Language Selection

English French German Italian Portuguese Spanish


Syndicate content
Unofficial Ubuntu BlogUnknownnoreply@blogger.comBlogger1439125Ubuntubuzz
Updated: 5 hours 46 min ago

Upgrade from Windows 7 to Ubuntu Part 2: Releases

Thursday 15th of August 2019 02:33:00 PM

(Ubuntu in 3 different releases: GNOME2 era, Unity era, and GNOME3 era)
Knowing Ubuntu releases is important to understand it better. Ubuntu is released twice a year, more precisely, every April and October, hence the number 04 and 10 in every version. It has special release called Long Term Support (LTS) released once in two years, only when the year number is even, hence all LTS version numbers are ended with 04. More importantly, you will also see 3 different periods of Ubuntu Desktop, that have been going through GNOME2, Unity, and GNOME3 eras, with and then LibreOffice as the main office suite. You will also see Ubuntu siblings like Kubuntu and Mythbuntu. I hope this will be interesting enough for everybody to read. Go ahead, and learn more about Ubuntu!

Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
  • 1) Windows Releases
  • 2) Ubuntu Releases
  • 3) Codenames
  • 4) Architectures
  • 5) Editions
  • 6) Periods
  • 7) Repositories
  • 8) Official Flavors
  • 9) Retired Flavors
  • 10) See Bigger Picture

1. Windows Releases
Microsoft released Windows in these versions so far:
  • Windows XP (2001)
  • Windows Vista (2007)
  • Windows 7 (2009)
  • Windows 8 (2012)
  • Windows 8.1 (2013)
  • Windows 10 (2015)

    In short, Windows release schedule is not predictable (unlike Ubuntu in every 6 month); we do not see in each release different Editions based on its user interface, nor third-party variants, nor codenames; and we do not talk about repository on it. And, Windows' user interface has no name (we say the OS "Windows" and the desktop environment "Windows" as well). I hope this information can help you to understand Ubuntu better.

    2. Ubuntu Releases 
    Ubuntu releases its new version 2 times every year. More precisely, Ubuntu is always released in April and October, hence it has only 04 and 10 version numbers of all releases*. Based on support lifespan, releases divided into two classes, one Long Term Support (LTS), and one Regular (non-LTS). The LTS ones are released every two years when the number of year is even (see below) and the Regular ones are released every 6 month except when LTS released.

    (Release announcements on website of 18.04 LTS, 18.10, and the old 7.04 versions)

    • Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (2010)
    • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (2012)
    • Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (2014)
    • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (2016)
    • Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (2018)

    • Ubuntu 10.10 (2010)
    • Ubuntu 11.04 (2011)
    • Ubuntu 12.10 (2012)
    • Ubuntu 13.04 (2013)
    • Ubuntu 17.04 (2017)
    • Ubuntu 19.04 (2019)

    Complete list of releases is here.

      What's the difference between Regular and LTS? There are two things, first, recentness of package versions, and second, time duration of the official support from Canonical.
        The first one means, for example, LibreOffice on 19.04 will be newer compared to LibreOffice on 18.04 LTS, and to get that newer version, users of 18.04 should upgrade to 19.04.

        The second one means security updates. LTS has 5 years time span of updates, while Regular has only 9 month. The updates are provided by professional team in Canonical to several hundreds of packages in the 'main' repository. This means, for example, if you use 19.04 and 18.04 LTS simultaneously, then the former will not supported anymore in 2020 but the latter will receive updates until 2023.

        Actually there is one more fact, the third one, the secret fact behind support lifespans is, that whenever any version reached end of support, the repository will be officially deleted in the internet, so users of that version would not be able to install software anymore. This condition is called End of Life or EOL. You will still however can use the OS forever but you cannot install software from its repository and will not receive updates anymore.

        *) Only one exception exists, that is 6.06 Dapper Drake, which is the only 06 ending number while Ubuntu experienced late 2 month extra to release.

        3. Ubuntu Codenames
        This one is the uniqueness of Ubuntu: each release is named in alphabetical fashion.

        • 10.04 LTS "Lucid Lynx"
        • 12.04 LTS "Precise Pangolin"
        • 14.04 LTS "Trusty Tahr"
        • 16.04 LTS "Xenial Xerus"
        • 18.04 LTS "Bionic Beaver"

        • 10.10 "Maverick Meerkat"
        • 11.04 "Natty Narwhal"
        • 12.10 "Quantal Quetzal"
        • 13.04 "Raring Ringtail"
        • 17.04 "Zesty Zapus"
        • 19.04 "Disco Dingo"

        Complete list of code names is here.

          What's this means? This is important, as there are 2 things: first, you will often hear Ubuntu user says "Bionic" to mean 18.04 or "Maverick" to mean 10.10 and on and on; second, this codename is the code your repository works with. So for every release, in your system configuration, the address to get software is not notated in number, take example 18.04 and 10.10, but in name, that are "bionic" and "maverick", respectively. You cannot use "bionic" repository on maverick, for example, and vice versa.

          Who decide codename of Ubuntu? Of course, Mark Shuttleworth, the father of Ubuntu, the founder of Canonical Ltd. We can see every announcement of the codenames published on his blog. See his posts for example, Yakkety and Cosmic.

          4. Ubuntu Architectures
          Based on architecture, Ubuntu Desktop is now only available as 64-bit (called amd64) after a decade had been available also for 32-bit (called i386). For instance, the latest release at the moment, 19.04 Disco Dingo, is 64-bit only, while 16.04 Xenial Xerus, is still available in both 32-bit and 64-bit.

          5. Ubuntu Editions
          Based on edition, Ubuntu is available mainly as Desktop and Server operating systems, as we could see on the download page.

           (Left: Ubuntu Desktop main page; right: Ubuntu Server main page; both screenshots taken August 2019)

          6. Ubuntu Periods
          Speaking in popular fashion, the time of Ubuntu Desktop up to today can be divided into 3 different eras:
          • GNOME2 era (2004-2010)
          • Unity era (2011-2017)
          • GNOME3 era (2017-now)

          What's this? To speak casually, Ubuntu experienced 3 different user interfaces. This means you may find friends knowing Ubuntu from any one among those eras. Originally, it came with GNOME2 for 6 years, later it came with Unity for 6 years, and finally since 2017 it came with GNOME3 up to today. These three names are names of user interface developed for GNU/Linux Desktop. However, the desktop we see on 18.04 and 19.04 is called GNOME3.

          How was GNOME2 era? In this era, Ubuntu came with double panel, top and bottom, it's a highly customizable desktop yet lightweight and usable. It shipped with, the predecessor of LibreOffice. At that time, Canonical was still sending Ubuntu CDs at no cost worldwide. Do you remember? Yes, it was the famous ShipIt program we no could not see anymore since 2010. GNOME2 itself ended by its developers in favor of the completely new GNOME3 at 2011.

           (Ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope with GNOME2 desktop and on its start menu)
          How was Unity era? In this era, Ubuntu came with top and side panel, with full screen menu, with Global Menu, and with HUD revealed every time Alt key being pressed. This era also changed because of its switch from to LibreOffice since Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal. However, Unity was a great innovation as a reaction to people's dissatisfaction against GNOME3. Unity was not quite customizable, honestly, but people (finally) loved it at that time, for its simplicity and features it possesses. In my personal opinion, even today, I still like Unity era the most for its modernity and sleekness.

          (Ubuntu with Unity desktop and the HUD running to read menubar of Mozilla Firefox)
          How is GNOME3 era? This is the era when we see Ubuntu today. The layout is similar to Unity, but without HUD and Global Menu, and (unfortunately) more loads to RAM. Canonical decided to leave Unity behind and use GNOME3 instead on version 17.04 at 2017.

          (Ubuntu 19.04 Disco Dingo with GNOME version 3.30)
          7. Ubuntu Repositories
          What is a repository? Repository, for you coming from Windows world, more likely is not something you familiar with. Ubuntu user installs all software from repository: a place in the internet containing thousands of software built specially for a certain Ubuntu version. For Windows user, they don't work that way, instead, they visit different webs to collect different applications. In this regard, repository is a central place that collects all software for Ubuntu.

          The important thing is, every release version brings its own repository, worth more than 20GB or more software packages (and still increasing!). This means 18.04 has 18.04 repository, 19.04 has 19.04 repository, and on and on. Every repository is solely for its version, meaning, repository for 18.04 is not usable on 19.04 for example, and vice versa. This means versions of software in each Ubuntu version is fixed, and this is the point distinguishing between Ubuntu and 'rolling' distro like Arch.

          What's the difference to Windows? This is important, thanks to Ubuntu being free software, updating the OS means updating all software installed. This is contrast to Windows, as updating the OS only updates the OS itself, not the third-party programs you have, so you must update everything one by one separately. For example, updating Windows doesn't update Photoshop or AutoCAD there; but updating Ubuntu does update the OS and does update GIMP and Warzone 2100 you installed there. This is related to what I mentioned before, because Ubuntu user installs all programs from central repository, but Windows user installs from different sources. Why? It's because the software Ubuntu distributes are free software, so Canonical is granted full rights to redistribute updates of them; but the software you mostly find on Windows like MATLAB or Ulead Studio are proprietary (nonfree), so even Microsoft is prohibited to redistribute updates of them.

          Repository contents, viewed from inside Ubuntu:

          (Synaptic Package Manager, a tool to browse, search, install thousands of software from the repository)
          Repository contents, viewed from web browser:
          (However, all packages are stored under 'pool' directory there and sorted alphabetically)
          8. Official Flavors
          On this side, Ubuntu is also different to Windows, as Ubuntu permits unlimited redistribution by user (both with and without modification) while Windows forbids it. That is why we can see Official Flavors, modified operating systems ("distros") created and maintained by users in special communities. Today, we have 7 actively developed Flavors, namely:
          • Kubuntu (2005)
          • Xubuntu (2006)
          • Ubuntu Studio (2007)
          • Lubuntu (2009)
          • Ubuntu Kylin (2013)
          • Ubuntu MATE (2014)
          • Ubuntu Budgie (2016)

           (Left:; right:; bottom:

          9. Retired Flavors
          With full respect and gratitude to all the developers, I also listed here Flavors that were once active but no longer available:
          • Mythbuntu (2007-2016)
          • Edubuntu (2005-2016)
          • Ubuntu GNOME (2012-2017)
          We can learn much from them that each distro, even the popular one, needs enough developers and also support from us the users to maintain it. Without cooperation, we will see another distro stopped being developed like Edubuntu. This fact will eager every one of us to contribute to distro we love! I hope this section can be a contribution to them at least to attract new developers joining from among you.

          (Left: Ubuntu GNOME website; right: Edubuntu website; bottom: Mythbuntu website accessed via Internet Archive from a 2016 snapshot)

          10. See The Bigger Picture
          Okay, so now let's see the bigger picture of all:

          1. Every 6 month, Ubuntu releases a new release. 
          2. Every release, there are 2 main Ubuntu editions (Desktop & Server), and also there are 7 Flavors (Kubuntu et. al.).
          3. Every operating system released is available in either 64-bit only or with 32-bit architecture.
          4. All of them install software from one common repository. 
          5. Each release has its own repository and new repository is not compatible with old one.
          6. Each one of them is distributed via internet as an ISO Image file typically in huge size (1GB or more). 
          7. Latest Regular and LTS versions of them are supported, except the End Of Life (EOL) version that is not supported anymore (i.e. the repository removed officially).

          And finally, as real example, let's see our latest and next releases:
          • Latest Regular is 19.04 "Disco Dingo" released April 2019.
          • Latest LTS is 18.04 "Bionic Beaver" released April 2019. 
          • Next Regular will be 19.10 planned October 2019.
          • Next LTS will be 20.04 planned April 2020. 

          Next One
          That's all for now. According to our plan yesterday, next time I will talk about Applications on Ubuntu. I hope you enjoyed this and encouraged to try Ubuntu. Have a good time!

            to be continued...

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            Source Code Adventure #1: Ubuntu, Launchpad, and Source DVDs

            Monday 12th of August 2019 03:29:00 AM
            (Launchpad, the site where source code of Ubuntu can be obtained)
            I am currently distributing GNU/Linux in Indonesia. As you know, distributing libre software that is licensed under GNU GPL and such other licenses, requires you to distribute the source code too. A question pops up: where to get source code of a GNU/Linux system along with whole source code repository it possesses? For example, where to get Ubuntu's source code DVD and its source code repository? To answer that question, I decided to make a series of notes regarding my search in source code of popular GNU/Linux distros. Criteria I made are (1) whether a distro provides source CD or not, (2) where the official source code packages repo located, (3) where the raw source codes located, and finally (4) how to get them for end users. I also tried to find (5) mirrors of the source code repo. I am starting here with Ubuntu, of course, and next time I will look at Debian, Fedora, openSUSE, and Trisquel. I hope this article and the next ones will help anybody to understand how important the source code is and ease them to distribute free as in freedom software. Enjoy!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            This Series
            I planned to make 5 articles in this series for 5 popular distros:
            • Ubuntu
            • Debian
            • openSUSE
            • Fedora
            • Trisquel

            But I don't know the future, as many interesting distros available there (especially the fully free ones), perhaps I will add more if I consider it's interesting.

            • Source code: refers to generally original form of every software written in programming language. A source code file written in C++ language would have .cpp extension, while Python is .py, and so on.
            • Binary code: software in executable form processed from source code. This is what you run / execute on your computer.
            • Distro: an operating system like Ubuntu or Fedora, which takes source code from multiple sources worldwide, and process them all to be binary code in the form of operating system itself and repository. 
            • Binary code package (.deb, .rpm): executable program format. Debian family uses .deb format while Red Hat family uses .rpm format.
            • Source code package: source code of a software that is already packaged as package by a distro developer. So for a given software, let's say Warzone, Ubuntu has its own package packaged by Ubuntu developers, while Fedora also has its own package, although the software is the same.
            • Raw source code: or development source code, source code that is written and published independently by its original developer.
            • SRPM (.srpm): source RPM, that is source code package format of RPM-based distros such as Fedora, Mageia, and so on.
            • Tarball (.tar.gz,, .tar.xz): raw source code package format.

            1. Source Code CD
            Source code CD or simply source CD is ISO image file containing source code of the executable ISO of  GNU/Linux distro and/or its repository. Fortunately, very fortunately, Ubuntu provides source code DVDs downloadable in ISO images. Why fortunate? Because with them, you do not need to find source code one by one that is wasting your time. And actually, this is the reason I wrote previous article and now this article as well.


            (We can see 5 ISOs with total size by 16GB or more here)
            2. Source Code Packages Repository
            Packages here means source code in .tar.gz format packaged by Ubuntu developers to be obtained using APT command line at end-user's side. This is the secret behind 'deb-src' code in your sources.list file.

            3. Raw Source Code Repository
            All raw source code packages of Ubuntu are located at Launchpad. The raw ones are source code packages that are publicly available online to be developed together.

            Note: 0ad, libreoffice, and vlc are package names for the realtime strategy game 0 A.D., and free office suite LibreOffice, and crossplatform media player VLC.

            4. How To Get The Source Code
            The easiest one, simply download them all source code ISOs and burn them to DVDs.

            For individual source packages, either use apt-get source [name] command line or download manually from Launchpad website above.

            For whole source repository, you would need APT-MIRROR tool to download them all. Please beware the size may be gigantic (my friend Dheny Muhammad Ismail said Ubuntu 18.04's was 100GB). Prepare fast and unlimited internet access + large free disk space before downloading.

            That's all I can bring you for Ubuntu. Next time, I will write on source code of Debian.

            to be continued...

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            A Quick Comparison between Deepin, Mint, and Elementary

            Friday 9th of August 2019 06:58:00 AM
             (Deepin 15.10, Mint 19, and Elementary 5.0 showing their desktops with start menu opened)
            I tried to make this article to help everybody find a desktop choice among Deepin, Mint, and Elementary operating systems. I select them because they are solely focused on desktop and have developed their own user interface. They are all GNU/Linux systems from Debian family, but with several distinctions you may love to see. For example, they differ on their own file managers, user interface layouts and built-in apps and several more things. You will also find which one still supports 32-bit PC nowadays, which one supports Flatpak by default, and more. Finally, I wish you can empower your PC and laptop with one of them. Enjoy!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

            How old are they?
            • Deepin started 2004, so, 15 years ago.
            • Mint started 2006, so, 13 years ago.
            • Elementary started 2011, so, 8 years ago.

            For convenience sake, I use here all first-letter capitals of their names as it's hard to type names with first-letter lowercase. Their versions I used to make this comparison are, respectively, 15.10 and 19 LTS and 5.0. However, from above, it's clear that Deepin is the oldest one and Elementary is the youngest. And here, when I say Mint, I mean "Linux Mint Cinnamon Edition" of course. Okay, let's go.

            1. Desktop Environment
            This is the most important thing to compare: each has its own D.E. Deepin has DDE, Mint has Cinnamon, and elementary has Pantheon. This is what makes them unique compared to other desktop distros, let's say, for example, Kubuntu and Fedora, as most distro projects do not develop their own D.E.

             (Left: DDE; right: Cinnamon; bottom: Pantheon)
            • Deepin: full-screen + normal start menu, icons on desktop, bottom dock, bottom tray, Super key OK, right-click OK, theming OK (on sidebar), movable panel
            • Mint: normal start menu, icons on desktop, bottom panel, bottom tray, Super key OK, right-click OK, theming OK (on System Settings), movable panel
            • Elementary: top-down start menu, NO icons on desktop, top panel, top tray, Super key does not open start menu, NO right-click, NO theming, NOT movable panel

            Speaking about design, the most distinct one here is Pantheon, as it has its own Human Interface Guidelines (HIG), just like Apple Mac OS with its HIG, a detailed documentation to construct on how apps and user interface should look like. This HIG is the cause of how Elementary behaves and every app developer designs their app to look like what we've seen. For example, why, you say, Elementary does not have minimize buttons? The answer is, because, the HIG says so. Another example, we apps on Elementary lack settings? Because, the HIG says so. Concerning HIG, Deepin and Cinnamon do not have such thing. To help you learn more about this, do not forget that in our GNU/Linux community, we also have KDE's HIG and GNOME's HIG.

            Speaking about themes, Mint is the most customizable, meaning, clear settings available to switch, add, remove, and mix desktop themes. Seeing Elementary in particular, in my opinion I always think it's designed to be unchanged, so we rarely see custom themes for it, just like what we see with Mac OS. Within the OS itself, we do not see any theme switcher available. Seeing Deepin, there is theme switcher available, but to compare with Mint's, it's still very limited.

            (Mint with theme choices opened)
            Speaking about technology, DDE is based on Qt, while both Cinnamon and Pantheon are based on GTK. If you do not have idea what is Qt or GTK, they are computer programming library to help you create awesome desktop application. So we can say DDE is on same boat with KDE, as KDE is the biggest thing created with Qt, while saying Cinnamon and Pantheon are in the same boat with GNOME, as GTK is the material that created GNOME.

            2. File Manager
            • Deepin: DFM, multitabbing, no split vertical, quick search
            • Mint: Nemo, multitabbing, split vertical available, quick search
            • Elementary: Pantheon Files, multitabbing, no split vertical, limited search

            (Left: DFM, right: Nemo, bottom: Pantheon Files)
             As a consequence to have own D.E., then, they have their own file managers too. Deepin has Deepin File Manager, Mint has Nemo, and elementary OS has Pantheon Files.

            Speaking about search, the only one shortcoming I could say is limited search on Pantheon Files. Try Elementary, try to Ctrl+F anywhere, try to search anything you accustomed to, I believe you will be rather disappointed. It does not show all results (only limited number of them), it shows results in tooltip instead of main area, without indicator (like spinning icon) while its working, and it's rather slow. On the other hand, search on Deepin and Mint are quick and complete.

            3. Desktop Extensions
            • Deepin: no
            • Mint: yes
            • Elementary: no

            Only Mint supports extensions (called "Applets") while Deepin and elementary have no such thing. With extensions I mean like GNOME with its Shell Extensions or KDE with its Widgets, you can add more functionalities to your desktop like network indicator or notes. We do not know whether in the future Deepin and Elementary will have such, but, at least, Elementary HIG does not say anything about "extension" nor "add-on" at all.

            (Mint with clock and picture slideshow applets appearing on left side with applet manager running on the middle)

            4. ISO Availability & Backgrounds
            • Deepin: +/-2.5GB, LiveCD+Install, 64-bit only, mirrors available, no torrent
            • Mint: +/-1GB, LiveCD+Install, 32-bit and 64-bit available, mirrors available, torrents available
            • Elementary: +/-1GB, LiveCD+Install, 64-bit only, no mirrors, torrent available

            Deepin, formerly Hiweed, is now a Debian derivative (after for a long time being an Ubuntu derivative). Latest version, 15.11 is derived from Debian 10 Buster. Perhaps, the most interesting, extrinsic fact about Deepin is its developed by Chinese community.

            Mint is an Ubuntu derivative focused on desktop only and consistently provide 32-bit version along with the 64-bit one up to today. Latest version, 19 LTS, is derived from Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

            Elementary is also an Ubuntu derivative solely focused on desktop with clear Human Interface Guidelines that fundamentally constructs how the design of the U.I. and the apps should look. Latest version, 5.0 Juno, is derived from Ubuntu 18.04.

            To sum it up, because these 3 are Debian family, they are all using APT/DEB as their software management system. So the package format (.deb) is the same as Debian and Ubuntu, and basically user uses APT to install software. Only Mint provides & supports 32-bit version. Only Deepin does not have official torrent download. Only Deepin does not compatible to PPAs as its derived from Debian not Ubuntu.

            5. Software Center
            Deepin has App Store, Mint has Software Manager, and elementary OS has AppCenter.

            (Left: Deepin App Store, right: Mint Software Manager, bottom: Elementary AppCenter)
            With each own software center, they can install software from each official repository (.deb packages). With software center, you can search software in fancy ways, with screenshots available but technical info hidden, iconic and easy. For Deepin and Mint, there is one more thing, as they can also install more software from Flatpak repository (see

            6. Alternative Package Managers
            Among Flatpak and Snap solutions available today, Deepin and Mint include the former, while Elementary includes none of these. This means Software Center on that two can help you search & install additional applications, but not on Elementary. However, Flatpak is a new thing in our community, it's a huge platform to find & install software with new format that works across different GNU/Linux distros.

            7. Control Panels
            • Deepin: sidebar
            • Mint: System Settings
            • Elementary: Switchboard

            Deepin has its unique right-panel System Settings, while Mint has System Settings, and elementary has Switchboard. So, the most unique one here is Deepin, with its sidebar as control panel, you click the gear button on the dock to reveal it (similar to BlankOn's Manokwari and Solus' Raven).

            Speaking about search in settings, Deepin does not have it, while Mint and Elementary have. With Deepin, you must scroll up/down to navigate to the setting you want.

            8. Applications

            Deepin has its own set of apps:
            • Movie, video player
            • Music, music player
            • Manual, help reader
            • Boot Maker, ISO image writer for USB
            • Repair, troubleshooting tool
            • Remote Assistant, remote desktop tool
            • Screen Recorder, screencasting tool
            • File Manager
            • Voice Recorder
            • Screenshot
            • Image Viewer
            • Terminal
            • Cloud Print
            • User Feedback

            Mint has:
            • Nemo, file manager
            • Xed, text editor
            • Xplayer, video player
            • Xreader, PDF viewer
            • Pix, image viewer

            elementary has:
            • Pantheon Files, file manager
            • Pantheon Music, audio player
            • Pantheon Videos, video player
            • Pantheon Mail, email client
            • Switchboard, control panel
            • AppCenter, software center

            Seeing these, we can say that Deepin has biggest number of applications developed by themselves with their own design and purposes. Take for example, the Deepin Manual, it's very very beautiful, with a lot of pictures, and I have never seen any other manual from other distros displayed in such pretty way. What I can say is that talking about applications, Deepin is a real and serious desktop project.

            More interestingly, in case of office suite, they are also distinct to each others, as Deepin brings WPS Office, Mint brings LibreOffice, while Elementary brings none of them. In my opinion, from free software community point of view, I love Mint's choice the most.

            9. Repository
            Among these three, only Deepin has its own independent repository without additional ones. Since version 18, Mint already has own repository with own Web Package Search feature here. Elementary really uses Ubuntu's repository and additionally their official repository as PPA you can find here.

            10. Multiboot
            Speaking about creating multiboot USB with MultiSystem tool, deepin is NOT ok, but both Mint and elementary are OK. This means you maybe managed to burn deepin ISO and run LiveCD well, but the system installation will always failed. Meanwhile, for the rest two LiveCD and System Install work perfectly.

            My Opinions
            The only one thing I feel missing from them three is to be shipped with computers. You see, like my previous comparison article, Ubuntu and Ubuntu MATE has System76 and Entroware to ship the operating systems with their branded PCs and laptops, and of course, the OSes had been tested to be working out-of-the-box with the hardware. We will be really happy if we could see in near future, for example, Entroware to ship PCs and laptops with Deepin, Mint, and Elementary worldwide. I believe you would also love if Asus, Acer, Dell, Toshiba, and Fujitsu, sell their laptops preinstalled with these three, right? In particular, Deepin is from China, and many electronic components said "Made In China", so why we could not see a laptop shipped officially with Deepin? To be honest to you, actually the nearest has already happened with Mint and MintBox mini PC, I say congratulations for them, but I would really love to see Mint Laptops more than that. This is my last opinion of them.

            Finally, if you want to choose among these three, feel free to consider my 10 points above. I wish you will find the best one for your PC and laptop. Enjoy!

            This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

            LibreOffice 6.2 on Debian Buster from DEB, AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap

            Saturday 3rd of August 2019 01:47:00 PM
             (LibreOffice 6.2 is available for both 32-bit and 64-bit PC from official DEB Packages)
            This tutorial for Debian 10 explains how to install LibreOffice version 6.2 with 4 alternative solutions which are DEB, AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap (or I call it simply D.A.F.S.) you may choose one. They all do not remove the already installed version. If you want 32-bit version, choose DEB instead. If you want something else, read on, perhaps you will see good things other than AppImage. I hope this helps everybody. Go ahead and get LibreOffice 6.2 on Debian!

            Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.[ On Debian 10: Install Guide | Downloads | Mozc/Hiragana | WTDAI ]
            [ On DAFS: Snap Guide | Snap Offline & Parallel | KDE Snaps | Using AppImage | Recommended AppImages]

            Why bother?
            Because up to today, version 6.2 is not available in all repositories of Debian including even Sid and Experimental. Alas, versions 6.1 and 6.3 are available. Hence, we cannot simply apt-get install libreoffice to upgrade the version to 6.2. So, we need other way (at least at the moment) to get this particular version. Okay, let's go to the D.A.F.S.

             ( site shows no 6.2 version available currently in Debian Buster (stable) repository and others)
            1. DEB Packages
            Download: (select DEB from the option)

            • Native, normal format of Debian applications.
            • Parallel, does not replace the already installed version.
            • Small, the compressed package is only 170MB, it's smaller than AppImage, Flatpak, and Snap versions. 
            • Easy, no additional tool required and finished with only 1 command.
            • 32-bit and 64-bit versions are available.. 
            • Uninstallation is difficult, you need to remove every package name one by one. 
            • Complex by number of files, as the package consists of 42 different files.

            Actually, LibreOffice is already available as DEB packages provided nicely for us in here 64-bit and here 32-bit. This is the only one option if you are still using 32-bit computer*. This DEB version is packaged by LibreOffice Project and not by Debian Project. To install it, simply extract the .tar package, get the folder with a bunch of files in .deb format, and:

            To install, do this command in that DEBS directory:
            $ sudo dpkg --install *.deb
            And to uninstall, do this command in the same directory:
            $ ls | sed 's/.deb//g' | cut --delim="_" -f1 | xargs sudo dpkg --remove
            (Successful installation of LibreOffice 6.2 from DEBS packages on Debian Buster)
            *) Unless you yourself want to built 32-bit version of AppImage, or Flatpak, or Snap package.

            2. AppImage

            • Simple, only one file.
            • Easy, no command lines use needed, no runtime, no additional tool required, no installation needed and just double-click to run the program.
            • Quick setup, it's the quickest one among other solutions here. Try working with different distros in one computer with AppImage, you will know what I mean.
            • Portable, you can bring it on USB Stick everywhere you go.
            • Parallel, does not replace the already installed one. 
            • Small, it's only 248MB that is smaller than Flatpak and Snap versions.
            • Uninstallation is easy, as it does not install anything & simply delete the file if you wish.
            • No internet access, you can download the .appimage file on other computer and run that file without internet access on Debian computer.

            • Unpopular, many people still don't know about AppImage. 
            • Bigger than DEBs version, by 248MB vs 170MB. 
            • 64-bit only, official built is not available for 32-bit PC architecture*.

            To install it, simply download the .appimage file, give it Executable permission, and double-click it.

            (Successfully running LibreOffice 6.2 from AppImage package on Debian Buster without installation)

            *) However, if you wish, you can built it yourself as the source code is available + AppImageKit is there for packaging AppImage.

            3. Flatpak


            • Parallel, it does not remove the already installed one.
            • Available, it's compatible to Debian 10.
            • Integrated, it's controllable using GNOME Software Center. 
            • Uninstallation is easy, with just 1 command.

            • Huge, or giant, to install LibreOffice alone we need to download 900MB of total data. Flatpak version is the biggest among all solutions here. 
            • Needs direct internet access, you access the internet in order to get the Flatpak first and then get the intended program later on the Debian 10 system. 
            • Complex setup, it requires command lines use, it needs you to add repository URL first to download the intended program.
            • Slower setup, it's the slowest solution compared to all solutions here. It downloads the most size, it requires the most time, you will know it if you try to work with different distros in one computer.
            • Not independent, you need to install additional tool to make it works.
            • Not portable, more complicated (time, effort, size) if you want to bring it everywhere in USB stick. AppImage is better here.
            • 64-bit only, not 32-bit version currently available. 

            To install it, you need to install the flatpak program first using apt-get, and then add new repository URL, and finally install LibreOffice using flatpak.

            $ sudo apt-get install flatpak
            $ flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
            $ flatpak install org.libreoffice.LibreOffice
            To uninstall it, run this command:
            $ flatpak remove org.libreoffice.LibreOffice

              (LibreOffice 6.2 running on Debian 10 from Flatpak package)
              4. Snap


              • Parallel, it does not replace the already installed version.
              • Available, it's compatible to Debian 10.
              • Uninstallation is easy, just by 1 command.
              • Simple setup, no additional repository URL entry needed.

              • Huge, second to Flatpak solution as it needs to download 400MB of data.
              • Not portable, running the .snap file on other distros requires additional tools and direct internet access.
              • Not independent, you need to install additional tool to make it works. 
              • Slower setup, it's slower than AppImage although it's still quicker than Flatpak by its size and requirements of direct internet access.
              • Needs direct internet access, you access the internet in order to get the Snapd first and then get the intended program later on the target computer and these cannot be done using other computer.
              • 64-bit only, currently no 32-bit version available. 

              To install it, you must install Snapd first (the required runtime) and then install one more required Snap package and finally install LibreOffice Snap itself.
              $ sudo apt-get install snapd
              $ snap install core
              $ snap install libreoffice
              To uninstall it, run this command:
              $ snap remove libreoffice

               (LibreOffice 6.2 running on Debian 10 from Snap package)


                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                Update GRUB Bootloader on USB Stick After Installing Debian 10, deepin 15.10, or Ubuntu 19.04

                Wednesday 31st of July 2019 06:54:00 AM

                This tutorial explains easy procedures to update GRUB Bootloader of GNU/Linux system after you install it to USB so it recognizes all other operating systems installed on the same computer if it didn't. For this, I practiced it on my previous Debian 10 on USB stick. You can also practice this on Deepin 15.10 or Ubuntu 19.04 or other OSes. You do not need to install additional program as we will use only command line here. Enjoy!

                Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.[ USB stick installation guides: Deepin 15.10 | Ubuntu 19.04 | Debian 10 ] [ Download links: Deepin 15.10 | Ubuntu 19.04 | Debian 10 ] [ WTDAI: Debian 10 | Ubuntu 19.04 | Kubuntu 19.04]

                By default, my Debian on USB stick will boot like below with only 1 name of OS shown "Debian GNU/Linux". However, in fact, my computer has 4 other OSes. So I cannot boot to other OSes.


                By running command line below, my bootloader recognizes 4 other OSes correctly as shown in this picture. They are "KDE neon", "Trisquel", "Ubuntu Yakkety", and "Ubuntu 19.04". So now I can boot to any other OSes.

                • 1) Boot into your GNU/Linux system within the USB. Example here is Debian 10.
                • 2) Run command line below and let it recognizes all other OSes in your computer. 
                • 3) Reboot.
                • 4) You will see your USB bootloader to look like "After" one above. 

                Command line:
                $ sudo update-grub

                 (update-grub command managed to recognize 4 other OSes)
                Happy working!

                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                An Overview of Debian 10 "Buster" from the GNOME Edition

                Tuesday 30th of July 2019 07:42:00 AM
                (Debian 10 GNOME)
                Debian 10 LTS, known as Buster, released with 7 desktop environments in 2019. This short article reveals the GNOME Edition for you. Unlike usual, I tried to break down the download pages more longer for you to give you clearer vision on what and where to download. I divided this article into 6 parts which talk about: ISOs, LTS, Calamares system installer, login sessions & RAM loads (fortunately, it's only ~800MiB right now!), user interface, and of course applications. I hope this overview helps everybody to reach Debian and try it as soon as possible. Happy reading!

                Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.[ On Debian 10: Install Guide | Downloads | Mozc/Hiragana | WTDAI ]

                • 1) About ISO images
                • 2) LTS
                • 3) Calamares
                • 4) Wayland & Xorg, and Memory Loads
                • 5) User interface
                • 6) Apps

                Important Information
                Before starting anything, here  official news from Debian Project about Buster:

                1. About ISO Images
                I myself interested in how vast Debian ISO images number are. Really, it's amazing. I would love to make an overview to where and what are available to us from Debian, that are, ISO images. So I broke it down to 9 sub-parts below.

                1.1. Central download page
                All downloads of Buster are centralized in one parent directory aka debian-cd/ page. From this directory you would see both Install-Only and Live-Install editions (10.0.0/ and 10.0.0-live/ pages), and then go down to multiple architectures Debian supports (amd64/ and i386/ pages among others), and then go further to both DVD and CD versions for each edition (iso-dvd/ and iso-cd/ pages). You will always go back to this URL so I suggest you to bookmark it.

                1.2. CD and DVD
                Debian 10 is still available as both CD and DVD sizes. You may choose.

                • [URL: iso-cd] CD version is no more than 700MB size and is no more than 1 disk for desktop. (In fact, the desktop edition is only one, that is, XFCE edition)
                • [URL: iso-dvd] DVD versions are bigger roughly between 2 and 4GB, and for each architecture, each is available in 3 disks. It includes multiple desktop including KDE, GNOME, LXDE, etc. so it represents the size. (Note: to install Debian, only DVD1 is required)

                The secret is, Live Editions are all DVDs, no CD version for them. The CD versions are available only for Install-Only editions.

                (Left: DVD editions (see URL: iso-dvd/); right: CD editions (see URL: iso-cd/); both are 64-bit versions; see the highlighted blue on address bar and pink on the page)
                All ISO images of Debian Buster are hybrid ISO, meaning, can be written to CD or USB storage. I myself distributed Debian this month to my friend in Indonesia using both DVD and USB, like I had pictured below:

                (A DVD of Debian Buster and one of Mageia 7.1, both are just released this month)
                1.3. Install-Only and Live-Install
                Simply, it's like Windows installer and Ubuntu installer, one can only install without running as LiveCD, and one can install or run as LiveCD. Debian 10 is available in both types, Install-Only and Live-Install, with certain advantages:

                • Advantage: available in 10 different computer architectures possible in the world.
                • Disadvantage: cannot run in LiveCD mode, meaning, you must install it to use it. 
                • Advantage: it features LiveCD mode, meaning, you can run the system fully without installing it; and also it features Install mode, meaning, you can install it permanently. In other words, this type is equal to all regular Ubuntu Desktop versions. This is a feature Microsoft Windows does not have.
                • Disadvantage: only available in 2 architectures, i386 and amd64, or more popularly called 32-bit and 64-bit.

                1.4. BT and Non-BT
                Normal download of Debian 10 is by you right-clicking a link and click Save As. That is the iso-dvd/ or iso-cd/ webpage for you. This is called HTTP download.

                (Left: direct-download page for DVD versions (see URL: iso-dvd/); right: direct-download page for CD versions (see URL: iso-cd/))
                But faster download is by you downloading the .torrent file to download the actual huge file while in the same time everybody else worldwide uploads the file to you. That is the bt-dvd/ or bt-cd/ download page for you.

                (Left: BitTorrent page for DVD versions (see URL: bt-dvd/); right: BitTorrent page for CD versions (see URL: bt-cd/))
                What's this? BT means BitTorrent, that is actually a small file you open with certain BitTorrent client, to download the actual huge file.

                Why Debian distributes ISOs as Torrents? Because it helps distribute huge files more quickly and more efficiently, compared to the HTTP way, as it reduce loads to Debian's server and spreads huge files to more people really far more quicker.

                For example, by using HTTP download I could get Debian DVD in 2 hours (no resume), but with BitTorrent download I could get it in 15 minutes only (always can be resumed) with my internet access.

                1.5. Sizes and Architectures
                Talking about architecture support, Debian's slogan is "The universal operating system", that slogan is true. It is the OS that support most computer architectures available in this world, including variants of X86, ARM, MIPS, IBM Z, and PowerPC. As a comparison, see Windows 10 at Wikipedia, it supports no more than 4 architectures.

                What's the good thing? This means Debian 10 is universally available for most type of computers available in the world including servers, boards, and more.

                 (Left: Install-Only edition page with 10 different architectures; right: Live-Install edition with 2 architectures)
                1.6. Source Code CDs
                Fortunately, Debian always released with source code CDs. Buster's complete source code in ISOs are available at:

                For what is this? You see, the GPL license and several other licenses in Debian required the distributor to distribute the source code as well if they distribute the binary code. So the rule is simple: you distribute Debian DVD, you distribute the source code DVD as well. Debian Project really helps us in this case: by providing source code DVDs for us. You see, other distros such as Manjaro and Mint, do not distribute source code DVD so we cannot easily download it and distribute it accompanying the regular DVD.

                (All source code of Debian Buster in DVD sizes)
                1.7. Checksums
                Debian is provided with 4 kinds of verification way, MD5, SHA1, and SHA256, and SHA512. The actual files MD5SUMS, SHA1SUMS, and SHA256SUMS, and SHA512SUMS are always available in every directory where ISO images are available. Take example here.

                1.8. LiveCD & Desktop Environments
                Yes, Debian Live is LiveCD edition of Debian aside from the Standard (Install-Only) edition as mentioned above. It's available with 7 different desktop environment, namely
                • GNOME
                • KDE
                • XFCE
                • LXDE
                • LXQt
                • Cinnamon
                • MATE

                What's the goodness? This means you can run Debian Buster with desktop you love without installing it. To compare it, say Microsoft Windows or Debian regular, you must install it first to enjoy the desktop and run the apps, meaning you must format your hard disk drive in order to try it.

                1.9. Installation Media
                As it's a hybrid ISO, we can burn it either to CD or USB. Important thing to tell you is, that I failed to create a working multiboot USB either with MultiSystem or Multibootusb: the LiveCD session works but the installation to actual disk always failed. I don't know why. So, unfortunately, currently I cannot distribute a multiboot USB with Debian 10 Live to people.

                (I can make other OSes work in multiboot way, but why no any Debian Live Edition there? Because making it multiboot won't work for installation)
                Up to this point, I hope now you have more ideas about where and what to download and how it would behave after you actually run / install Debian 10.

                2. Long Term Support
                Yes, Debian 10 is an LTS release for 5 years support lifespan for 4 different computer architectures. Those arch. supported are i386, amd64, armel, and armhf; meaning if you use PC and Server 32-bit or 64-bit then you got LTS. This is a really good news as we now have an equal 5 years LTS distro other than Ubuntu, and more, for all 7 desktop environments variants, and even more, for a lot of different kinds of computers. Support will be provided by a special team of Debian LTS Team and Debian Security Team working together. We are very happy and grateful Debian 10 being an LTS.

                Regarding LTS, here are several important links:

                3. New installation system
                What I love is the fact that starting at Buster release, Debian Live Edition is featuring Calamares System Installer (same as what Manjaro & Neon are using) in all of its 7 varians. Calamares is far more user friendly than the traditional installer of Debian, not to mention it works even in LiveCD mode, equal to Ubiquity System Installer of Ubuntu. I already satisfied installing Debian Buster several times with it. Thanks to Calamares, now, I can easily recommend Debian Live instead Debian Regular to everybody to install Debian. Great work, Debian developers!

                (How nice Debian 10 features this easy-to-use system installer!)
                4. Login Sessions & Memory Use

                On GNOME edition, Debian gives us both Xorg and Wayland session, with the latter one as default.To switch between sessions, simply logout, and choose either "GNOME Xorg" or "GNOME", respectively.

                 (Left: on Wayland session; right: on Xorg session; bottom: GNOME Classic session with top and bottom panels)
                What's good in this? This way, Debian Project could get more bug reports (and perhaps bugfix cooperation) regarding the new technology Wayland from more users, while the users themselves can still fallback to the old technology Xorg if they wish to. This would help Wayland advancement dearly while still providing convenience for long-time users.

                What's the difference between Xorg and Wayland, anyway? Well, for most users, we will not notice that as it's more likely very technical. But anyway, Wayland is a new technology with new working methods focused in security to replace the old Xorg. To give you more info, both KDE and GNOME projects are now trying to make their desktops work with Wayland more than with Xorg.

                Regarding memory usage, here is a good news, it's much more lower right now compared to last year among most GNOME distros. The average load is 800MiB at idle time at first login right after successfully installed.

                (Left: Wayland session uses 885MiB, right: Xorg session uses 865MiB; these are far more better than the usual load of 1GiB or more of GNOME)
                5. User Interface

                Debian 10 GNOME Edition features GNOME desktop version 3.30. Up to today, latest version available is this one, while 3.32 is only available at Experimental repository.

                (Left: Debian 10 from LiveCD, notice the pink icon of system installer on top-left corner; right: LibreOffice 6.1 included, and running well on Buster; bottom:
                installed Debian 10 system with Nautilus and Software Center are version 3.30)
                6. Applications
                All editions feature LibreOffice, and with GNOME Edition you got Firefox ESR, Evolution Mail Client, standard GNOME Apps & Games, Fcitx & Mozc, and GoldenDict.

                 (Start menu showing apps installed by default from Buster GNOME Edition)

                (Left: Synaptic showing a total of 50000 packages from Debian 10 'main' repository, right: Software & Updates dialog showing 'main' and 'source' repositories enabled, while heading the system to U.S. server)
                (Original sources.list file of an installed Buster GNOME system: it features three repos of buster, buster-updates, and buster-security and with all source code repos enabled deb-src)
                Some words
                I really like LTS on Debian. I also love the LiveCD variants available, I think it's brilliant decision to have them. What's more for me as a GNU/Linux distributor on my home country, I really appreciate and am grateful for all Source CDs available perfectly (you see, many other distros don't distribute such). All and all, in a short period of time, I am running Debian 10 installed on a USB stick with ease and no glitch. And, it's easier on RAM now, as it loads only ~800MiB, unlike some 1.2GiB some times ago. My system specs. is as usual Acer Aspire One 756 Intel Pentium 4GB, and it's flawless with GNOME. Lastly, with this, I encourage everybody to try Debian 10 out and I recommend its GNOME Edition as you first choice. Go ahead and happy working!
                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                How To Install deepin 15.10 GNU/Linux to External USB Drive

                Saturday 27th of July 2019 02:46:00 PM
                (Successful deepin 15.10 installation result)
                This tutorial explains procedures to install deepin 15.10 to external storage such as USB Flash Drive or Hard Disk. This way, deepin can run everywhere you go. You will prepare at least 32GB USB drive, create two partitions, and then install deepin into the larger one. Regarding filesystem type, I highly recommend using EXT2 for flash drive and EXT4 for hard disk (or SSD). Finally, you can also practice this tutorial to deepin 15.11. Enjoy your installation!

                Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                [ Previous deepin releases: 15.8 | 15.7 | 15.6 ] [ My deepin reviews: 2019 | 2018 | 2017 ] [ My deepin tutorials: Bootable | MicroUSB ]

                • 1) Select Language
                • 2) Create username
                • 3) Select geolocation
                • 4) Partitioning
                • 5) Waiting & finishing

                • USB drive capacity
                • Boot up
                • Disk identifier

                First: you must provide at least 20GB free space in the target installation media. deepin cannot be installed to 16GB flash drive. So, for USB Flash Drive, you must have at minimum 32GB one, and for external HDD, it must be at minimum 128GB.

                My gears to practice deepin installation to USB stick:
                • 32GB SanDisk Cruzer Blade, unformatted
                • 16GB SanDisk Cruzer Blade, as deepin LiveCD Installation media
                • Acer Aspire One 756, with internal HDD removed

                Second: boot up; while booting your installation media, select Deepin Failsafe, so you enter the LiveCD mode of deepin.

                Third: know the identity of your USB drive: on deepin LiveCD session, go to start menu > find GParted Partition Editor > run it > find your USB drive. For instance, my USB drive is identified as SanDisk Cruzer Blade /dev/sdb 29.25GB on my system.

                Step 1: Select Language
                Choose English and give check mark to "I accept the license"*.

                *) For you interested in free software licensing, read GPL FAQ in ClickThrough section about this. deepin is still a GNU/Linux system however, with or without this EULA, it already gives you unlimited rights to use it.

                Step 2: Create Username
                Determine your own username and password here. Also, the password will be your sudo password.

                Step 3: Select Geolocation
                Select your geolocation. This selection will determine your date & time and numbering format.

                Step 4: Partitioning
                • 1) Select advanced mode
                • 2) Create main partition
                • 3) Create swap partition
                • 4) Select bootloader location
                • 5) Read summary carefully

                First, select advanced mode on the three choices on top. This will bring us manual partitioner just like we saw on Ubuntu's. 

                Second, create main partition by Filesystem: EXT2, Mount point: /, and Size: 28GB (28000MB). We deliberately let the remaining space for the second partition (swap) below.

                Third, create swap partition by Filesystem: SWAP and Size: 2GB (2000MB) or equal to the remaining space left by main partition above.

                Fourth, the most important step in this tutorial, select bootloader location to be the USB drive location and not your internal HDD. For example, as you saw on the initial steps, here the SanDisk Cruzer Blade 32GB is located at /dev/sdb so the bootloader location should be /dev/sdb as well.

                Fifth, read summary carefully here, examine that everything is CORRECT and does not touch your internal HDD at all. For example, according to this tutorial, there must be 2 partition to be formatted, /dev/sdb5 as EXT2 and /dev/sdb as SWAP if you install it on USB Flash Drive. For HDD or SSD, I recommend EXT4 instead of EXT2.

                Step 5: Waiting
                • Waiting
                • Finishing

                Wait for the actual process to take place. This should not take more time than 1 hour. On my practice, this needs more or less 40 minutes long.

                Once finished, deepin will say "Successfully installed" on screen and let you reboot by clicking Experience Now button.

                Final Result
                Successful installation will give you a working deepin GNU/Linux system version 15.10 like below. Yes, you run it from a USB stick. Happy working!

                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                Balancing Left-Right Speaker Volume on Debian Buster GNOME Edition

                Friday 26th of July 2019 02:34:00 PM
                Like yesterday I did it on KDE Plasma on Neon , now I also do it on GNOME 3 on Debian 10. If you have two speakers on left and right, it is very easy to adjust the volume independently by using built-in System Settings in the Sound section. Simply slide the Balance slider to left or right. For instance, I adjusted it to right (as my left one is currently broken) so I will listen to sound from the right speaker only. And vice versa. That's it.

                This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                What To Do After Installing Debian 10 GNOME Edition

                Friday 26th of July 2019 03:59:00 AM
                (Debian Buster GNOME running nicely)
                Debian GNU/Linux 10 codenamed Buster released this July. I have collected all necessary download links here, install guide to USB here, and this is the time for the traditional post-installation tips. I mentioned 10 tips and tricks below to help you familiarize yourself with Debian 10 GNOME Edition including how to bring back tray icon & desktop shortcuts, change repository mirror location, switch between Wayland and Xorg, take care of Nautilus and other built-in programs, and more. I also mentioned two bonuses in the end so I hope you could learn more about Debian. Enjoy Debian Buster!

                Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                [ On Debian 10: Install Guide | Downloads | Mozc/Hiragana ]

                To make everything easier...
                Before you perform tips and tricks below, it's better to put two tools, System Settings and GNOME Tweaks, on the left dock.

                (Simply run the program and add it to favorites)
                • 0. Wayland and Xorg
                • 1. About printscreen
                • 2. Terminal
                • 3. GoldenDict
                • 4. Shotwell
                • 5. Firefox and Evolution
                • 6. LibreOffice
                • 7. Desktop icons
                • 8. Nautilus
                • 9. Desktop tweaks
                • 10. Software & repository
                • [Bonus #1]
                • [Bonus #2]

                0. Switching between Wayland and Xorg
                For decades, Debian always used Xorg as its default desktop session. But starting from 10.0, now, Debian uses Wayland by default while still having Xorg as side option. However in Wayland desktop session, you cannot run Synaptic Package Manager with administrator privilege. So, you would still need Xorg session for many cases. At least, for now. To switch to Xorg desktop session, logout > see the login screen > click the gear icon > select Xorg > and finally login.
                1. PrintScreen Problem
                On my installation, Debian seems to be crashed every time I pressed PrintScreen button. The GNOME Screenshot tool also crashes the screen if I run it manually. Apparently, this is happened when on the installation I selected Indonesia as region but United States as formats (see developers discussion here). You may encounter same problem too so:

                Quick solution:
                • Go to system settings > Region and Language > change both two into United States > restart your computer.
                • Now try PrintScreen or Shift+PrintScreen. It should work.

                Alternative solution:
                • 0) Install Scrot first by command line: sudo apt-get install scrot
                • 1) Go to System Settings > Device > Keyboard > find out Save Screenshot to Pictures > click it > press Backspace > now the original shortcut key is gone.
                • 2) Still on the Keyboard section > scroll down to bottom > click that plus button > give name to it My own screenshot tool > give it command scrot -d 5 > give it PrintScreen as the key > OK.
                • 3) Now when you press PrintScreen, Debian calls Scrot with delay 5 seconds, and saves the picture to your Home directory.

                (The GNOME Screenshot tool)
                2. Terminal
                (GNOME Terminal logo)
                Once installed, pressing Ctrl+Alt+T does not run Terminal Emulator, unlike we usually do on Ubuntu. So go to System Settings > Device > Keyboard > scroll down to bottom > click that plus button > give it name Terminal Emulator > give it command gnome-terminal > give it shortcut key Ctrl+Alt+T > OK.

                3. GoldenDict Dictionaries
                The awesome desktop dictionary, GoldenDict, does not installed with dictionary files so unfortunately you cannot find any word in it. The secret is, fortunately StarDict’s dictionary files are compatible to GoldenDict.

                So here as example, we can import StarDict’s ones. Run GoldenDict > go to menubar Edit > Dictionaries (F3) > Dictionaries dialog opened > open the Files tab > click Add > navigate to the directory where you saved StarDict’s dictionary files > OK. Now try to find any word. Congratulations!

                Download a lot of StarDict's dictionaries here:

                (GoldenDict shows meaning of "buku" in Indonesian as "book" in English)
                4. Shotwell by default
                Debian opens photos with Image Viewer by default instead of Shotwell. If you often crop pictures, like me, you better make default opening to Shotwell instead. Go to System Settings > Details > Default Applications > Photos > change it to Shotwell. Now try to open any photo you will always run Shotwell.

                (Shotwell features very handy crop tool)

                5. Firefox and Evolution
                As usual, it's better take care of Firefox as soon as you installed it.

                • HTTPS Everywhere: to force all browser connections to be secure (encrypted). It's a must for public wifi users.
                • uBlock Origin: to block all ads + online trackers and to toggle it on/off quickly at any time.
                • Privacy Badger: a really good complement to uBlock Origin in blocking online trackers automatically.
                • so your default search engine uses StartPage instead of Google.
                • GNOME Shell Connector: to enable installation of GSE.


                You may choose to disable these to prevent Firefox takes up your bandwidth without your concern. Personally, I strongly prefer to disable all of them. Anyway, we can still update manually at any time. Set each one with the disable value provided.

                • [default: true] [disable: false]
                •     App.update.enabled [default: true] [disable: false]
                •     extensions.update.enabled [default: true] [disable: false]
                • [default: true] [disable: false]

                Buster includes GNOME Evolution as the mail client program. It is a very nice mail reader and also a beautiful desktop calendar. You can read your Gmail (IMAP/POP3) with it. You can integrate your Google Calendar account with it. If Gmail and Calendar work well, then other similar online services should work as well. Last but not least, setup email encryption for it is easy.

                6. LibreOffice ribbon
                Buster brings LibreOffice version 6.1 which already featured with Notebookbar (Ribbon-like interface). However, it’s not enabled by default, so you need to enable it: go to menubar Tools > Options > Advanced > give check mark to Enable advanced featres (maybe unstable) > OK > Restart LibreOffice. Now, go to menubar View > Interface > Tabbed. Happy working!

                (Writer, Calc, and Impress running with Notebookbar enabled)
                7. Desktop icons
                Okay, how to put shortcuts on the desktop area like we did on KDE or Android? Easy, first, install Desktop Icons extension from official E.G.O. website.

                (Buster with GNOME 3.30 and active shortcuts on desktop)
                Next, what you need to do is to put everything on your own ~/Desktop directory. You can place folders, files, audios and videos, and of course apps. For apps, see picture above, simply copy apps you want from /usr/share/applications to it.

                8. Nautilus file manager
                (Nautilus logo on Debian Buster)
                Sorting: I love to sort files by newest on top, just like this blog, and your social media posts. To do so, click the black triangle on menu button > click Last Modified > all sorted nicely now. See picture below.

                Shortcuts: I always create quick accesses on left panel to my frequently used folders on my other partitions. You can do so: go to the folder you want > go up one directory > drag and drop that folder to left panel > rename it as you wish. See picture below, I add name such as [p1] for partition number 1 and so on.

                 (Left: sorting by latest on top; right: creating shortcuts to folders on other partitions)

                9. Desktop tweaks
                (The Tweaks logo)
                Fortunately, GNOME Tweak Tool is included by default on Buster. More good news, it already preloaded with a lot of Extensions.

                Enable minimize and maximize button by going to Tweak Tool > Window Titlebars > toggle Minimize on > toggle Maximize on > see the result.

                You may interested in these ones:
                • Alternatetab: do not group same items on Alt+Tab anymore.
                • Applications menu: XFCE-like drop down start menu.
                • NetSpeed: as you may know from my previous articles, it's my favorite download/upload indicator for GNOME 3 desktop.
                • Places status indicator: quick drop-down menu to go to folders. Similar to GNOME2’s.
                • Top Icons Plus: to place on the top panel running apps like Telegram, Pidgin, Tomboy Notes, and such.
                (NetSpeed showing its information)
                10. Software and repository
                • Reload
                • Add/remove programs
                • Change repository mirror

                Debian provides you more than 50,000 software packages for all computing purposes possible at no cost. In order to add more software to your system, you need to Reload first, and then use package manager to find and install them.

                Reload: of course you will need to reload your repository index:
                $ sudo apt-get update

                (The reloading process)
                Add/remove programs: once reloaded, now, you can see thousands of software packages available at Synaptic Package Manager or GNOME Software. They are actually stored in the internet (that place is called repository) so you will need network access to get them. If you don't have Synaptic yet, install it by:
                $ sudo apt-get install synaptic apt-xapian-index
                Repository setup: you can change the default repository server Debian headed to into server located in your home country. For example, I can change default U.S. located server source into Indonesia by using Software & Updates tool from the start menu. See picture below, I changed the U.S. server into Kartolo server in Indonesia.

                (Repository settings)
                [Bonus] Nice apps to have
                KeePassX is a handy password storage so you could save multiple accounts' credentials there. When you forget some, you open KeePassX, as only you know KeePassX's master password.

                (KeePassX logo)
                Telegram (GPLv3+) is a popular chatting platform used by many libre software communities and suitable to replace either WhatsApp or Skype. I maintain online classes on Telegram since 2017 as my effort to educate about Libre Software and GNU/Linux in Indonesia. Several chat groups you can join at Telegram are:
                (Telegram Logo)
                [Bonus] External Resources
                Interesting resources to find apps for Debian:

                Useful resources to learn more about Debian:

                • Official wiki: this is where to start everything.
                • Official doc: all documentations maintained by Debian Project.
                • Official intro: basic knowledge about Debian for you.
                • FAQ: list of answers by Debian for your common questions.
                • Mailing lists: a lot of email channels of Debian users and developers. Including support and development ones.
                • IRC channels: chat groups on IRC networks talking about Debian. The community is most active on both mailing lists and IRCs worldwide.
                • Resources: list of a lot of learning sources maintained by Debian Project itself for you.

                  I am a long time StarDict user and even now I am still using it on my latest Neon Operating System. I recommend it to people I know. Thank you Huzheng for creating such truly useful and valuable program.

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    Save Your Bandwith on GNU/Linux Desktop

                    Wednesday 24th of July 2019 03:40:00 PM
                    (KDE-based OS monitoring its own upload and download traffic)
                    Don't you realize your GNU/Linux operating system takes up your internet bandwidth without your consent? Do you want to browse the web more effectively to save up your net quota? I compile my own tips and tricks here in helping myself save my network bandwidth everyday as I'm using GNU/Linux desktop like KDE Neon and Trisquel. I hope these simple stuffs can help you too to avoid spending bandwidth unnecessarily. Enjoy!

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

                    1. Use Easy Image Blocker
                    Images (PNG/JPG/GIF) are the largest loads in every webpage you visit. With Easy Image Blocker extension, you can disable all images in certain website, while retaining images in others. For example, you can let images shown, but block images on only, as you know it's the one most consuming your bandwidth. This way, you can save your bandwidth more efficiently.

                    2. Use uBlock Origin
                    With uBlock Origin, you can block all ads on the web and also all online trackers. It also automatically blocks YouTube's ads. Regarding online trackers, visiting a website today mostly is not visiting one thing, as it may connects you automatically to multiple other websites without your consent. So, browsing today mostly consumes more bandwidth. That's why uBlock Origin is very important.

                    3. Monitor your upload/download traffic
                    • On KDE, simply add Network Monitor widget.
                    • On MATE, add Network Monitor applet to your panel.
                    • On Unity, install indicator-multiload and run it and scroll on it to show Net Speed indicator.
                    • On GNOME, install NetSpeed Indicator extension by hedayati. 
                    (KDE-based operating system showing Network Monitor panel [top], KSysGuard with Network History as the third graph [middle], and traffic graph of current wifi hotspot connection [bottom])
                    4. Watch your download managers
                    Do you have KTorrent or Transmission? Watch out, do not let then run without your consent while your internet access is on! Because bittorrent client can either upload or download in full speed at any time an external connection established so that can consume your bandwidth really a lot.

                    (KTorrent with all entries are in STOP state is safe for our bandwidth as it wont upload nor download) 
                    5. Use Zsync
                    If you wish to download Ubuntu or other GNU/Linux distros, use zync to cut down the bandwidth needed up to 50% as long as you have previous or similar version of the ISO image. It's a lifesafer. 

                    6. Offline Webpage Reading
                    I often save webpages so I can read them when I have no internet connection. You can either save page by Ctrl+S (resulting in a folder + an HTML file), or save as PDF (by Ctrl+P and choose Print To File). There is the third choice, that is using Zotero, and I used it too. Either way, you can reduce the need to go online just to read webpages.

                     (My collection as my hobby is pressing Ctrl+S on web browser...)

                    That's all. I hope these help you a lot.
                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    deepin 15.11 GNU/Linux Released with Download Links, Mirrors, and Torrents

                    Wednesday 24th of July 2019 02:08:00 PM
                    deepin 15.11 released this July with the slogan "Better Never Stops" just three months after the previous 15.10 last April. Here's official direct download links from official server, SourceForge, OSDN, and also several mirrors, and of course torrents provided by community. Just like usual, I strongly recommend you to use BitTorrent way instead and then verify your ISO to be identical with the official one. Finally, so you can safely burn that ISO to DVD or USB and run deepin GNU/Linux. Happy downloading!

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.[ Previous deepin releases: 15.10 | 15.8 | 15.7 | 15.6 ] [ My deepin reviews: 2019 | 2018 | 2017 ] [  My deepin tutorials: USB | MicroUSB | Install ]

                    Official Download
                    deepin 15.11 ISO 64-bit (2.3GB)

                    Note: if you have no idea which one to download, simply click this link and download it.

                    Sourceforge (Official)
                    deepin 15.11 ISO 64-bit

                    Note: SourceForge is the most popular, gigantic source code hosting for many GNU/Linux projects since long before GitHub. 

                    OSDN (Official)
                    deepin 15.11 ISO 64-bit

                    Note: Open Source Development Network (OSDN), similar to GitHub, is a centralized source code software hosting that provides download for many GNU/Linux and libre software projects.

                    Simply right-click and Save Link As from one of below links:
                    More mirrors worldwide are available on Deepin website.

                    (A lot of servers providing deepin ISO download from multiple countries)
                    Currently, there are torrents from LinuxTracker community and also Distrowatch. Simply download one with your favorite BitTorrent client program (I recommend KTorrent and Transmission) and after completely retrieved, verify the ISO file with the official checksum below.

                    Once your hash value and one of these official values matched, it's verified, then the ISO you have downloaded is OK.

                    daaf33cb284797cba582b99e8cc59a0a  deepin-15.11-amd64.iso
                    3b61802d83ec40c5c32eb6719ea641de75b8fa72b5e8bced48429172bc53f0f7  deepin-15.11-amd64.iso

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    KDE: Adjust Different Volume on Left and Right Speakers

                    Saturday 20th of July 2019 01:47:00 PM
                    Imagine your laptop's left speaker is broken so every time you play something you hear noisy sound although the right speaker is normal. Then, you want to disable or reduce left speaker's volume while retaining the right one. On KDE system like Kubuntu, I find no such configuration on either its System Settings or Sound Volume tray. In fact, my left speaker is actually broken now so I need control for both of them on Neon GNU/Linux. Fortunately, I managed to do so installing PulseAudio Volume Control. The procedures are simple:

                    1) Install the tool:
                    $ sudo apt-get install pavucontrol
                    2) Run PulseAudio Volume Control.

                    3) See Output Devices tab.

                    4) Click shield button on top-right corner, so you see two sliders: Front Left and Front Right.

                    5) For example, I reduce the Front Left slider to 14% but let the Front Right 100%. This way, I can hear normal playback sound once again by using only the Right Speaker.

                    6) Try to play audio.

                    Happy working!

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    KDE: Fix KNotes Cannot Create New Note

                    Friday 19th of July 2019 02:31:00 PM
                    Recently, I encountered a problem with KNotes --my most frequently used thing on KDE-- in which it refuses to create new note. If I click New Note on its menu, normally it pops up a new yellow box on screen I can write on it, but suddenly it shows nothing. However, simply viewing existed notes works without problem. In short, I fixed it by changing the storage folder of the notes to the one owned by KNotes. To do so, run KNotes > right-click it > Configure > Collections > pay attention to Folders tab > make sure the folder name is Notes under Notes > make sure the folder where the note will be saved pointed to Notes/Notes > OK. Now you should be able to create new note once again. Happy working!

                    (Correct setup so KNotes can add new note)

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    Comparison of Memory Usages of Ubuntu 19.04 and Flavors in 2019

                    Friday 19th of July 2019 02:49:00 AM
                    (The Disco Dingo 2019 chart)
                    Continuing my previous Mem. Comparison 2018, here's my 2019 comparison with all editions of Ubuntu 19.04 "Disco Dingo". The operating system editions I use here are the eight: Ubuntu Desktop, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Xubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Studio, Ubuntu Kylin, and Ubuntu Budgie. I installed every one of them on my laptop and (immediately at first login) took screenshot of the System Monitor (or Task Manager) without doing anything else. I present here the screenshots along with each variant's list of processes at the time I took them. And, you can download the ODS file I used to create the chart below. Finally, I hope this comparison helps all of you and next time somebody can make better comparisons.

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.On 19.04: Download Links | Install Guide | Upgrade Guide | WTDAI Ubuntu | WTDAI Kubuntu | Recommended Apps | Privacy Tricks | GNOME 3.32

                    My Specification
                    I used these setup for all OS editions I installed:

                    • Laptop: Acer AspireOne 756
                    • Processor: Intel Pentium
                    • RAM: 4GB
                    • Swap: 1GB
                    • Root size: 13GB
                    • Filesystem: EXT2 
                    • Storage media: USB Flash Drive, SanDisk CruzerGlide 3.0 16GB

                    The Chart
                    Download the document file here (ODS).

                    1. Ubuntu
                    The original edition runs on 966MiB of RAM. Its largest processes are gnome-shell (92.5MiB), gnome-software (23.4MiB), and Xorg (21.9MiB).

                    Please click the picture to enlarge it.

                    2. Kubuntu
                    KDE KSysGuard reads it runs at 378MiB of RAM. Its largest processes are plasmashell (105MiB), kwin_x11 (28MiB), and Xorg (22.8MiB).

                    3. Xubuntu
                    XFCE Task Manager reads it is 406MiB. Its largest processes are blueman-applet 51.4MiB, xfdesktop (39.5MiB), and Task Manager itself (37.7MiB).

                    4. Lubuntu
                    Htop shows it 352MiB.

                    5. Ubuntu MATE
                    MATE System Monitor reads it 680MiB. Its largest processes are caja (75.4MiB), Xorg (63.3MiB), and blueman-applet (57MiB).

                    6. Ubuntu Studio
                    Ubuntu has two different sessions, the default one (with normal kernel), and the low-latency one (with low-latency kernel). I used the default one here. XFCE Task Manager reads it 487.6MiB. Its largest processes are blueman-applet (61.5MiB), xfdesktop (49.2MiB), and kdeconnectd (47MiB).

                    7. Ubuntu Kylin
                    MATE System Monitor reads it 1.9GiB. Its largest processes are plymouthd (1GiB or 1000MiB), (43MiB), and blueman-applet (26.6MiB).

                    8. Ubuntu Budgie
                    GNOME System Monitor reads it 929.5MiB. Its largest processes are gnome-software (68.8MiB), budgie-wm (20.9MiB), and Xorg (15.9MiB).

                    • The largest one is Ubuntu Kylin.
                    • The smallest one is Lubuntu.
                    • Ubuntu original, the GNOME edition, improved a lot from previously 1.2GiB in 2018 to 970MiB in 2019. This is a good thing.
                    • What makes Ubuntu Kylin runs excessively high is plymouthd service (run by root user account) with 50% CPU and 1GiB RAM. Plymouth is the OS component that handles your booting splash screen, but it's too abnormal to have this service consumes resources in such amount. I guess it is at least an error as normally Plymouth should be killed once the user sees the desktop. If I remove plymouthd service from the memory, I can get Ubuntu Kylin running at 847MiB.

                    Thank you!

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    Mozc and Fcitx for Japanese Writings on Debian 10 "Buster"

                    Monday 15th of July 2019 03:28:00 AM
                    (Debian with Mozc active and typing 'konnichiwa!')
                    Debian 10 GNOME Edition includes Mozc and Fcitx by default. This means you can easily type in Japanese chars (Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana) by utilizing the system tray. This allows you to switch by click between Japanese and Latin (English-US) chars anytime you wish. How to configure them on Debian 10? Here's my setup for English readers. Enjoy!

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                    On Debian 10: Download Links | Install Guide
                    On Mozc: Kubuntu+Mozc | Ubuntu MATE+Mozc

                    About Mozc and Fcitx
                    Mozc is a tool (called an engine) to process Japanese chars to type on computing. Fcitx is a more generic tool to handle all kind of language chars with any type of engine (Japanese/Mozc is a piece among many of them) on GNU/Linux desktop. Mozc does the actual job, while Fcitx presents it to us in very friendly way. By combining Mozc and Fcitx, a computer user may type everything Japanese everywhere very easily and helped by automatic char suggestions. Mozc and Fcitx are both free software and available on all GNU/Linux distros including Debian. Visit Mozc website here and Fcitx's here.

                    1. GNOME Extension: Tray Icons
                    Without tray, we will not see Fcitx, and unfortunately GNOME version 3.30 removed that feature since long ago. To have tray feature once again, install Tray Icons extension from EGO website. Later, we will see Fcitx running as a keyboard icon on the top panel.

                    (That keyboard icon is Fcitx)

                    2. Install Required Program
                    We still need to install fcitx-mozc on Debian 10 GNOME Edition:
                    $ sudo apt-get install fcitx-mozc

                    (Installation of fcitx-mozc package on Debian Buster)
                    3. IM Setup
                    Debian is an advanced operating system. It is rich with multiple input methods, one among many installed is Fcitx. We need to make sure the input method selected is Fcitx.
                    • Go to start menu.
                    • Find IM Setup.
                    • First page: OK
                    • Second page: YES
                    • Third page: fcitx
                    • Fourth page: OK

                    (im-config dialog, to switch Debian system to use Fcitx instead of others)
                    4. Fcitx Setup
                    Next one, we need to setup Fcitx to appear properly on screen:
                    • Go to start menu.
                    • Find Fcitx Configuration (with penguin logo).
                    • Open the Appearance tab.
                    • Font size: 10
                    • Use System Tray Icon: give check mark
                    • Vertical Candidate Word List: give check mark
                    • Close the dialog.

                    (Fcitx configuration dialog)
                    5. Mozc Setup
                    Now we need to setup Mozc engine behaviors:
                    • Go to start menu
                    • Find Mozc Setup (orange circle logo with「あ」character)
                    • Input mode: Romaji
                    • Space input style: Follow input mode
                    • Keymap style: ATOK
                    • OK

                    (Mozc setup)
                    6. Utilize the tray
                    Right-click Fcitx > Input Method > you should find at least English (US) and Mozc here > select Mozc > keyboard icon turns into orange circle「あ」> typing in Japanese is ready. This is how to switch between Latin and Japanese writing later.

                    If you wish to change between Hiragana and Katakana, when Mozc is selected, go to Composition Mode > select Hiragana or select Katakana > your keyboard is now ready to type as your selection.

                    (Composition mode is the switcher between Hiragana and Katakana)
                    7. Practice
                    Open your terminal and try to type literally 'konnichiha' then Mozc behind the scene will turn it instantly to 'こんにちは' (pronounced konnichiwa). Now go to LibreOffice and start writing Japanese document you wish. Enjoy!

                    (Top panel: Mozc's orange logo is active means Japanese typing is ready; Terminal: typing 「こんにちは」very easily)


                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    How To Install Debian 10 "Buster" GNOME on USB Flash Drive

                    Thursday 11th of July 2019 04:02:00 PM
                    (Debian 10 "Buster" with user-friendly installer)
                    This tutorial explains how to install Debian 10.0 GNU/Linux. With this tutorial, you can either install it on internal or external disk drive, either in single- or dual-boot mode. You will get GNOME, the modern and user friendly desktop, as the user interface. And you will prepare at least 2 blank partitions as main place and swap of the system. This tutorial also includes several instructions for UEFI-based computers (which are sold since 2011 up to today). Total amount of time needed to finish it is about 1 hour. I hope this tutorial works well for you. Finally, happy installing!

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

                    • 1. Starting
                    • 2. Language
                    • 3. Partitioning
                    • 4. Bootloader & Credentials
                    • 5. Final

                    Selecting Debian Live
                    Debian 10.0 has more than 7 different editions you can grab. So, to install Debian GNOME with easy and user-friendly installer, grab Debian Live GNOME Edition instead of the standard (install-only) edition. Fortunately, it's available for both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. This tutorial is based on Debian 10.0 Live GNOME Edition.

                    (Debian Live editions download page: grab the one pointed by mouse cursor)
                    My Setup
                    I practiced the installation with this setup:
                    • Flash drive: SanDisk Cruzer Glide 3.0 16GB
                    • Disk scheme: MBR
                    • Partitions: one 14GB as EXT2, one 2GB as swap
                    • Bootloader: installed to the Cruzer Glide
                    • Total time needed: 1 hour
                    You can replace the flash drive with external hard disk drive if you wish as the procedures are the same.

                    For UEFI Computers
                    For UEFI-based computer, you need to create a 500MB EFI partition on the drive. So if your computer is UEFI-based, you will need 3 partitions, the main one, the swap, and the EFI.

                    Note: UEFI is the new generation BIOS with completely different ways to work. Most computers sold today since 2011 are UEFI-based. For instance, if you bought your laptop in 2018, we can certainly say it's UEFI based.

                    1. Starting the installer
                    Open the start menu by pressing Super key and click the pink Install Debian icon appeared on left side.

                    The installer is called Calamares and it appears like below.

                    (Calamares as Debian 10 installer)
                    Note: to remind you, Calamares is the same installer we found at Manjaro and KDE Neon, as the rival to Ubiquity Installer we found at Ubuntu. As a side note, any other tutorial for other distro as long as it's Calamares actually can be applied to Debian 10 as now Debian uses Calamares.

                    2. Selecting Language, Keyboard, and Region
                    First, on the first page of the installer, select the Language you wish. Standard language is American English and this is fine.

                    Note: if you choose the other, for instance Japanese, then the rest of installation will appear in Japanese and your finished Debian system will be also presented in Japanese.

                    On the second page, click on the map where you live. For instance, if you choose Indonesia, then your Debian system will use Indonesia's time, dates, currency, and numbers formats.

                    On the third page, leave the standard option as is (English US+Default), unless you wish to use a specific layout like Arabic, Japanese, Russian, or other.

                    3. Partitioning
                    This is the most crucial step. You will create 2 partitions at least, one as main, one more as swap. I strongly suggest you to use EXT2 non-journaling filesystem instead of EXT4 journaling one for media like USB Flash Drive. Here, I formatted my flash drive with one EXT2 13GB as main partition for Debian and another one (2GB) as swap. This way, anywhere you go with the drive you will always have a swap partition even though the computer you will be using has no swap.

                    i) Selecting the disk drive:

                    On the top selection list, select the name of USB Flash Drive. My example here is /dev/sdb SanDisk Cruzer Glide 3.0.

                    Note: if the flash drive does not appear here, while other flash drive appears, you may need to format first that drive and try again here.

                    ii) Selecting manual partitioning:

                    Click Manual Partitioning option to enter the advanced partitioner. This is equal to "Something Else" option on Ubiquity installer.

                    iii) Editing partitions on the drive:

                    • Select the free space.
                    • Click Create button.

                    iv) Creating first partition:
                    • Size: 14GB or 13000MiB
                    • File System: ext2
                    • Mount point: /

                    v) Creating swap partition:
                    • Size: 2GB or 1900MiB
                    • File system: linuxswap

                    Special for UEFI: Create EFI Partition:
                    Take 500MB from the main one and determine File system: FAT32 and Mount Point: /boot/efi. This will create a special EFI Partition in the flash drive. This way, your drive will always have 3 partitions everywhere: main, swap, and EFI.

                    4. Bootloader & Credentials
                    Change the bootloader location selection to the name of the flash drive. It's the same drive where your main partition is. My example here is SanDisk Cruzer Glide.

                    Creating username and password:
                    This account will be your login account and the password will be your sudo (administrator) password.

                    On the sixth page, carefully read the information at the bottom. Make sure the partition, the filesystem, and number of them are all correct without any mistake. Do not let any mistake occur, for instance, your HDD selected instead of your USB Flash Drive, while you do not wish that. Once verified, press Install button. The real partitioning and installation will go after this and you cannot go back anymore.

                    5. Waiting & Finish
                    All you need to do now is waiting the remaining process to be finished. On my practice, this takes up to 1 hour.

                    Finished installation will show "All done." message. To end this, click Done button and you will be restarted to boot to your Debian system.

                    Now, your USB Flash Drive has Debian 10 installed and you can run it anywhere you go. Congratulations!

                    This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                    Debian 10 "Buster" Released with Download Links, Mirrors, and Torrents

                    Tuesday 9th of July 2019 03:50:00 PM
                    Debian 10 "Buster" released at 6 July 2019 with Long Term Support (LTS) lifespan of 5 years and 7 different desktop environments. Now, the Live Editions are available with Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE, XFCE, LXDE, LXQt, and MATE user interfaces. I listed here only the DVD versions and divided them into two architectures 32-bit and 64-bit. I also listed below the Checksums and where to get the Source Code ISOs. This is a compilation of all Debian 10 official download links including several mirrors and torrents. Happy downloading!

                    Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.1. Official Downloads
                    Debian 10.0 comes in two type of installers, Standard Edition (install-only) and Live Edition (live+install). If you want a standard installation ISO, take the Standard Edition below. If you want LiveCD with multiple desktop environments of choices, take the LiveCD Edition below.

                    Installer edition:

                    For installing, just DVD1 is enough.

                    LiveCD edition:

                    2. Mirrors

                    Standard Edition mirrors (Poliwangi):

                    Live Edition mirrors (Datautama):


                    Standard Edition mirrors (Jaist):

                    32-bit64-bitLive Edition mirrors (Jaist):


                    Standard Edition mirrors (University of Sao Paulo): 

                    32-bit64-bitLive Edition mirrors:

                    South Africa

                    Standard Edition mirrors (Internet Solutions):

                    Live Edition mirrors (Internet Solutions):

                    3. Torrents
                    I strongly recommend downloading using BitTorrent instead of regular ways above. This way, you help yourself (often, it's far more faster) and help others (it reduces heavy load on Debian's servers).

                    Standard Edition torrents:

                    Live Edition torrents:

                    4. Checksums
                    These are MD5SUM values of all Debian 10.0 Standard (install-only) Editions:
                    5206549aab4b54026aa6dcd026f8ffcb  debian-10.0.0-amd64-DVD-1.iso
                    7dde7b1787bd1d628958d915e92c2e0d  debian-10.0.0-amd64-DVD-2.iso
                    edf3256c7504a0694be25d4d9367009d  debian-10.0.0-amd64-DVD-3.iso

                    c2eb3092d9be2b8081f1526b37d6ac6d debian-10.0.0-i386-DVD-1.iso
                    1d5660465304b25497b991b682419101 debian-10.0.0-i386-DVD-2.iso
                    a71ad496ebfaa0d6faf6014bcab67299 debian-10.0.0-i386-DVD-3.iso

                    These are MD5SUM values of all Debian 10.0 Live Editions:
                    e73b3cf4a3610cd4032d94969edb040a  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-cinnamon.iso
                    6ad2e9bfd69bb6e348694728a0e75243  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-gnome.iso
                    045f0456072179c47f7f20fdb0b845ce  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-kde.iso
                    bd025c7ac8556055d7766be8cab5b479  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-lxde.iso
                    354770ef7e1ea3d02ecb539ab0b16090  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-lxqt.iso
                    863b340e57815f6f3cf1b7d46aa57fc1  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-mate.iso
                    c4c9ad312a5d1c76241ff17d6e7264ef  debian-live-10.0.0-amd64-xfce.iso

                    226f259e53dcbb073720114ddbe3dde3 debian-live-10.0.0-i386-cinnamon.iso
                    04fb8e6ab7fe4433bb0e58c2dac59806 debian-live-10.0.0-i386-gnome.iso
                    3344a2073305624c79b57eb1693f2a3b debian-live-10.0.0-i386-kde.iso
                    3d45a8eba510a99fe0a4515638cc30c5 debian-live-10.0.0-i386-lxde.iso
                    d3fdf4d6cf2ccd8f551eb7b54fcc9382 debian-live-10.0.0-i386-lxqt.iso
                    863bd11f35c08babec04fd5cc1de5d5e debian-live-10.0.0-i386-mate.iso
                    7305818b4ea1eaffdd6a5a4f64d6337f debian-live-10.0.0-i386-xfce.iso
                    5. Source Code
                    As always, Debian 10.0 comes with Source Code ISOs. If you wish to redistribute Debian and comply with GNU GPL requirements, you can grab these to accompany your installer ISOs above.

                    More about it you can read Selling Free Software is OK! and Compliance Practical Guide.

                      6. How to Download DVD4 to DVD16?
                      Debian 10.0 consists of no less than total sixteen DVDs. The only ISOs available are DVD1, DVD2, and DVD3. However, DVD4 to DVD16 are missing. Fortunately, you can download them yourselves by using jidgo program to the links here:

                      Donate to Debian Project
                      Debian is a giant, worldwide, non-profit project. Many individuals, corporations, and others donate to Debian to support all the amazing works we all benefit from. You can help Debian Project by donating to

                      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                      Import Color Palettes (Swatches) for GIMP and Inkscape on Ubuntu

                      Saturday 6th of July 2019 03:56:00 AM

                      There are many color palettes you can download on the net. The secret is, GIMP palettes are compatible to Inkscape. You can import palettes to both GIMP and Inkscape easily. On GNU/Linux system, you need to put the file with .gpl extension into ~/.config/GIMP/x.y/palettes/ and ~/.config/inkscape/palettes/, respectively. And then restart the app to enable the color swatches. I use Nord Color Palette as example here. See the procedures below and more free palettes ready to download. Happy coloring!

                      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

                      Copy the .gpl file to ~/.config/GIMP/x.y/palettes/ directory (where x.y is the GIMP version number). For instance here, Nord Color Palette file is nord.gpl and I copied it to /home/ubuntu/.config/GIMP/2.9/palettes/ directory as my username is 'ubuntu' and GIMP version is '2.9'.

                      Run GIMP and click the triangle button > Add Tab > Palettes > then a new palette tab added and the palette (Nord here) should appear there.

                      Double-click the palette name (Nord here) to show the colors. Example below shows the fifteen Nord colors ready to use on GIMP.


                      Copy the .gpl file into ~/.config/inkscape/palettes/ directory.

                      Restart Inkscape and you should find Nord Color Palette among other palettes via bottom palette > triangle button on right > Nord. You can also enable the swatches by pressing Ctrl+Shift+W. Picture below also shows the fifteen Nord colors ready to use on Inkscape.

                      More Palettes
                      Fortunately, there are so many color palettes available out there.  From Material Design to Pantone color swatches, and more. The procedures to import them are the same as above. You can start from these links.

                      (Denilson's awesome collection of color palettes)

                      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                      Plasma 5.15 and 5.16 on Kubuntu and Other Distros

                      Monday 1st of July 2019 02:34:00 PM
                      (Plasma 5.16 on Kubuntu 19.04)
                      KDE Project released its latest desktop Plasma 5.15 at February and Plasma 5.16 at June this year. This article informs how to install the latest one on Kubuntu Disco 19.04 and --if you cannot upgrade-- what other distros available for you preinstalled with either of both versions. Enjoy!

                      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.
                      Release Notes

                      Notes Before Upgrading
                      Do you need newer Plasma? Most people will not need it. But if you want to, I suggest you to do this on a separate experimental system and not on your daily work one.

                      For Cosmic 19.04, Plasma 5.15 is preinstalled already.

                      Plasma 5.16 is available from PPA. To install it:

                      1) Run command lines:
                      $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports
                      $ sudo apt-get install plasma-desktop plasma-workspace plasma-framework
                      2) Logout.

                      3) Login. Check start menu > About > it should say Plasma 5.16 now.

                      (Once upgraded, System Info will say it's 5.16 already)
                      Note: that three packages should be enough to get a working Plasma 5.16 and the installation costs only +/-20MB data. If you wish to have full upgrade (with larger data required), follow official guide.

                      Other Distros
                      If you wish to download a distro with Plasma 5.16 included, see KDE Neon. I suggest to pick the User Edition without hesitation.

                      Other than that, latest PCLinuxOS released June is now including 5.16 as well.

                      If you don't want the latest one, the two successors of Mandriva, OpenMandriva Lx 4 (released June) and Mageia 7 (just released today) both include Plasma 5.15. If you want Slackware-based one, have a look at Porteus 5 Release Candidate 1 (also released June). These distros are all LiveCDs so you can instantly use Plasma without installing the OS.

                      (Websites of Neon, PCLinuxOS, and OpenMandriva)
                      Last but not least, if you want to manually install latest Plasma on other distros, for example Manjaro or Exherbo, please refer to official information instead.

                      Happy KDE!

                      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                      Upgrade from Windows 7 to Ubuntu Part 1: Intro

                      Sunday 30th of June 2019 03:54:00 PM
                      (Ubuntu version 18.04 is suitable to replace Windows 7)
                      Ubuntu is a free, libre, easy to use, secure, popular desktop operating system capable to replace Windows 7. As many people anticipated, soon Windows 7 will cease away just like XP, and this is the time for them to consider switching to GNU/Linux operating system. This article is the first part of my migration guide to Ubuntu for Windows 7 users anywhere. You will find here intro to Ubuntu and its goodness, its user interface, difference to Windows, and its terminology. I'm trying my best to make every part short and easy enough to understand for everybody. Finally, enjoy Ubuntu!

                      Subscribe to UbuntuBuzz Telegram Channel to get article updates directly.

                      Welcome to Ubuntu!
                      Congratulations to all Windows 7 users who planned to switch to Ubuntu! I really prepared this article series to welcome you and to help you knowing Ubuntu more. As we know, Microsoft prepared to end Windows 7 support at 2020 or the year where Ubuntu 20.04 LTS would be released. This very moment is a good chance for you to prepare everything as early as possible. I write this article for beginners and I hope everybody finds it useful. Enjoy and have a successful switch!

                      (Ubuntu Official Website: a good start to learn Ubuntu is to visit its online page)

                      Ubuntu in one paragraph
                      Ubuntu is a popular computer operating system developed by Canonical Ltd., that is free and libre, easy to use, modern and complete with worldwide community and commercial support. Its name comes from ancient African word meaning humanity to others. Ubuntu is capable to replace Windows or macOS in everybody's computing life. Ubuntu first released in 2004 as version 4.10 and reached version 18.04 in 2018. Everybody can obtain Ubuntu gratis at its website

                      (The official Ubuntu logo with the famous Circle of Friends)
                      Full index of this whole series is below. However, I might change this on the way.

                      Part 1: Intro
                      • - Freedom and your rights
                      • - Computers and hardware
                      • - User interface
                      • - What you can do with ubuntu
                      • - What makes Ubuntu different to Windows
                      • - Virus & antivirus
                      • - References for you to learn from
                      • - Terminology

                      Part 2: Releases
                      • - History
                      • - Comparing to Windows releases
                      • - Debian as upstream
                      • - LTS and regular

                      Part 3: Applications
                      • - Sources
                      • - Comparison

                      Part 4: Installing
                      • - Difference to Windows installation
                      • - Guide

                      Part 5: Using
                      • - Different user's behaviors
                      • - Knowing the desktop
                      • - Knowing file manager
                      • - Knowing archiver
                      • - Knowing multimedia player

                      Part 6: Managing
                      • - Software management
                      • - Backup

                      Part 7: Setting
                      • - Knowing control panel
                      • - Knowing terminal
                      • - Knowing system monitor
                      • - Some important commands

                      Part 8: LibreOffice
                      • - Features and formats
                      • - Social change
                      • - Writer tricks
                      • - Impress tricks

                      1. Freedom and Your Rights
                      Free software movement pioneered by the FSF opened our eyes that every computer software should be free, meaning, fully controlled by the user rather than the developer. Such software is called free software, or, libre software (some call it open source), because the user is on full control (unlimited) over the software. On the contrary, software that is not free is called nonfree, or proprietary software, controlled by the developer not by the user although running on user's computing. Ubuntu is free software, Windows is nonfree software. Ubuntu is one among hundreds of free GNU/Linux operating systems publicly available today.

                       (GNU Manifesto, published at FSF website, the 1985 milestone of free software movement around the world)
                      (Ubuntu Mission page: a long page (split on two browser) declaring the mission of Ubuntu Project to bring Free Software and Open Source to widest audience)

                      i) Using
                      • Windows: limited, you are prohibited to do several things and you must agree to an agreement before using it.
                      • Ubuntu: unlimited, and does not require agreement to use it.
                      ii) Copying
                      • Windows: no, you have no right to copy Windows as you wish. Although you have purchased it.
                      • Ubuntu: yes, you have full right to copy Ubuntu as much as you wish.

                      iii) Installing
                      • Windows: limited, only one copy of Windows for one computer for no more than one user. Installing one for multiple computers is prohibited.
                      • Ubuntu: unlimited, you have full rights to install one Ubuntu for multiple computers, whatever the number is, either with cost or gratis.

                      iv) Selling
                      • Windows: no, you are prohibited to sell copies of Windows, modified or not.
                      • Ubuntu: yes, you have full rights to sell copies of Ubuntu as much as you wish and whatever price you agreed upon with the buyers. 

                       (Thanks to free software licenses within Ubuntu, we can find people sell Ubuntu CDs online like, Amazon, etc.)

                      v) Modifying
                      • Windows: no, you are prohibited to modify Windows code. For example, you are prohibited to change either time limitation or online activation functionality of Windows.
                      • Ubuntu: yes, you have full right to modify Ubuntu's source code and binary code.

                      vi) Sharing
                      • Windows: no, copying is already prohibited and sharing to other people is automatically prohibited as well. Lending and renting Windows CD to friends are also prohibited.
                      • Ubuntu: yes, you have full rights to copy, share, lend, share Ubuntu to anyone as much as you wish.

                      vii) Obtaining source code
                      • Windows: no, you have no right over source code of Windows. Even the license does not mention the existence of that source code at all.
                      • Ubuntu: yes, Ubuntu serves every user special repository of source code plus ISO images of source code as well for each released version. Ubuntu licenses guarantees every user rights to obtain source code.

                      2. Computer and Installation
                      Today, we can purchase computers and laptops preinstalled with Ubuntu just like those available with Windows 7. Note the brands: Dell, HP, Lenovo, System76, Entroware, Acer, and many more brands certified by Canonical Inc. And when we install Ubuntu on a computer, normally it would detect all hardware automatically and you do not need any "Driver Pack CD".

                      (A screenshot of Hewlett-Packard website showing their laptops and computers with Ubuntu pre-installed)

                      ((a) Dell XPS 13 endorsed on Ubuntu website (b) Entroware from UK sells laptops with Ubuntu (c) system76 from US sells laptops with Pop!_OS and Ubuntu)
                      A normal Ubuntu installation would finish in about 15 minutes. This including all device driver so Ubuntu users do not need "Driver Pack CD".  The installation procedures are a lot more easier than Windows. You may see Ubuntu 18.04 installation guide with pictures here.

                      (Installation screen (at initial step) of Ubuntu 18.04)
                      3. User Interface
                      Ubuntu user interface is easy to use, simple, yet useful for everybody to run applications and work quickly. To make it a lot more easy for you, actually this desktop resembles Android user interface more than Windows. There are three important things on it: (a) the desktop in general, (b) the start menu, and (c) the overview. First, every application running appears with black titlebar and orange Close button on right side while the application icon resides on the vertical panel on left. Second, start menu is opened by pressing 3x3 dots button on bottom or instead you can type to search installed applications. Third, you can see all running apps in one screen by pressing Super key alone.

                      ((a) Desktop with two applications running (b) Start menu opened showing apps installed (c) Overview to show all currently running apps)
                      Next thing important is the file manager as its the heart of your desktop computing. On Windows, you live with Explorer. On Ubuntu, you live with Nautilus. One thing you need to know is: Nautilus is very simple and a lot simpler than Explorer. This is Nautilus File Manager you need to know. And one more thing, its search functionality is amazingly fast.

                      ((a) Nautilus viewing folders on Ubuntu (b) It presents files and folders in Detailed View mode (c) Options available to enhance sorting, zooming, etc. as you wish)
                      Not less important, on Ubuntu you will also find Properties Dialog once you right-click a file and select Properties. A typical Properties Dialog shows information such as icon, file name, file size, folder items, path, permissions, and associated applications.

                      ((a) Information of a folder (b) Access rights and ownership information of a folder (c) Default app associated to open a JPEG file or more famous called "Open With")

                      4. What you can do with ubuntu
                      Practically everything you can do with Windows. Ubuntu is suitable for everybody including casual users, students and teachers, designers and programmers, researchers and everybody else.
                      • Operate your computer.
                      • Making documents.
                      • Browse the internet and have chat.
                      • Play audio and video.
                      • Play video games.
                      • Access your files, partitions, and disk, including Windows' ones.
                      • Programming (desktop, game, web, embedded, mobile development).
                      • Editing audio and video. 
                      • Graphic design, for 2D and 3D, vector and bitmap.
                      • Run Windows applications (using Wine).

                      ((a) Ubuntu runs Inkscape and GIMP for graphic designing (b) Geany for programming and GNU Octave to replace MATLAB (c) A funny blocks game and Audacity audio editor)
                      5. Difference between windows and ubuntu
                      Every new adopter of Ubuntu needs to know technical differences between it and Windows before switching.

                      i) Repository:
                      Ubuntu has software repository, Windows has no such thing. Ubuntu user installs software from a central repository, Windows user installs software from multiple different sources. A repository is a place where software packages collected for a particular Ubuntu version. Ubuntu repository available worldwide as servers (called mirrors) and normally one country has at least one. Repository is one cause a GNU/Linux distro called distro because it distributes software.

                      (List of Ubuntu repository servers around the world with total of 400+ available today)
                      ii) LiveCD:
                      In order to test Ubuntu on your computer, no installation required, no change to your hard disk either, simply run it. This is called LiveCD. On the contrary, to test a version of Windows, Seven for example, you must actually install it hence changing your hard disk. No LiveCD feature on Windows.

                       (While booting, selecting "Try Ubuntu" enables LiveCD and you may enjoy full system as you please)
                      iii) Filesystem:
                      Ubuntu disk filesystem is EXT4 and Windows' is NTFS. Ubuntu can read-write to Windows partitions, but Windows cannot read-write to Ubuntu partitions.  

                      iv) Antivirus:
                      Ubuntu users do not install antivirus, while Windows users install.

                      v) Unique desktop:
                      User interface design of Ubuntu is quite different to Windows' one. The desktop environment has a name, it is GNOME, while Windows has no such separation between the OS and the interface. The taskbar is vertically placed on left, tray on top-right, and start menu button on bottom-left.

                      (GNOME official website: this is the source where Ubuntu got its awesome user interface)

                      vi) Add/remove program:
                      This is the actual biggest difference. Windows has its own way to install software, so that Ubuntu with its own way. On Windows, a user visits multiple websites to download multiple applications separately as files, and later on install them. On Ubuntu, a user runs their Software Center ("Package Manager"), search there, and install applications from there as well. Extension of Windows application is .exe while Ubuntu's is .deb.

                      vii) Command lines:
                      Ubuntu user types command lines, Windows user doesn't. It's not either good or bad, easy or not, but it's the way. Do not afraid of command lines, you can learn more with this guide.

                      6. Virus and antivirus
                      GNU/Linux is really good news to Windows users as we are living without virus and do not need antivirus. Ubuntu users do not install antivirus. Many users switching to Ubuntu find their happiness as they are finally free from worries caused by virus. See GNU Project's statement "GNU/Linux does not need antivirus software.".

                      One question always remains about why such good thing happened to GNU/Linux (and Ubuntu in particular) and keep happening. The answer is your rights, it's because the developer has fulfilled every user's rights. On the contrary, Microsoft does not respects rights of all Windows users. What I'm talking here are the rights to understand how the system works (including right to get the source code) and to improve it (including fixing the vulnerabilities) both individually and collectively. Only free operating system enables worldwide people in all countries to keep security together and share fixes to each others.

                      7. References for you
                      Yo need to know references Ubuntu users usually visit to get help, support, and --of course-- friends.
                      •, sophisticated intro for newbies including a friendly FAQ
                      •, where Ubuntu users asking questions and give answers.
                      •, same as askubuntu, but far older, still the biggest one, and includes other important things (joining in OS development etc.)
                      •, information of worldwide vendors selling laptops and computers preinstalled with GNU/Linux or Ubuntu

                      (Websites you can read to know more and more about Ubuntu and GNU/Linux)
                      8. Terminology
                      (Foldoc, an online dictionary of computing can help you understand more terms)
                      One of important things for everybody learning Ubuntu is knowing the basic terminology. In Ubuntu community, there are many terms used day by day related to every important tasks. So, knowing frequently used terms are helpful for you to ease you enter this awesome community. I tried to present the most frequently used terms for you as the basics:
                      free software:
                      Computer software that the user is free. It means user has unlimited rights to use, study, modify, and share the software with its source code. This term is endorsed by FSF. This is antonym to nonfree software.

                      open source:
                      Synonym to free software. This term is published and endorsed by OSI.

                      nonfree software:
                      Computer software that the user is not free. Also called proprietary software. It means user is prohibited (his/her rights removed) to use, study, modify, or share the software and mostly without its source code. This is antonym to free software.

                      A part of operating system that is responsible to manage hardware resources.

                      • to distribute: to convey software to other person. 
                      • distributor: the person doing the distribution.
                      • distribution: a GNU/Linux operating system such as Ubuntu that is available as the OS and the repository.
                      • distro: synonym to distribution.
                      Free software operating system GNU with Linux as its kernel. Every GNU/Linux operating system comes from integrating Linux to GNU. For instance, Ubuntu is GNU/Linux and Windows is not.

                      i386 and amd64:
                      Also called 32-bit and 64-bit, respectively. Both are two computer architectures among other computer architectures.

                      A free software kernel compatible to Unix developed by Linus Torvalds since 1992 along with the community.

                      fedora and opensuse and manjaro:
                      Most popular GNU/Linux operating systems other than Ubuntu among others.

                      operating system:
                      A software product which without it a computer cannot operate. Operating system is an integration of certain important programs. For example, Windows and Ubuntu are operating systems.

                      Computer designed to put on a desk; operating system designed with GUI and operated with mouse.

                      Operating system as a computer file. The file format is .iso. For example, Ubuntu operating system is available worldwide (can be downloaded) as ISO file.

                      package manager: 
                      A software tool to help user install software to the operating system. For instance, Ubuntu has APT and Android has Play Store.

                      Mathematical number as ID of an ISO image published on the internet. A corrupt ISO image file (or the fake one) would have different ID number with the ID number published by the original developer.

                      Some notes
                      Several things I should also mention here. In fact, although Ubuntu is free GNU/Linux operating system, it still contains nonfree software in the kernel and repository. And we are aware of 2012 criticism by the FSF about spyware in Ubuntu. I'm still recommending Ubuntu, as its the easiest one for widest people possible in my opinion (and once you learn it, using other distro like Trisquel OS is easy), so with this information you can consider and decide.

                      Next one...
                      Next part will talk about Ubuntu release versions in short and simple way possible. I hope this first one really helps Windows 7 users to know Ubuntu. See you next time and enjoy!

                      This article is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0.

                      More in Tux Machines

                      Events: LibreOffice Conference 2020, MariaDB's Thomas Boyd and Upcoming Linux Foundation’s Open Source Summit

                      • LibreOffice Conference 2020 Proposals

                        The Document Foundation has received two different proposals for the organization of LibOCon 2020 from the Turkish and German communities. When this has happened in the past, in 2012 (Berlin vs Zaragoza) and 2013 (Milan vs Montreal), TDF Members have been asked to decide by casting their vote. This document provides an outline of the two proposals, which are attached in their original format.

                      • Thomas Boyd Discusses Which Open Source Database is the Best Fit for the Business

                        The world's largest and most innovative businesses are turning to enterprise open source databases for mission-critical applications, with the most popular open source relational databases being MariaDB, MySQL, and Postgres. However, while all three of these databases are open source, mature, and available in enterprise editions, there are significant differences between them — both in terms of application development as well as database administration and operations. DBTA recently held a webinar featuring Thomas Boyd, director of technical marketing, MariaDB Corporation, who discussed the differences between MariaDB, MySQL, and Postgres. [...] EnterpriseDB is heap only while MySQL and MariaDB offer InnoDB, Columnar, Aria, MyRocks, and more.

                      • Open Source Summit welcomes Platform9 experts

                        Cloud-native experts share tips and practical learnings for Kubernetes in the enterprise, Kubernetes on bare metal or with stateful MySQL databases, and optimizing the cost and performance of Serverless applications.

                      • Transform Your Career: Attend Open Source Summit North America this August in San Diego

                        For the last decade, The Linux Foundation’s Open Source Summit has proven to be invaluable for attendees.  A 2018 participant recently wrote an article on stating “Last August, I arrived at the Vancouver Convention Centre to give a lightning talk and speak on a panel at Open Source Summit North America 2018. It’s no exaggeration to say that this conference—and applying to speak at it—transformed my career.” We encourage you to read the article and discover why attending Open Source Summit can be a game changer for you as well.

                      OSS Leftovers

                      • Intervalometerator: Open Source Code for a Remote Timelapse DSLR

                        Want to set up a remote DSLR for shooting a time-lapse? The Intervalometerator (AKA ‘intvlm8r’) is an open-source intervalometer that can help you do so at minimal hardware cost (as long as you’re comfortable tinkering with hardware and software). Created by Sydney-based coder Greig Sheridan and his photographer partner Rocky over the course of a year, the Intervalometerator is designed to be both cheap and easy to build with familiar tools and using Raspberry Pi and Arduino microcontrollers. “My partner and I have been working for over twelve months now on an intervalometer in order to shoot a DSLR-based time-lapse of the construction of our friends’ home in NZ,” Sheridan tells PetaPixel. “It was at the time a seemingly clever idea for a house-warming present, but it grew like tribbles to consume an incredible amount of effort).

                      • Open Source Tools & Framework: Microservices Perspective
                      • Open Source flexiWAN SD-WAN Software Beta Ships
                      • Agile and open source can complement each other

                        Despite the growing popularity of both Agile development and open-source practices, it’s not often that they come up in the same conversation. When these two concepts do intersect, it’s often to highlight the contradicting viewpoints that these two models supposedly represent. While there are core differences, Agile doesn’t have to be the enemy of open source—in fact, I would argue the opposite.

                      • SD Times Open-Source Project of the Week: Twilio CLI

                        In an effort to help its developers be more productive, Twilio has announced the beta version of Twilio CLI. It is an open-source command line interface that enables developers to access Twilio through their command prompt. “It’s hard to beat the flexibility and power that a CLI provides at development time. Until now, there was no CLI designed for typical communications requirements,” Ashley Roach, the product manager for developer interfaces at Twilio, wrote in a post.

                      • Using open source in your enterprise? What to look out for

                        According to Statista, the open source market was valued at $11.4 billion in 2017 and is estimated to grow to $32.95 billion by 2022, showing it has no intention of slowing down anytime soon. Founded on the belief that collaboration and cooperation build better software, open source sounds closer to a utopian dream than to the cold digital world of programming. Research showed that open source code takes over proprietary one in applications at 57%. This has numerous benefits, such as speeding up the software development process or creating more effective and innovative software. For example, open source frontend development frameworks, such as Angular, are often found in custom web apps, which allows companies to get their products to market at ever-increasing rates. In addition, companies tend to engage open source when at the cusp of technological innovation, especially when it comes to AR, blockchain, IoT, and AI.

                      • Open Source Technology: What's It All About?

                        To understand how open source works, it is important to appreciate where it all began. The very idea behind its inception isn’t exactly a new one. It’s been adopted by scientists for decades. Let’s imagine a scientist working on a project to develop a cure for an illness. If this scientist only published the results and kept the methods a secret, this would undoubtedly inhibit scientific discovery and further research in this area. On the other hand, teaming up with other researchers and making results and methodologies visible allows for greater and faster innovation. This is the premise from which open source was originally born. Open source refers to software that has an open source code so it can be viewed, modified for a particular need, and importantly, shared (under license). One of the first well known open source initiatives was developed in 1998 by Netscape, which released its Navigator browser as free software and demonstrated the benefits of taking an open source approach. Since then, there have been a number of pivotal moments in open source history that have shaped the technology industry as we know it today. Nowadays, some of the latest technology you use on a daily basis, like your smartphone or laptop, will have been built using open source software. [...] Recent research found that 60 percent of organizations are already using open source software. Many businesses are realizing the benefits that the technology can bring in relation to driving innovation and reducing costs. This in turn is seeing a growing number of organizations integrate open source into their IT operations or even building entire businesses around it. With emerging technologies such as cloud, AI and machine learning only driving this adoption further, open source will continue to play a central and growing role throughout the technology landscape.

                      • How to Take Your Open Source Project from Good to Great

                        Whether or not you expect anyone to contribute to your project, you should be prepared for the possibility of others wanting to help your cause. And when that happens, your contributing guide will show those helpers exactly how they can get involved. This guide, usually in the form of a file, should include information on how one should submit a pull request or open an issue for your project and what kinds of help you’re looking for (bug fixes, design direction, feature requests, etc.).

                      • ForgeRock Delivers Open Source IoT Edge Controller for Device Identity

                        According to a recent announcement, ForgeRock, a platform provider of digital identity management solutions, has launched its IoT Edge Controller, which is designed to provide consumer and industrial manufacturers the ability to deliver trusted identity at the device level.

                      • Browser Settings Too Complex? Let Firefox Handle That for You

                        Firefox SVP David Camp doesn't want internet users wasting time 'understanding how the internet is watching you.'

                      • Exclusive: Automattic CEO Matt Mullenweg on what’s next for Tumblr

                        It’s been a long and winding road for Tumblr, the blogging site that launched a thousand writing careers. It sold to Yahoo for $1.1 billion in 2013, then withered as Yahoo sold itself to AOL, AOL sold itself to Verizon, and Verizon realized it was a phone company after all. Through all that, the site’s fierce community hung on: it’s still Taylor Swift’s go-to social media platform, and fandoms of all kinds have homes there. Verizon sold Tumblr for a reported $3 million this week, a far cry from the billion-dollar valuation it once had. But to Verizon’s credit, it chose to sell Tumblr to Automattic, the company behind WordPress, the publishing platform that runs some 34 percent of the world’s websites. Automattic CEO Matt Mullenweg thinks the future of Tumblr is bright. He wants the platform to bring back the best of old-school blogging, reinvented for mobile and connected to Tumblr’s still-vibrant community, and he’s retaining all 200 Tumblr employees to build that future. It’s the most exciting vision for Tumblr in years. Matt joined Verge reporter Julia Alexander and me on a special Vergecast interview episode to chat about the deal, how it came together, what Automattic’s plans for Tumblr look like, and whether Tumblr might become an open-source project, like WordPress itself. (“That would be pretty cool,” said Matt.) Oh, and that porn ban.

                      Apache: Self Assessment and Security

                      • The Apache® Software Foundation Announces Annual Report for 2019 Fiscal Year

                        The Apache® Software Foundation (ASF), the all-volunteer developers, stewards, and incubators of more than 350 Open Source projects and initiatives, announced today the availability of the annual report for its 2019 fiscal year, which ended 30 April 2019.

                      • Open Source at the ASF: A Year in Numbers

                        332 active projects, 71 million lines of code changed, 7,000+ committers… The Apache Software Foundation has published its annual report for fiscal 2019. The hub of a sprawling, influential open source community, the ASF remains in rude good health, despite challenges this year including the need for “an outsized amount of effort” dealing with trademark infringements, and “some in the tech industry trying to exploit the goodwill earned by the larger Open Source community.” [...] The ASF names 10 “platinum” sponsors: AWS, Cloudera, Comcast, Facebook, Google, LeaseWeb, Microsoft, the Pineapple Fund, Tencent Cloud, and Verizon Media

                      • Apache Software Foundation Is Worth $20 Billion

                        Yes, Apache is worth $20 billion by its own valuation of the software it offers for free. But what price can you realistically put on open source code? If you only know the name Apache in connection with the web server then you are missing out on some interesting software. The Apache Software Foundation ASF, grew out of the Apache HTTP Server project in 1999 with the aim of furthering open source software. It provides a licence, the Apache licence, a decentralized governance and requires projects to be licensed to the ASF so that it can protect the intellectual property rights.

                      • Apache Security Advisories Red Flag Wrong Versions in Patching Gaffe

                        Researchers have pinpointed errors in two dozen Apache Struts security advisories, which warn users of vulnerabilities in the popular open-source web app development framework. They say that the security advisories listed incorrect versions impacted by the vulnerabilities. The concern from this research is that security administrators in companies using the actual impacted versions would incorrectly think that their versions weren’t affected – and would thus refrain from applying patches, said researchers with Synopsys who made the discovery, Thursday. “The real question here from this research is whether there remain unpatched versions of the newly disclosed versions in production scenarios,” Tim Mackey, principal security strategist for the Cybersecurity Research Center at Synopsys, told Threatpost. “In all cases, the Struts community had already issued patches for the vulnerabilities so the patches exist, it’s just a question of applying them.”

                      Google and Android Code

                      • Google releases source code for I/O 2019 app with Android Q gesture nav, dark theme

                        The Google I/O companion app for Android often takes advantage of the latest design stylings and OS features. It demoed Android Q’s gesture navigation and dark theme this year, with the company today releasing the I/O 2019 source code.

                      • Introducing Coil, an open-source Android image loading library backed by Kotlin Coroutines

                        Yesterday, Colin White, a Senior Android Engineer at Instacart, introduced Coroutine Image Loader (Coil). It is a fast, lightweight, and modern image loading library for Android backed by Kotlin.

                      • Google open-sources Live Transcribe’s speech engine

                        Google today open-sourced the speech engine that powers its Android speech recognition transcription tool Live Transcribe. The company hopes doing so will let any developer deliver captions for long-form conversations. The source code is available now on GitHub. Google released Live Transcribe in February. The tool uses machine learning algorithms to turn audio into real-time captions. Unlike Android’s upcoming Live Caption feature, Live Transcribe is a full-screen experience, uses your smartphone’s microphone (or an external microphone), and relies on the Google Cloud Speech API. Live Transcribe can caption real-time spoken words in over 70 languages and dialects. You can also type back into it — Live Transcribe is really a communication tool. The other main difference: Live Transcribe is available on 1.8 billion Android devices. (When Live Caption arrives later this year, it will only work on select Android Q devices.)