPFire Open-Source Linux Firewall Now Patched Against Intel MDS Vulnerabilities

Monday 10th of June 2019 12:55:00 PM
The IPFire open-source, hardened, and versatile Linux firewall has been updated to version IPFire 2.23 Core Update 132, a maintenance release that patches the latest Intel vulnerabilities and updates core components.

IPFire 2.23 Core Update 132 is more like an emergency release that ships with an updated Linux kernel, version 4.14.120, which is patched against the recently disclosed Intel MDS (Microarchitectural Data Sampling) security vulnerabilities known as RIDL, Fallout, and ZombieLoad, as well as an updated intel-microcode firmware, version 20190514.

"Additionally, to mitigate this bug which cannot be fixed at all, SMT is disabled by default on all affected processors which has significant performance impacts," said Michael Tremer in the read more)

Zorin OS 15 Linux Distro Officially Released, Based on Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS

Wednesday 5th of June 2019 07:11:00 PM
The Zorin OS 15 Linux distro has been officially released today after being in development for the past several months, based on the latest Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS operating system.

Derived from the software repositories of Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS (Bionic Beaver) with the HWE (Hardware Enablement) kernel and graphics stack from Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish), Zorin OS 15 is now available to celebrate almost 10 years since the first Zorin OS release hit the streets.

"Creating a Linux desktop operating system that’s designed for everyone – not only the engineers & power users – has always been the mission of Zorin OS, ever since the first release nearly 10 years ago. Zorin OS 15 takes this decade-long effort and amplifies it to the next level," reads today's announcement.

Here's what's new in Zorin OS 15

Highlights of Zorin OS 15 include Zorin Connect, a ... (read more)

Canonical Outs Linux Kernel Security Updates for All Supported Ubuntu Releases

Wednesday 5th of June 2019 02:43:00 PM
Canonical has released new Linux kernel security updates for all supported Ubuntu Linux releases to address various security vulnarabilities.

Available for Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo), Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish), Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver), and Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus), the new security patches are here to fix several issues affecting the Linux kernels of these releases, especially a security vulnerability (CVE-2019-11191) that only affects the i386 (32-bit) kernels of Ubuntu 18.10, Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, as Ubuntu 19.10 and Ubuntu 19.04 are not affected.

"Federico Manuel Bento discovered that the Linux kernel did not properly apply Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) in some situations for setuid a.out binaries. A local attacker could use this to improve the chances of exploiting an existing vulnerability in a setuid a.out binary. As a hardening ... (read more)

System76 Unveils Refreshed Gazelle Linux Laptop with Nvidia GTX 16-Series GPUs

Tuesday 4th of June 2019 09:25:00 PM
System76, the premium Linux computer manufacturer, announced the availability of the refreshed Gazelle laptop line-up featuring the latest Nvidia GeForce GTX 16-series graphics and updated internals.

Powered by 9th Gen Intel Core i7 processors, up to 64GB of RAM, and up to 8TB storage, the Gazelle laptop has been turned into a workhorse machine as System76 now targets media creation, as well as general consumption. Coming in 15-inch and 17-inch variants, the Gazelle laptop now ships with either the Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 or Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Ti graphics cards.

"The Gazelle’s trifecta of CPU, GPU, and Memory gives content creators, gamers, animators, and designers a machine that can keep up with their graphics-heavy workloads," said System76. "Nvidia graphics are back on the Gazelle after a long hiatus, and we couldn’t be more excited. Just like on the Oryx Pro, users can now switch between Intel and NVIDIA graphics using a toggle in Pop!_OS."

Techni... (read more)

LibreOffice 6.3 Enters Beta Testing, Drops Support for 32-Bit Linux Distros

Tuesday 4th of June 2019 03:28:00 PM
The Document Foundation announced the availability for public testing of the beta release of the upcoming LibreOffice 6.3 open-source office suite for all supported platforms.

The third major instalment in the LibreOffice 6 series, LibreOffice 6.3 is coming this summer with another layer of performance improvements, as well as cool new features and enhancements. Development on LibreOffice 6.3 kicked off last November, and the first beta version is now ready for public testing for Linux, macOS, and Windows.

"LibreOffice 6.3 will be released as final in mid-August... (read more)

Linux Kernel 5.0 Reaches End of Life, Users Urged to Upgrade to Linux Kernel 5.1

Tuesday 4th of June 2019 01:10:00 PM
Linux kernel developer Greg Kroah-Hartman announced today that the Linux 5.0 kernel series reached end of life, urging users to upgrade to the most recent stable series.

Released two months ago, on March 4th, 2019, by Linus Torvalds, the Linux 5.0 kernel series was long anticipated by the Linux community, but it was only the version number that was a major thing, as Linux kernel 5.0 didn't brought any major changes, nor it was a long-term support release.

Linux kernel 5.0.21 was released today as the last maintenance update for the Linux 5.0 kernel series, which means that no further updates or security patches will be provided for it. Therefore, users are urged to upgrade to the latest Linux 5.1 kernel series as soon as possible.

"I'm announcing the release of the 5.0.21 kernel. All users of the 5.0 kernel series must upgrade," said G... (read more)

openSUSE Leap 42.3 Linux OS to Reach End of Life on June 30th, 2019

Friday 31st of May 2019 09:36:00 PM
The openSUSE Project announced that the openSUSE Leap 42.3 operating system will reach end of life next month on June 30th, 2019, urging users to prepare to upgrade to openSUSE Leap 15.1.

Launched on July 26, 2017, openSUSE Leap 42.3 was based on the SUSE Linux Enterprise (SLE) 12 Service Pack (SP) 3 operating system and it was powered by the long-term supported Linux 4.4 kernel series.

openSUSE Leap 42.3 was initially supposed to be supported until January 2019, but the openSUSE Project decided to give users six more months to upgrade to the latest openSUSE Leap 15 operating system series.

Now that openSUSE Leap 15.1 is here as the latest and greatest openSUSE Leap release, it's time for openSUSE Leap 42.3 users to upgrade their inst... (read more)

GParted Live Linux Distribution Updated with the Latest GParted 1.0 Release

Friday 31st of May 2019 05:04:00 PM
GParted developer Curtis Gedak announced the release and general availability of the Debian-based GParted Live 1.0.0 GNU/Linux distribution following the release of the GParted 1.0.0 open-source partition editor.

After more than 14 years, the popular and open-source GParted partition editor reached 1.0 milestone this week, a release that finally ports the software to the latest GTK3 (Gtkmm 3) toolkit and the GNOME 3 yelp-tools documentation infrastructure.

In addition, GParted 1.0 comes with support for reading disk usage, grow and check on F2FS filesystems, support for enabling online resizing of extended partitions, better refreshing of NTFS filesystems, and lots of other bugs fixes and improvements.

GParted Live 1.0.0 is now available for download<... (read more)

antiX MX Linux 18.3 Released with Latest Debian GNU/Linux 9.9 "Stretch" Updates

Friday 31st of May 2019 04:09:00 PM
A new version of the antiX-derived MX Linux distribution has been released with all the latest updates from the Debian GNU/Linux 9.9 "Stretch" operating system.

MX Linux 18.3 is now available and ships with Linux kernel 4.19.37-2 and it's fully synced with the software repositories of the latest Debian GNU/Linux 9.9 "Stretch" operating system release, which means that it is fully patched against the recently disclosed Intel MDS (Microarchitectural Data Sampling) security vulnerabilities found in Intel microprocessors.

This release also includes an updated installer (mx-installer) that now lets users input system configuration selections during installation while the... (read more)

Dell Launches Three New Dell Precision Laptops Powered by Ubuntu Linux

Thursday 30th of May 2019 02:04:00 PM
Dell announced today three new Dell Precision mobile workstation Developer Edition models shipping with the Ubuntu Linux operating system.

Meet the Dell Precision 5540, Dell Precision 7540, and Dell Precision 7740, the latest Ubuntu-based Dell Precision laptops promising a powerful computing boost over previous models, namely Dell Precision 3530, 5530, 7530, and 7730, which were introduced at the end of 2018.

"Today we are announcing the Precision 5540, Precision 7540 and Precision 7740.  If mobile power is what you’re looking for, you’ve come to the right place.  And if AI is your need, the Precision 7540 and 7740 might just be what you’ve been looking for," said Dell's Barton George in his latest blog post.

Technical specs of Dell Precision 5540, 7540, and 7740

The Dell Precision 5540 is the cheapest of the... (read more)

Krita 4.2 Open-Source Digital Painting App Released, Here's What's New

Wednesday 29th of May 2019 08:32:00 PM
The Krita Foundation has officially released today the Krita 4.2 open-source digital painting app for all supported platforms, including GNU/Linux, macOS, and Windows, a major release that adds numerous new features and improvements.

Krita 4.2 is the second major update of the open-source and cross-platform digital painting application since the release of the massive Krita 4.0 series back in 2018. It introduces numerous new features and enhancements, among which we can mention an improved color palette docker, color gamut masking, improved selection handling, support for HDR monitors on Windows, and much-improved support for drawing tablets.

"We finally managed to bring together the code we wrote for supporting tablets on Windows (both Wintab as Windows Ink), Linux and macOS with the existing code in our development platform, Qt," said the developers in the read more)

GParted Open-Source Partition Editor Reaches 1.0 Milestone After Almost 15 Years

Wednesday 29th of May 2019 05:32:00 PM
GParted (GNOME Partition Editor), the popular open-source and free partition editor software used by numerous GNU/Linux distributions, has reached the 1.0 milestone after being in development for nearly 15 years.

Developed in GTK (GNOME Toolkit) for more than 14 years, GParted is a graphical front-end to the GNU Parted open-source partition editing utility and the official partition editor app for the GNOME desktop environment. These days, almost all Linux-based operating system ship with GParted preinstalled.

Today, after nearly 15 years in development, GParted 1.0.0 was released as a major version featuring support for the F2FS file system to read disk usage, grow, and check, the ability to enable online resizing of extended partitions, better refreshing of NTFS file systems, and port to Gtkmm 3 (GTK+3) and GNOME 3 yelp-tools.

"With this major change we bump up the major version number. This 1.0.0 release is not meant to indicate that GParted is more stable or l... (read more)

More in Tux Machines

Programming: GCC, Rust and Git

  • Oracle Continues Working On eBPF Support For GCC 10

    Back in May we wrote about Oracle's initial plans for introducing an eBPF back-end to GCC 10 to allow this GNU compiler to target this general purpose in-kernel virtual machine. Up to this point LLVM Clang has been the focused compiler for eBPF but those days are numbered with Oracle on Friday pushing out the newest GCC patches. Oracle working on eBPF support for GCC is part of the company's efforts on improving DTrace on Linux. Friday's "V2" patches of GCC eBPF support have some bug fixes as well as being re-based to the latest GCC 10 development code.

  • RUST – most loved programming language ever – C++ with safety – new programming language from Mozilla for Mozilla and Safety
  • Git 2.23 Brings New Switch & Restore Sub-Commands

    Most notable for Git 2.23 are the new git switch and git restore sub-commands as experimental alternatives to git checkout. The new switch/restore sub-commands aim to separate the responsibilities of checking out into the changing of branches and the operations that change files.

  • Git v2.23.0
    The latest feature release Git v2.23.0 is now available at the
    usual places.  It is comprised of 505 non-merge commits since
    v2.22.0, contributed by 77 people, 26 of which are new faces.
    The tarballs are found at:
    The following public repositories all have a copy of the 'v2.23.0'
    tag and the 'master' branch that the tag points at:
      url =
      url = git://
      url =
    New contributors whose contributions weren't in v2.22.0 are as follows.
    Welcome to the Git development community!
      Ariadne Conill, Barret Rhoden, Ben Avison, Carmine Zaccagnino,
      Daniel Ferreira, Doug Ilijev, Dr. Adam Nielsen, Jakub Wilk,
      John Lin, Mark Rushakoff, Matheus Tavares, Mazo, Andrey,
      Michael Osipov, Michael Platings, Miguel Ojeda, Mike Mueller,
      Morian Sonnet, Philipp Weißmann, Quentin Nerden, Robert Morgan,
      Simon Williams, Steven Roberts, Tigran Mkrtchyan, Varun Naik,
      Vishal Verma, and Xin Li.
    Returning contributors who helped this release are as follows.
    Thanks for your continued support.
      Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Alessandro Menti, Alexander
      Shopov, Beat Bolli, Boxuan Li, brian m. carlson, Carlo Marcelo
      Arenas Belón, Cesar Eduardo Barros, Chris Mayo, Christian
      Couder, Christopher Díaz Riveros, Denton Liu, Derrick Stolee,
      Dimitriy Ryazantcev, Edmundo Carmona Antoranz, Elijah Newren,
      Emily Shaffer, Eric Wong, Felipe Contreras, Jean-Noël Avila,
      Jeff Hostetler, Jeff King, Jiang Xin, Johannes Schindelin,
      Johannes Sixt, Jonathan Nieder, Jonathan Tan, Jordi Mas, Josh
      Steadmon, Junio C Hamano, Karsten Blees, Marc-André Lureau,
      Martin Ågren, Matthew DeVore, Matthias Rüster, Mike Hommey,
      Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy, Nickolai Belakovski, Paolo Bonzini,
      Peter Krefting, Philip Oakley, Phillip Wood, Ramsay Jones, René
      Scharfe, Rohit Ashiwal, Stephen Boyd, SZEDER Gábor, Taylor Blau,
      Thomas Gummerer, Trần Ngọc Quân, and William Chargin.
    Git 2.23 Release Notes
    Updates since v2.22
    Backward compatibility note
     * The "--base" option of "format-patch" computed the patch-ids for
       prerequisite patches in an unstable way, which has been updated to
       compute in a way that is compatible with "git patch-id --stable".
     * The "git log" command by default behaves as if the --mailmap option
       was given.
    UI, Workflows & Features
     * The "git fast-export/import" pair has been taught to handle commits
       with log messages in encoding other than UTF-8 better.
     * In recent versions of Git, per-worktree refs are exposed in
       refs/worktrees// hierarchy, which means that worktree names
       must be a valid refname component.  The code now sanitizes the names
       given to worktrees, to make sure these refs are well-formed.
     * "git merge" learned "--quit" option that cleans up the in-progress
       merge while leaving the working tree and the index still in a mess.
     * "git format-patch" learns a configuration to set the default for
       its --notes= option.
     * The code to show args with potential typo that cannot be
       interpreted as a commit-ish has been improved.
     * "git clone --recurse-submodules" learned to set up the submodules
       to ignore commit object names recorded in the superproject gitlink
       and instead use the commits that happen to be at the tip of the
       remote-tracking branches from the get-go, by passing the new
       "--remote-submodules" option.
     * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
       boundary for Matlab has been extend to cover Octave, which is more
       or less equivalent.
     * "git help git" was hard to discover (well, at least for some
     * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
       boundary for Rust has been added.
     * "git status" can be told a non-standard default value for the
       "--[no-]ahead-behind" option with a new configuration variable
     * "git fetch" and "git pull" reports when a fetch results in
       non-fast-forward updates to let the user notice unusual situation.
       The commands learned "--no-show-forced-updates" option to disable
       this safety feature.
     * Two new commands "git switch" and "git restore" are introduced to
       split "checking out a branch to work on advancing its history" and
       "checking out paths out of the index and/or a tree-ish to work on
       advancing the current history" out of the single "git checkout"
     * "git branch --list" learned to always output the detached HEAD as
       the first item (when the HEAD is detached, of course), regardless
       of the locale.
     * The conditional inclusion mechanism learned to base the choice on
       the branch the HEAD currently is on.
     * "git rev-list --objects" learned the "--no-object-names" option to
       squelch the path to the object that is used as a grouping hint for
     * A new tag.gpgSign configuration variable turns "git tag -a" into
       "git tag -s".
     * "git multi-pack-index" learned expire and repack subcommands.
     * "git blame" learned to "ignore" commits in the history, whose
       effects (as well as their presence) get ignored.
     * "git cherry-pick/revert" learned a new "--skip" action.
     * The tips of refs from the alternate object store can be used as
       starting point for reachability computation now.
     * Extra blank lines in "git status" output have been reduced.
     * The commits in a repository can be described by multiple
       commit-graph files now, which allows the commit-graph files to be
       updated incrementally.
     * "git range-diff" output has been tweaked for easier identification
       of which part of what file the patch shown is about.
    Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
     * Update supporting parts of "git rebase" to remove code that should
       no longer be used.
     * Developer support to emulate unsatisfied prerequisites in tests to
       ensure that the remainder of the tests still succeeds when tests
       with prerequisites are skipped.
     * "git update-server-info" learned not to rewrite the file with the
       same contents.
     * The way of specifying the path to find dynamic libraries at runtime
       has been simplified.  The old default to pass -R/path/to/dir has been
       replaced with the new default to pass -Wl,-rpath,/path/to/dir,
       which is the more recent GCC uses.  Those who need to build with an
       old GCC can still use "CC_LD_DYNPATH=-R"
     * Prepare use of reachability index in topological walker that works
       on a range (A..B).
     * A new tutorial targeting specifically aspiring git-core
       developers has been added.
     * Auto-detect how to tell HP-UX aCC where to use dynamically linked
       libraries from at runtime.
     * "git mergetool" and its tests now spawn fewer subprocesses.
     * Dev support update to help tracing out tests.
     * Support to build with MSVC has been updated.
     * "git fetch" that grabs from a group of remotes learned to run the
       auto-gc only once at the very end.
     * A handful of Windows build patches have been upstreamed.
     * The code to read state files used by the sequencer machinery for
       "git status" has been made more robust against a corrupt or stale
       state files.
     * "git for-each-ref" with multiple patterns have been optimized.
     * The tree-walk API learned to pass an in-core repository
       instance throughout more codepaths.
     * When one step in multi step cherry-pick or revert is reset or
       committed, the command line prompt script failed to notice the
       current status, which has been improved.
     * Many GIT_TEST_* environment variables control various aspects of
       how our tests are run, but a few followed "non-empty is true, empty
       or unset is false" while others followed the usual "there are a few
       ways to spell true, like yes, on, etc., and also ways to spell
       false, like no, off, etc." convention.
     * Adjust the dir-iterator API and apply it to the local clone
       optimization codepath.
     * We have been trying out a few language features outside c89; the
       coding guidelines document did not talk about them and instead had
       a blanket ban against them.
     * A test helper has been introduced to optimize preparation of test
       repositories with many simple commits, and a handful of test
       scripts have been updated to use it.
    Fixes since v2.22
     * A relative pathname given to "git init --template= "
       ought to be relative to the directory "git init" gets invoked in,
       but it instead was made relative to the repository, which has been
     * "git worktree add" used to fail when another worktree connected to
       the same repository was corrupt, which has been corrected.
     * The ownership rule for the file descriptor to fast-import remote
       backend was mixed up, leading to an unrelated file descriptor getting
       closed, which has been fixed.
     * A "merge -c" instruction during "git rebase --rebase-merges" should
       give the user a chance to edit the log message, even when there is
       otherwise no need to create a new merge and replace the existing
       one (i.e. fast-forward instead), but did not.  Which has been
     * Code cleanup and futureproof.
     * More parameter validation.
     * "git update-server-info" used to leave stale packfiles in its
       output, which has been corrected.
     * The server side support for "git fetch" used to show incorrect
       value for the HEAD symbolic ref when the namespace feature is in
       use, which has been corrected.
     * "git am -i --resolved" segfaulted after trying to see a commit as
       if it were a tree, which has been corrected.
     * "git bundle verify" needs to see if prerequisite objects exist in
       the receiving repository, but the command did not check if we are
       in a repository upfront, which has been corrected.
     * "git merge --squash" is designed to update the working tree and the
       index without creating the commit, and this cannot be countermanded
       by adding the "--commit" option; the command now refuses to work
       when both options are given.
     * The data collected by fsmonitor was not properly written back to
       the on-disk index file, breaking t7519 tests occasionally, which
       has been corrected.
     * Update to Unicode 12.1 width table.
     * The command line to invoke a "git cat-file" command from inside
       "git p4" was not properly quoted to protect a caret and running a
       broken command on Windows, which has been corrected.
     * "git request-pull" learned to warn when the ref we ask them to pull
       from in the local repository and in the published repository are
     * When creating a partial clone, the object filtering criteria is
       recorded for the origin of the clone, but this incorrectly used a
       hardcoded name "origin" to name that remote; it has been corrected
       to honor the "--origin " option.
     * "git fetch" into a lazy clone forgot to fetch base objects that are
       necessary to complete delta in a thin packfile, which has been
     * The filter_data used in the list-objects-filter (which manages a
       lazily sparse clone repository) did not use the dynamic array API
       correctly---'nr' is supposed to point at one past the last element
       of the array in use.  This has been corrected.
     * The description about slashes in gitignore patterns (used to
       indicate things like "anchored to this level only" and "only
       matches directories") has been revamped.
     * The URL decoding code has been updated to avoid going past the end
       of the string while parsing %-- sequence.
     * The list of for-each like macros used by clang-format has been
     * "git branch --list" learned to show branches that are checked out
       in other worktrees connected to the same repository prefixed with
       '+', similar to the way the currently checked out branch is shown
       with '*' in front.
       (merge 6e9381469e nb/branch-show-other-worktrees-head later to maint).
     * Code restructuring during 2.20 period broke fetching tags via
       "import" based transports.
     * The commit-graph file is now part of the "files that the runtime
       may keep open file descriptors on, all of which would need to be
       closed when done with the object store", and the file descriptor to
       an existing commit-graph file now is closed before "gc" finalizes a
       new instance to replace it.
     * "git checkout -p" needs to selectively apply a patch in reverse,
       which did not work well.
     * Code clean-up to avoid signed integer wraparounds during binary search.
     * "git interpret-trailers" always treated '#' as the comment
       character, regardless of core.commentChar setting, which has been
     * "git stash show 23" used to work, but no more after getting
       rewritten in C; this regression has been corrected.
     * "git rebase --abort" used to leave refs/rewritten/ when concluding
       "git rebase -r", which has been corrected.
     * An incorrect list of options was cached after command line
       completion failed (e.g. trying to complete a command that requires
       a repository outside one), which has been corrected.
     * The code to parse scaled numbers out of configuration files has
       been made more robust and also easier to follow.
     * The codepath to compute delta islands used to spew progress output
       without giving the callers any way to squelch it, which has been
     * Protocol capabilities that go over wire should never be translated,
       but it was incorrectly marked for translation, which has been
       corrected.  The output of protocol capabilities for debugging has
       been tweaked a bit.
     * Use "Erase in Line" CSI sequence that is already used in the editor
       support to clear cruft in the progress output.
     * "git submodule foreach" did not protect command line options passed
       to the command to be run in each submodule correctly, when the
       "--recursive" option was in use.
     * The configuration variable rebase.rescheduleFailedExec should be
       effective only while running an interactive rebase and should not
       affect anything when running a non-interactive one, which was not
       the case.  This has been corrected.
     * The "git clone" documentation refers to command line options in its
       description in the short form; they have been replaced with long
       forms to make them more recognisable.
     * Generation of pack bitmaps are now disabled when .keep files exist,
       as these are mutually exclusive features.
       (merge 7328482253 ew/repack-with-bitmaps-by-default later to maint).
     * "git rm" to resolve a conflicted path leaked an internal message
       "needs merge" before actually removing the path, which was
       confusing.  This has been corrected.
     * "git stash --keep-index" did not work correctly on paths that have
       been removed, which has been fixed.
       (merge b932f6a5e8 tg/stash-keep-index-with-removed-paths later to maint).
     * Window 7 update ;-)
     * A codepath that reads from GPG for signed object verification read
       past the end of allocated buffer, which has been fixed.
     * "git clean" silently skipped a path when it cannot lstat() it; now
       it gives a warning.
     * "git push --atomic" that goes over the transport-helper (namely,
       the smart http transport) failed to prevent refs to be pushed when
       it can locally tell that one of the ref update will fail without
       having to consult the other end, which has been corrected.
     * The internal diff machinery can be made to read out of bounds while
       looking for --function-context line in a corner case, which has been
       (merge b777f3fd61 jk/xdiff-clamp-funcname-context-index later to maint).
     * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
       (merge fbec05c210 cc/test-oidmap later to maint).
       (merge 7a06fb038c jk/no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
       (merge 81ed2b405c cb/xdiff-no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
       (merge d61e6ce1dd sg/fsck-config-in-doc later to maint).
    Changes since v2.22.0 are as follows:
    Alessandro Menti (3):
          l10n: it.po: update the Italian translation
          l10n: it.po: update the Italian translation for v2.23.0
          l10n: it.po: update the Italian localization for v2.23.0 round 2
    Alexander Shopov (1):
          l10n: bg.po: Updated Bulgarian translation (4674t)
    Ariadne Conill (3):
          log: add warning for unspecified log.mailmap setting
          documentation: mention --no-use-mailmap and log.mailmap false setting
          tests: defang pager tests by explicitly disabling the log.mailmap warning
    Barret Rhoden (8):
          fsck: rename and touch up init_skiplist()
          Move oidset_parse_file() to oidset.c
          blame: use a helper function in blame_chunk()
          blame: add the ability to ignore commits and their changes
          blame: add config options for the output of ignored or unblamable lines
          blame: optionally track line fingerprints during fill_blame_origin()
          blame: use the fingerprint heuristic to match ignored lines
          blame: add a test to cover blame_coalesce()
    Beat Bolli (2):
          unicode: update the width tables to Unicode 12.1
          grep: print the pcre2_jit_on value
    Ben Avison (1):
          clone: add `--remote-submodules` flag
    Boxuan Li (2):
          userdiff: add Octave
          userdiff: fix grammar and style issues
    Carlo Marcelo Arenas Belón (6):
          fsmonitor: avoid signed integer overflow / infinite loop
          wrapper: avoid undefined behaviour in macOS
          trace2: correct typo in technical documentation
          xdiff: drop system includes in xutils.c
          xdiff: remove duplicate headers from xhistogram.c
          xdiff: remove duplicate headers from xpatience.c
    Carmine Zaccagnino (1):
          l10n: it.po: remove an extra space
    Cesar Eduardo Barros (1):
          mingw: embed a manifest to trick UAC into Doing The Right Thing
    Chris Mayo (1):
          send-email: update documentation of required Perl modules
    Christian Couder (7):
          t/helper: add test-oidmap.c
          t: add
          oidmap: use sha1hash() instead of static hash() function
          test-hashmap: remove 'hash' command
          doc: improve usage string in MyFirstContribution
          test-oidmap: remove 'add' subcommand
          t0016: add 'remove' subcommand test
    Christopher Díaz Riveros (1):
          l10n: es: 2.23.0 round 2
    Daniel Ferreira (1):
          dir-iterator: add tests for dir-iterator API
    Denton Liu (5):
          git-format-patch.txt: document --no-notes option
          format-patch: teach format.notes config option
          config: learn the "onbranch:" includeIf condition
          config/alias.txt: change " and ' to `
          config/alias.txt: document alias accepting non-command first word
    Derrick Stolee (51):
          commit-graph: fix the_repository reference
          revision: use generation for A..B --topo-order queries
          revision: keep topo-walk free of unintersting commits
          sha1-file: split OBJECT_INFO_FOR_PREFETCH
          repack: refactor pack deletion for future use
          Docs: rearrange subcommands for multi-pack-index
          multi-pack-index: prepare for 'expire' subcommand
          midx: simplify computation of pack name lengths
          midx: refactor permutation logic and pack sorting
          multi-pack-index: implement 'expire' subcommand
          multi-pack-index: prepare 'repack' subcommand
          midx: implement midx_repack()
          multi-pack-index: test expire while adding packs
          midx: add test that 'expire' respects .keep files
 test batch size zero
          commit-graph: return with errors during write
          commit-graph: collapse parameters into flags
          commit-graph: remove Future Work section
          commit-graph: create write_commit_graph_context
          commit-graph: extract fill_oids_from_packs()
          commit-graph: extract fill_oids_from_commit_hex()
          commit-graph: extract fill_oids_from_all_packs()
          commit-graph: extract count_distinct_commits()
          commit-graph: extract copy_oids_to_commits()
          commit-graph: extract write_commit_graph_file()
          commit-graph: use raw_object_store when closing
          packfile: close commit-graph in close_all_packs
          packfile: rename close_all_packs to close_object_store
          commit-graph: document commit-graph chains
          commit-graph: prepare for commit-graph chains
          commit-graph: rename commit_compare to oid_compare
          commit-graph: load commit-graph chains
          commit-graph: add base graphs chunk
          commit-graph: rearrange chunk count logic
          commit-graph: write commit-graph chains
          commit-graph: add --split option to builtin
          commit-graph: merge commit-graph chains
          commit-graph: allow cross-alternate chains
          commit-graph: expire commit-graph files
          commit-graph: create options for split files
          commit-graph: verify chains with --shallow mode
          commit-graph: clean up chains after flattened write
          commit-graph: test octopus merges with --split
          commit-graph: test --split across alternate without --split
          commit-graph: normalize commit-graph filenames
          commit-graph: test verify across alternates
          fetch: add --[no-]show-forced-updates argument
          fetch: warn about forced updates in branch listing
          pull: add --[no-]show-forced-updates passthrough
          t5319: use 'test-tool path-utils' instead of 'ls -l'
          commit-graph: fix bug around octopus merges
    Dimitriy Ryazantcev (2):
          l10n: ru.po: update Russian translation
          l10n: localizable upload progress messages
    Doug Ilijev (1):
          README: fix rendering of text in angle brackets
    Dr. Adam Nielsen (1):
          gitignore.txt: make slash-rules more readable
    Edmundo Carmona Antoranz (1):
          builtin/merge.c - cleanup of code in for-cycle that tests strategies
    Elijah Newren (6):
          t9350: fix encoding test to actually test reencoding
          fast-import: support 'encoding' commit header
          fast-export: avoid stripping encoding header if we cannot reencode
          fast-export: differentiate between explicitly UTF-8 and implicitly UTF-8
          fast-export: do automatic reencoding of commit messages only if requested
          merge-recursive: avoid directory rename detection in recursive case
    Emily Shaffer (7):
          documentation: add tutorial for first contribution
          documentation: add anchors to MyFirstContribution
          grep: fail if call could output and name is null
          doc: hint about GIT_DEBUGGER in CodingGuidelines
          doc: add some nit fixes to MyFirstContribution
          rev-list: teach --no-object-names to enable piping
          transport-helper: enforce atomic in push_refs_with_push
    Eric Wong (3):
          update-server-info: avoid needless overwrites
          server-info: do not list unlinked packs
          repack: disable bitmaps-by-default if .keep files exist
    Felipe Contreras (5):
          t5801 (remote-helpers): cleanup refspec stuff
          t5801 (remote-helpers): add test to fetch tags
          fetch: trivial cleanup
          fetch: make the code more understandable
          fetch: fix regression with transport helpers
    Jakub Wilk (1):
          doc: don't use as example gitweb URL
    Jean-Noël Avila (2):
          l10n: reformat some localized strings for v2.23.0
          l10n: fr v2.23.0 round 2
    Jeff Hostetler (13):
          cache-tree/blame: avoid reusing the DEBUG constant
          msvc: mark a variable as non-const
          msvc: do not re-declare the timespec struct
          msvc: define ftello()
          msvc: fix detect_msys_tty()
          msvc: update Makefile to allow for spaces in the compiler path
          status: add status.aheadbehind setting
          status: warn when a/b calculation takes too long
          status: ignore status.aheadbehind in porcelain formats
          msvc: support building Git using MS Visual C++
          msvc: add a compile-time flag to allow detailed heap debugging
          msvc: do not pretend to support all signals
          msvc: ignore .dll and incremental compile output
    Jeff King (57):
          cmd_{read,write}_tree: rename "unused" variable that is used
          builtin: consistently pass cmd_* prefix to parse_options
          submodule: drop unused prefix parameter from some functions
          clone: drop dest parameter from copy_alternates()
          read-cache: drop unused parameter from threaded load
          wt-status: drop unused status parameter
          mktree: drop unused length parameter
          name-rev: drop unused parameters from is_better_name()
          pack-objects: drop unused rev_info parameters
          receive-pack: drop unused "commands" from prepare_shallow_update()
          remove_all_fetch_refspecs(): drop unused "remote" parameter
          rev-list: drop unused void pointer from finish_commit()
          show-branch: drop unused parameter from show_independent()
          verify-commit: simplify parameters to run_gpg_verify()
          help_unknown_ref(): duplicate collected refnames
          help_unknown_ref(): check for refname ambiguity
          upload-pack: strip namespace from symref data
          am: simplify prompt response handling
          am: read interactive input from stdin
          am: drop tty requirement for --interactive
          am: fix --interactive HEAD tree resolution
          interpret-trailers: load default config
          verify-tag: drop signal.h include
          wt-status.h: drop stdio.h include
          describe: fix accidental oid/hash type-punning
          upload-pack: rename a "sha1" variable to "oid"
          pack-bitmap-write: convert some helpers to use object_id
          pack-objects: convert packlist_find() to use object_id
          pack-objects: convert locate_object_entry_hash() to object_id
          object: convert lookup_unknown_object() to use object_id
          object: convert lookup_object() to use object_id
          object: convert internal hash_obj() to object_id
          object: convert create_object() to use object_id
          khash: drop broken oid_map typedef
          khash: rename kh_oid_t to kh_oid_set
          delta-islands: convert island_marks khash to use oids
          pack-bitmap: convert khash_sha1 maps into kh_oid_map
          khash: drop sha1-specific map types
          khash: rename oid helper functions
          hash.h: move object_id definition from cache.h
          hashmap: convert sha1hash() to oidhash()
          delta-islands: respect progress flag
          blame: drop some unused function parameters
          object-store.h: move for_each_alternate_ref() from transport.h
          check_everything_connected: assume alternate ref tips are valid
          test-lib: introduce test_commit_bulk
          t5310: increase the number of bitmapped commits
          t3311: use test_commit_bulk
          t5702: use test_commit_bulk
          t5703: use test_commit_bulk
          t6200: use test_commit_bulk
          xdiff: clamp function context indices in post-image
          t: sort output of hashmap iteration
          t7700: clean up .keep file in bitmap-writing test
          repack: silence warnings when auto-enabled bitmaps cannot be built
          repack: simplify handling of auto-bitmaps and .keep files
          t0000: reword comments for "local" test
    Jiang Xin (3):
          l10n: git.pot: v2.23.0 round 1 (130 new, 35 removed)
          l10n: git.pot: v2.23.0 round 2 (4 new, 6 removed)
          l10n: zh_CN: for git v2.23.0 l10n round 1~2
    Johannes Schindelin (47):
          Drop unused
          t3400: stop referring to the scripted rebase
          .gitignore: there is no longer a built-in `git-rebase--interactive`
          sequencer: the `am` and `rebase--interactive` scripts are gone
          rebase: fold git-rebase--common into the -p backend
          bisect--helper: verify HEAD could be parsed before continuing
          fill_stat_cache_info(): prepare for an fsmonitor fix
          mark_fsmonitor_valid(): mark the index as changed if needed
          bundle verify: error out if called without an object database
          poll (mingw): allow compiling with GCC 8 and DEVELOPER=1
          kwset: allow building with GCC 8
          winansi: simplify loading the GetCurrentConsoleFontEx() function
          config: avoid calling `labs()` on too-large data type
          t3404: fix a typo
          mingw: fix a typo in the msysGit-specific section
          Mark .bat files as requiring CR/LF endings
          t0001 (mingw): do not expect a specific order of stdout/stderr
          obstack: fix compiler warning
          mingw: replace mingw_startup() hack
          msvc: fix dependencies of compat/msvc.c
          t0001: fix on case-insensitive filesystems
          msvc: avoid debug assertion windows in Debug Mode
          mingw: enable stack smashing protector
          mingw: get pw_name in UTF-8 format
          mingw: use Unicode functions explicitly
          rebase --am: ignore rebase.rescheduleFailedExec
          mingw: fix possible buffer overrun when calling `GetUserNameW()`
          diff: munmap() file contents before running external diff
          mingw: support spawning programs containing spaces in their names
          clean: show an error message when the path is too long
          rebase: fix white-space
          git: mark cmd_rebase as requiring a worktree
 auto-generate GUIDs
 do not configure VCWebServiceProxyGeneratorTool
 urlencode '<' and '>' when generating VC projects
          contrib/buildsystems: ignore irrelevant files in Generators/
          contrib/buildsystems: error out on unknown option
          contrib/buildsystems: handle libiconv, too
          contrib/buildsystems: also handle -lexpat
          contrib/buildsystems: handle options starting with a slash
          contrib/buildsystems: add a backend for modern Visual Studio versions
          msvc: add a Makefile target to pre-generate the Visual Studio solution
          vcxproj: also link-or-copy builtins
          .gitignore: ignore Visual Studio's temporary/generated files
          bin-wrappers: append `.exe` to target paths if necessary
          git: avoid calling aliased builtins via their dashed form
          config: work around bug with includeif:onbranch and early config
    Johannes Sixt (5):
          userdiff: two simplifications of patterns for rust
          t7610-mergetool: do not place pipelines headed by `yes` in subshells
          t7610-mergetool: use test_cmp instead of test $(cat file) = $txt
          mergetool: dissect strings with shell variable magic instead of `expr`
          mergetool: use shell variable magic instead of `awk`
    John Lin (1):
          status: remove the empty line after hints
    Jonathan Nieder (1):
          t: decrease nesting in test_oid_to_path
    Jonathan Tan (5):
          t5616: refactor packfile replacement
          index-pack: prefetch missing REF_DELTA bases
          t5616: use correct flag to check object is missing
          t5616: cover case of client having delta base
          t5551: test usage of chunked encoding explicitly
    Jordi Mas (2):
          l10n: Update Catalan translation
          l10n: Update Catalan translation
    Josh Steadmon (1):
          trace2: correct trace2 field name documentation
    Junio C Hamano (21):
          The first batch after 2.22
          The second batch
          The third batch
          The fourth batch
          The fifth batch
          transport-helper: avoid var decl in for () loop control
          rm: resolving by removal is not a warning-worthy event
          CodingGuidelines: spell out post-C89 rules
          The sixth batch
          The seventh batch
          Flush fixes up to the third batch post 2.22.0
          Merge fixes made on the 'master' front
          Git 2.23-rc0
          test-dir-iterator: do not assume errno values
          A few more last-minute fixes
          log: flip the --mailmap default unconditionally
          log: really flip the --mailmap default
          Git 2.23-rc1
          Git 2.23-rc2
          Git 2.22.1
          Git 2.23
    Karsten Blees (2):
          gettext: always use UTF-8 on native Windows
          mingw: initialize HOME on startup
    Marc-André Lureau (1):
          userdiff: add built-in pattern for rust
    Mark Rushakoff (2):
          doc: typo: s/can not/cannot/ and s/is does/does/
          doc: fix repeated words
    Martin Ågren (3):
          ref-filter: fix memory leak in `free_array_item()`
          RelNotes/2.21.1: typofix
          RelNotes/2.23.0: fix a few typos and other minor issues
    Matheus Tavares (8):
          clone: better handle symlinked files at .git/objects/
          dir-iterator: use warning_errno when possible
          dir-iterator: refactor state machine model
          dir-iterator: add flags parameter to dir_iterator_begin
          clone: copy hidden paths at local clone
          clone: extract function from copy_or_link_directory
          clone: use dir-iterator to avoid explicit dir traversal
          clone: replace strcmp by fspathcmp
    Matthew DeVore (5):
          list-objects-filter-options: error is localizeable
          list-objects-filter: correct usage of ALLOC_GROW
          url: do not read past end of buffer
          url: do not allow %00 to represent NUL in URLs
          ref-filter: sort detached HEAD lines firstly
    Matthias Rüster (1):
          l10n: de.po: Update German translation
    Mazo, Andrey (8):
          git-p4: detect/prevent infinite loop in gitCommitByP4Change()
          git-p4: add failing test for "git-p4: match branches case insensitively if configured"
          git-p4: match branches case insensitively if configured
          git-p4: don't groom exclude path list on every commit
          git-p4: add failing test for "don't exclude other files with same prefix"
          git-p4: don't exclude other files with same prefix
          git-p4: add failing test for "git-p4: respect excluded paths when detecting branches"
          git-p4: respect excluded paths when detecting branches
    Michael Osipov (1):
          configure: Detect linking style for HP aCC on HP-UX
    Michael Platings (2):
          blame: add a fingerprint heuristic to match ignored lines
          t8014: remove unnecessary braces
    Miguel Ojeda (1):
          clang-format: use git grep to generate the ForEachMacros list
    Mike Hommey (2):
          dup() the input fd for fast-import used for remote helpers
          Use xmmap_gently instead of xmmap in use_pack
    Mike Mueller (1):
          p4 unshelve: fix "Not a valid object name HEAD0" on Windows
    Morian Sonnet (1):
          submodule foreach: fix recursion of options
    Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy (63):
          git-checkout.txt: spell out --no-option
          git-checkout.txt: fix one syntax line
          doc: document --overwrite-ignore
          git-checkout.txt: fix monospace typeset
          t: rename to
          checkout: advice how to get out of detached HEAD mode
          checkout: inform the user when removing branch state
          checkout: keep most #include sorted
          checkout: factor out some code in parse_branchname_arg()
          checkout: make "opts" in cmd_checkout() a pointer
          checkout: move 'confict_style' and 'dwim_..' to checkout_opts
          checkout: split options[] array in three pieces
          checkout: split part of it to new command 'switch'
          switch: better names for -b and -B
          switch: add --discard-changes
          switch: remove -l
          switch: stop accepting pathspec
          switch: reject "do nothing" case
          switch: only allow explicit detached HEAD
          switch: add short option for --detach
          switch: implicit dwim, use --no-guess to disable it
          switch: no worktree status unless real branch switch happens
          switch: reject if some operation is in progress
          switch: make --orphan switch to an empty tree
          t: add tests for switch
          completion: support switch
          doc: promote "git switch"
          checkout: split part of it to new command 'restore'
          restore: take tree-ish from --source option instead
          restore: make pathspec mandatory
          restore: disable overlay mode by default
          checkout: factor out worktree checkout code
          restore: add --worktree and --staged
          restore: reject invalid combinations with --staged
          restore: default to --source=HEAD when only --staged is specified
          restore: replace --force with --ignore-unmerged
          restore: support --patch
          t: add tests for restore
          completion: support restore
          user-manual.txt: prefer 'merge --abort' over 'reset --hard'
          doc: promote "git restore"
          help: move git-diff and git-reset to different groups
          Declare both git-switch and git-restore experimental
          merge: remove drop_save() in favor of remove_merge_branch_state()
          init: make --template path relative to $CWD
          worktree add: sanitize worktree names
          worktree add: be tolerant of corrupt worktrees
          merge: add --quit
          completion: do not cache if --git-completion-helper fails
          fetch: only run 'gc' once when fetching multiple remotes
          t2027: use test_must_be_empty
          switch: allow to switch in the middle of bisect
          completion: disable dwim on "git switch -d"
          fetch-pack: move capability names out of i18n strings
          fetch-pack: print all relevant supported capabilities with -v -v
          fetch-pack: print server version at the top in -v -v
          sha1-file.c: remove the_repo from read_object_with_reference()
          tree-walk.c: remove the_repo from fill_tree_descriptor()
          tree-walk.c: remove the_repo from get_tree_entry()
          tree-walk.c: remove the_repo from get_tree_entry_follow_symlinks()
          match-trees.c: remove the_repo from shift_tree*()
          Use the right 'struct repository' instead of the_repository
          t7814: do not generate same commits in different repos
    Nickolai Belakovski (3):
          ref-filter: add worktreepath atom
          branch: update output to include worktree info
          branch: add worktree info on verbose output
    Paolo Bonzini (2):
          request-pull: quote regex metacharacters in local ref
          request-pull: warn if the remote object is not the same as the local one
    Peter Krefting (1):
          l10n: sv.po: Update Swedish translation (4676t0f0u)
    Philip Oakley (16):
          git.c: show usage for accessing the git(1) help page
          Doc: git.txt: remove backticks from link and add
          doc branch: provide examples for listing remote tracking branches
          msvc: include sigset_t definition
          msvc: define O_ACCMODE
          msvc: add pragmas for common warnings
 list git.exe first to be startup project
          contrib/buildsystems: ignore invalidcontinue.obj
          contrib/buildsystems: fix misleading error message
          contrib/buildsystems: handle quoted spaces in filenames
          contrib/buildsystems: ignore gettext stuff
          contrib/buildsystems: redirect errors of the dry run into a log file
          contrib/buildsystems: optionally capture the dry-run in a file
          contrib/buildsystems: handle the curl library option
          .gitignore: touch up the entries regarding Visual Studio
          .mailmap: update email address of Philip Oakley
    Philipp Weißmann (1):
          l10n: de.po: Fix typo in German translation
    Phillip Wood (12):
          rebase: fix a memory leak
          rebase: warn if state directory cannot be removed
          sequencer: return errors from sequencer_remove_state()
          rebase --abort/--quit: cleanup refs/rewritten
          rebase -r: always reword merge -c
          add -p: fix checkout -p with pathological context
          show --continue/skip etc. consistently in synopsis
          sequencer: always allow tab after command name
          sequencer: factor out todo command name parsing
          status: do not report errors in sequencer/todo
          git-prompt: improve cherry-pick/revert detection
          t3420: remove progress lines before comparing output
    Quentin Nerden (2):
          docs: git-clone: refer to long form of options
          docs: git-clone: list short form of options first
    Ramsay Jones (1):
          env--helper: mark a file-local symbol as static
    René Scharfe (10):
          cleanup: fix possible overflow errors in binary search, part 2
          coccinelle: use COPY_ARRAY for copying arrays
          use COPY_ARRAY for copying arrays
          config: use unsigned_mult_overflows to check for overflows
          config: don't multiply in parse_unit_factor()
          config: simplify parsing of unit factors
          commit-graph: release strbufs after use
          dir-iterator: release strbuf after use
          test-dir-iterator: use path argument directly
          sha1-file: release strbuf after use
    Robert Morgan (1):
          gpg(docs): use correct --verify syntax
    Rohit Ashiwal (5):
          sequencer: add advice for revert
          sequencer: rename reset_for_rollback to reset_merge
          sequencer: use argv_array in reset_merge
          cherry-pick/revert: add --skip option
          cherry-pick/revert: advise using --skip
    SZEDER Gábor (12):
          t3404: modernize here doc style
          t3404: make the 'rebase.missingCommitsCheck=ignore' test more focused
          pager: add a helper function to clear the last line in the terminal
          t5551: use 'test_i18ngrep' to check translated output
          rebase: fix garbled progress display with '-x'
          progress: use term_clear_line()
          Document that 'git -C ""' works and doesn't change directory
          ci: don't update Homebrew
          ci: disable Homebrew's auto cleanup
          ci/ update a comment about installed P4 and Git-LFS versions
          travis-ci: build with GCC 4.8 as well
          Documentation/git-fsck.txt: include fsck.* config variables
    Simon Williams (1):
          git-p4: allow unshelving of branched files
    Stephen Boyd (2):
          format-patch: inform user that patch-id generation is unstable
          format-patch: make --base patch-id output stable
    Steven Roberts (1):
          gpg-interface: do not scan past the end of buffer
    Taylor Blau (1):
          ref-filter.c: find disjoint pattern prefixes
    Thomas Gummerer (16):
          stash: fix show referencing stash index
          apply: replace link with public-inbox
          apply: only pass required data to skip_tree_prefix
          apply: only pass required data to git_header_name
          apply: only pass required data to check_header_line
          apply: only pass required data to find_name_*
          apply: only pass required data to gitdiff_* functions
          apply: make parse_git_diff_header public
          range-diff: fix function parameter indentation
          range-diff: split lines manually
          range-diff: don't remove funcname from inner diff
          range-diff: suppress line count in outer diff
          range-diff: add section header instead of diff header
          range-diff: add filename to inner diff
          range-diff: add headers to the outer hunk header
          stash: fix handling removed files with --keep-index
    Tigran Mkrtchyan (1):
          tag: add tag.gpgSign config option to force all tags be GPG-signed
    Trần Ngọc Quân (2):
          l10n: vi.po (4676t): Updated Vietnamese translation
          l10n: vi(4674t): Updated translation for Vietnamese
    Varun Naik (1):
          read-cache.c: do not die if mmap fails
    Vishal Verma (1):
          merge: refuse --commit with --squash
    William Chargin (1):
          restore: fix typo in docs
    Xin Li (1):
          clone: respect user supplied origin name when setting up partial clone
    brian m. carlson (10):
          t: add helper to convert object IDs to paths
          t1410: make hash size independent
          t1450: make hash size independent
          t5000: make hash independent
          t6030: make test work with SHA-256
          t0027: make hash size independent
          t0090: make test pass with SHA-256
          t1007: remove SHA1 prerequisites
          t1710: make hash independent
          t2203: avoid hard-coded object ID values
    Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason (21):
          send-email: move the read_config() function above getopts
          send-email: rename the @bcclist variable for consistency
          send-email: do defaults -> config -> getopt in that order
          tests: add a special setup where prerequisites fail
          Makefile: remove the NO_R_TO_GCC_LINKER flag
          send-email: remove cargo-culted multi-patch pattern in tests
          send-email: fix broken transferEncoding tests
          send-email: document --no-[to|cc|bcc]
          hash-object doc: stop mentioning git-cvsimport
          send-email: fix regression in sendemail.identity parsing
          Revert "test-lib: whitelist GIT_TR2_* in the environment"
          config tests: simplify include cycle test
          env--helper: new undocumented builtin wrapping git_env_*()
          config.c: refactor die_bad_number() to not call gettext() early
          t6040 test: stop using global "script" variable
          tests: make GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON a boolean
          tests README: re-flow a previously changed paragraph
          tests: replace test_tristate with "git env--helper"
          tests: make GIT_TEST_FAIL_PREREQS a boolean
          tests: mark two failing tests under FAIL_PREREQS
          clone: test for our behavior on odd objects/* content

today's howtos

Games: Mutant Year Zero Road To Eden and Unigine 2.9

Linux 5.4 To Expose What's Keeping The System Awake Via Sysfs

The next Linux kernel version will expose the real-time sources of what's keeping the system awake via Sysfs compared to existing source information that previously was only available via DebugFS. With Linux 5.4, wakeup source statistics will now be exposed under /sys/class/wakeup/wakeup*/ for tracking wakeups, their counts, and related bits for profiling the system for power usage optimizations. Suspend-blocking wakeup sources have been available under DebugFS to be useful for bug reporting and analyzing battery consumption. This solidifies the work now under Sysfs with a stable ABI. In addition to the interfaces now stable in adding them to sysfs, it makes them more accessible compared to DebugFS often being restricted to root or other restrictions in place by different distribution kernels. Read more