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Rianne Schestowitz's blog

Kangaroo on protest

Filed under
Humor

Message From the Editors

Filed under
Site News

Roy and Rianne

Summary: We're still running the site 24/7 every day/week of the year; we're managing to cope with slower news cycles

WE RECENTLY passed the sixteenth anniversary of this site, which is peaking in terms of traffic (record levels and all-time highs for several consecutive weeks). This weekend is very, very slow for news. Very.

We're typically managing to cope with the decline of journalism by digging deeper, finding lesser known sites such as blogs. We're hoping to reach the twentieth anniversary of the site. That's 2024.

Star Trek Thanksgiving: Did I tell you the joke about the flightless bird? Oh, don't get started, Worf... turned out it was a machine

For those who don't follow over RSS feeds (default and recommended as there are no middlemen; access is direct) there are also Twitter (proprietary) and the following accounts in Free software-based networks. Diaspora:

Diaspora logo

Mastodon:

Mastodon logo

Pleroma (Fediverse like Mastodon):

Pleroma logo

Thanks for choosing Tux Machines for news.

In the face of an Orangutan

Filed under
Just talk

Orangutan

Mother of two species.

The camels' outcry

Filed under
Just talk

Camel

When a human doesn't know what to do and people don't know how to tackle the real issue, the animals are becoming the sacrifice. Billion of animals were lost to bushfires alone and millions are slaughtered every day, yet the audacity to kill the camels is astonishing. I wonder what would be the humans' reaction if the animals called for human culling. Think about it.

Koalas Need Our Help

Filed under
Just talk

Koalas Need Our Help

Watching videos/photos of Koalas being rescued from a charred/burning forests in Australia is heart-breaking and devastating. More than 350 Koalas are reported being dead and these numbers are growing. Those who live far from Australia (just like me) can't help physically rescue them, but a small amount of money/donation to sustain the hospital/facilities, volunteers and rescuers is of great help. Koala is just one of the many species that perish from the bushfire and they need our help, so please donate through the GoFundMe page and through other legitimate websites. Help those who support animal welfare.

130,000!

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Site News

LOC number

YAY! It's Tux Machines' 130 thousandth post! (node)

Twins for Meng Meng and Jiao Qing

Filed under
Just talk

Meng Meng

About 8 months ago we had the chance to meet Meng Meng (above) and Jiao Qing, the female and male pandas on loan to Berlin Zoo in Germany. I took lots of photos with them and we stayed in their Pagoda sanctuary a little longer. Seeing them eating, napping and wandering inside their secured place brings joy to my heart. I don't really like seeing animals in the zoo, but if this is the only way to keep and protect them from any harm or from becoming extinct, then so be it. Today, in the news (video) the two adorable pandas became parents as they were having twins; this is good news and I'm so happy for them both. To Meng Meng and Jiao Qing (and also to Berlin Zoo), congratulations!

Microsoft's Deadly Touch

Filed under
Linux

Mask of death

Everything Microsoft touched has died. Remember Nokia, Yahoo and Novell? What happened to these companies and where are they now? This is exactly what Microsoft wants to do to Linux because they don't innovate and they can't compete; so they infiltrate. Sooner or later Linux will be part of those latter companies. Something to watch out for.

Photos: 15-Year Anniversary Party

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Site News

Happy 15th Anniversary to Tux Machines

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Site News

Anniversary of Tux Machines

Summary: Anniversary of Tux Machines is today, a special anniversary too

Today Tux Machines is celebrating its 15th year of existing. When we bought the website it was about 10 years old, so kudos to Susan Linton who devoted time to make and keep the site on pace. We promise to keep the website up to date with lots of insightful OSS/FOSS/Linux/Android-related articles. We hope to continue the job well into the distant future.

Unixstickers

Filed under
Just talk

Unixstickers

Awesome products, will definitely get another bunch of some more stickers soon Smile

Orangutans are some of the most solitary animals critically endangered as human consumption grows; Ban Palm oil Industry.

Filed under
Just talk

Orangutan

Orangutans are some of the most solitary animals critically endangered as human consumption grows.

Orangutans are currently only found in the rainforest of Borneo and Sumatra where both species are endangered. The orangutans' habitat has decreased and is rapidly being devastated by loggers, palm oil plantations, gold miners, and unnatural forest fires.

Watching videos of orangutans over hundreds of times is nerve-wracking, seeing them in distress and in great trauma as babies watch their mothers hacked and killed by poachers. They are using their machete which is so inhumane, as many of these infants die without the help of their mother and some other infants are sold as pets, ending in the hands of their 'owner', maltreated and malnourished, making their situation even worse. This happened because of the humongous demand and consumption of humans. Guilt is creeping on me; while enjoying my food and applying all the cosmetics for vanity it is like slaughtering an innocent and beautiful primate slowly and accurately. I wasn't thinking at all; I'm closely blinded of my needs, having never bothered to think that somewhere out there someone is tormented. I can't let this happen any longer. I must act and make a stand and be the voice of orangutans. I'm calling for everyone to ban and stop buying palm oil products. We must stop deforestation and the palm oil industry, strongly and swiftly before orangutans and all other animals sail into extinction.

Beijing Zoo is No Place for Pandas

Filed under
Just talk

Pandas in Beijing Zoo
Photo credit: Nick Hopkins

I am a Panda lover. I work as a support engineer in an I.T company here in the United Kingdom. Most of my spare time is spent watching different Panda videos -- both old and new videos. Basically, it is my therapy; a 'stress release' for me. I find them to be adorable and precious creatures. As a matter of fact, I would like to volunteer to come to Sichuan. I want to experience and feel what it's like to be a Panda keeper, to be able to interact with them for real. The Panda is China's National Treasure, so it's a shame to watch the Panda videos from Beijing zoo, as the place is disgusting and not ideal for Pandas to live in (and for sure for all the rest of the animals who unfortunately got stuck in this prison cell).

The place looks like a ghost town. Lifeless and languished. Knowing that Pandas wear a thick fur on their body, can you imagine what it feels for them in 30C or 35C (summer temperature)? What it probably feels like all the time? Come on, if you really care, you must do something now, otherwise these Pandas will die. Please bring them back to their sanctuary where they really belong.

Winner: Triathlon in The Spa At The Midland

Filed under
Just talk

The Spa At The Midland - Rianne SchestowitzI never thought I could win in a challenge of 3 events.

I guess age is not an excuse for giving up... more so in physical fitness; as the saying goes, health is wealth.... consequently, I'll keep doing my routine and even yoga. It is extremely relaxing!

Motivation, hard work, discipline. By-product is triumph... Smile

Acer Chromebook 15 for Linux and Wimbledon

Filed under
Reviews

Earlier this month my husband and I needed a replacement for the Chromebook that I had installed Linux on after Christmas because the keyboard developed a fault. This was a good opportunity to get an upgrade and to connect the 28-inch monitor to it, allowing us to watch Wimbledon over the Internet (we don't watch TV).

Unboxing photos:

Setting up the machine:

It comes with Chrome OS, but I don't want that:

Switch to developer mode:

Setting it up to not be so locked down:

With Roy's help, installing Ubuntu LTS:

Nearly done:

Running KDE/Plasma (my favourite):

Running XFCE:

Running Unity (which I still try to use on a daily basis after using KDE for years):

We have since then bought a cabinet for the external screen and Roy finished building it 2 days ago, so now we can watch shows while we work (4 screen combined using Synergy).

Spring in Tux Machines

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Site News

Tux Machines traffic

Tux Machines traffic has been increasing during spring. The DDOS attacks are behind us thankfully, the latest problem is just a lot of spam, which we are deleting as soon as we can.

Happy Easter and Remarkable Spring

Filed under
Just talk

Happy Easter

My Chromebook with KDE

Filed under
Reviews

I got my new Chromebook... Smile Yes, you've heard me right, but wait before you raise your eyebrows...

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

I installed Ubuntu on it as my default OS, though I can go back to Chrome OS any time I want. I don't see any point in doing it.

HP Chromebook 14

Roy helped me do the partitioning, configuration and tweaking. We configure it in a way so that I can use it in my work, not just for Facebooking, tweeting and chatting's sake.

HP Chromebook 14

HP Chromebook 14

I am still exploring the machine, basically familiarising with the keyboard and all the function settings on it. The Kubuntu environment which I chose will need some adjustments; also the applications which I downloaded are a bit different from the other laptop's (which I used to work on).

HP Chromebook 14

Change is good, but it requires a lot of patience and adaptation to the new environment.

HP Chromebook 14

I like my Chromebook very much. It is one of the best gifts I have received from my husband. It is more practical, it gives me more confidence to learn and to develop more of my computer skills. Innovation is fast-moving and technology is progressing, so you definitely need to catch up with it. Unless you want to be left behind by choice...

Vacation Photos

Filed under
Just talk

Tux and Rianne

Last week we did not post as much news as usual because we went to the south of England with Roy's sister. We did take some photos.

How my uncle became a Linux user

Filed under
Linux

It has been a month since my relatives from Bradford visited us here in Manchester. Our usual routine if they come to spend the holidays with us is to go to the gym to work out, to run on the treadmill and play pingpong. The best part of the workout, which we enjoy the most, is swimming afterwards. We get relaxed at the jacuzzi and then get hot and sweaty inside the sauna. It is a good exercise and offers relaxation after a stressful day of work. We have so much fun in the gym.

We arrived home around 8:00 pm after having a good round of walk in Manchester City Stadium. We were lucky to see the Manchester City football team; they had a match against Roma, so crowds were flooding in the streets. There were about a thousand spectators coming to watch the game who walked past us.
At home I prepared the meal. We had candlelights and red wine to enjoy while having our soup, vegetable salad and chicken for dinner; mango smoothies were the final dessert.

After the meal we chatted about the economy, healthcare, jobs, business, and technology in the U.K. I have learned a lot from Albert, my aunt's husband. He is an economist.

Albert explained to me that he was struggling with his PC. It was a brand new PC. It had a touchscreen and the laptop was thin and powerful. Albert's problem was not the laptop. As it turns out, his problem was Windows. The computer came with Windows 8. He already wasted a lot of money because shops exploited him. He did not even have an office suite installed. The computer was useless. He hardly used it. He hardly even had any files on it.

I then explained to Albert about GNU/Linux. I told him about Stallman and GNU. I also told him about the dirty tricks of Microsoft and about the true Bill Gates, including his involvement in GMO. Albert listened to me and he wanted to know more. I hope he learned something from me, just as I had learned from him.

The following morning I asked my husband for help. He was working all night and in the morning he was available to help Albert. Based on Roy's analysis, the machine was full of malware or some other mess. It was almost impossible to do anything with it. Windows 8 was hard to work with and it was hardly even possible to download and install a program like LibreOffice. The interface was confusing. It took ages to do very simple things.

Albert insisted that we should install GNU/Linux, but we didn't have a recent version of a distro at that time. Either way, Albert was so frustrated with Windows that he was willing to throw it all down the drain, along with his files.

This was my first time seeing Windows 8. I usually use Android or KDE. Microsoft Windows has become full of pop-ups, spam, marketing and other garbage. I am glad to use GNU/Linux and Albert will soon join us. By all means, Albert now wants to use Open Source and he already learns how to use LibreOffice.

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More in Tux Machines

today's leftovers

  • Linux Magazine Celebrates 20 Years

    With Issue 240, Linux Magazine is celebrating its 20th year of print publication. Given the transformations that have taken place in Linux, open source, and in publishing during the past 20 years, this is a remarkable achievement. Reflecting on these changes, Linux Magazine editor-in-chief Joe Casad said, “I’m struck by how much Linux has changed since I started this job—and how much the publishing industry has itself remained in a perpetual state of reinvention. It is one thing when the subject of the magazine is continually transforming—and quite another when the very context in which you operate is a moving target.” [...] Linux Magazine has weathered the various industry shifts with consistency of vision and a small, dedicated workforce. Casad credits the internationally distributed team of professionals, “who stay calm under pressure and show up every day with ideas and good energy,” with much of the magazine’s long-running success.

  • Security updates for Thursday

    Security updates have been issued by Fedora (firefox, libproxy, mbedtls, samba, and zeromq), openSUSE (chromium and virtualbox), Red Hat (firefox and kernel), SUSE (cifs-utils, conmon, fuse-overlayfs, libcontainers-common, podman, libcdio, python-pip, samba, and wavpack), and Ubuntu (rdflib). 

  • LibreOffice Documentation Team Status

    While this progress in shortened documentation development time is fairly good, it can be substantially improved by having more contributors on the team. It would be terrific if all contributors were a skilled technical writers, but in reality anyone with a reasonable command of the English language and an eye for detail can make a valuable contribution. No contributor is expected to rewrite entire guide books, although some of our most experienced, long term contributors do exactly that. In fact nothing is expected or demanded of any contributor, other than to let other members of the team know what they what they have chosen to work on. In some cases that might be to update a chapter of an existing guide, or reviewing the work of another team member. Reviewing can take the form of proof reading, or researching the accuracy of the guide information in relation to the software’s actual operation. By identifying yourself as a Docs Team contributor does not mean you are making any permanent or long term commitment, many contributors come and go over long periods according to the demands of their “real” life.

  • Mozilla VR Blog: Firefox Reality 12

    The latest version of Firefox Reality for standalone VR headsets brings a host of long-awaited features we're excited to reveal, as well as improved stability and performance. [...] Look for Firefox Reality 12 available now in the HTC, Pico and Oculus stores. This feature-packed release of Firefox Reality will be the last major feature release for a while as we gear up for a deeper investment in Hubs. But not to worry! Firefox Reality will still be well supported and maintained on your favorite standalone VR platform.

  • Daniel Stenberg: everything curl five years

    At the time of that blog post, the book was already at 13,000 words and 115 written subsections. I still had that naive hope that I would have it nearly “complete” by the summer of 2016. Always the optimist. Today, the book is at over 72,000 words with content in 600 subsections – with just 21 subtitles noted “TBD” to signal that there’s still content to add there. The PDF version of it now clocks in at over 400 pages. I’ve come to realize and accept that it will never be “complete” and that we will just keep on working on it indefinitely since curl itself keeps changing and we keep improving and expanding texts in the book.

  • Amazon announces 'Luna', their own take on cloud game streaming

    Amazon Luna will give you access to certain Channels of games which you subscribe to. The first two announced are Amazon's own Luna+ to get access to a "growing" library and Ubisoft are also confirmed to have their own subscription channel coming to it too. The Luna+ subscription will have 100s of games from big names too like Resident Evil 7, Control, The Surge 2, A Plague Tale: Innocence and a great many more. By the time it launches, it's going to have quite a full library already.

  • How to Install Discord on Ubuntu & Linux Mint (GUI & CLI)
  • Granulate Applies AI to Linux Server Optimization

    Granulate today announced that a platform that leverages machine learning algorithms to optimize Linux server environments running on-premises or in the cloud is now generally available. [...] According to the company, more than 40,000 instances of gAgent have already been deployed by IT teams at PicsArt, Perion, AppsFlyer and Coralogix.

Programming Leftovers

  • In a world where up is down, it's heartwarming to know Internet Explorer still tops list of web dev pain points

    Web developers resent having to deal with Microsoft Internet Explorer and Apple Safari, which they cite among their top three pain points, alongside layout and styling inconsistencies among browsers. This finding comes from the Mozilla Developer Network's 2020 Browser Compatibility Report [PDF], a survey of web development concerns culled from 1,429 responses out of 3,236 – the remainder having been tossed for invalid or missing data. The purpose of the report is to alert the browser vendors to problems so they can be addressed.

  • chemfp's chemistry toolkit I/O API

    This is part of a series of essays about working with SD files at the record and simple text level. In the last two essays I showed examples of using chemfp to process SDF records and to read two record data items. In this essay I'll introduce chemfp's chemistry toolkit I/O API, which I developed to have a consistent way to handle structure input and output when working with the OEChem, RDKit, and Open Babel toolkits.

  • 10 Things We Picked Up From Code Reviewing

    Ever wondered what you could learn from a code review?

  • Mike Driscoll: CodingNomads Tech Talk Series!

    Recently CodingNomads invited me on their Tech Talk series. CodingNomads does online code camps for Python and Java. The Tech Talks are a series of videos that teach or talk about tech. In my case, I got to talk about my favorite programming language, Python!

  • Arm Begins Bringing Up Neoverse N2, Neoverse V1 Support In The GNU Toolchain

    It was just a few days ago that Arm outlined the Neoverse N2 "Perseus" design as a follow-on to the Neoverse N1 and coming concurrently to the next-generation Cortex-A. Now the company has already jumped on beginning their open-source/Linux enablement work around the Neoverse N2. There haven't been any Neoverse N2 additions yet to LLVM/Clang or GCC as the most interesting aspects where it would reveal any new instruction set extensions / capabilities not yet formally announced by Arm (there also isn't any patches out under review on that front either), but a patch out this morning adds Neoverse N2 support to the GNU Assembler (Gas).

  • autoconf-2.69c released [beta]
    We are pleased to announce beta release 2.69c of GNU Autoconf.
    
    This release includes two months of bug fixes since the previous beta,
    2.68b, and eight years of development work since the previous full
    release, 2.69.  See below for the list of significant changes since
    the previous beta.  See the NEWS file for a complete list of
    significant changes since 2.69.
    
    We tentatively plan to make the final release of Autoconf 2.70 at the
    end of October 2020.  Please test this beta with your autoconf
    scripts, and report any problems you find to the Savannah bug tracker:
    
       https://savannah.gnu.org/support/?func=additem&group=autoconf
    
    Please also send general comments and feedback to <autoconf@gnu.org>.
    
    Please also spread this announcement widely, so that as many Autoconf
    users as possible hear about it.
    
    Here are the compressed sources:
      https://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/autoconf-2.69c.tar.gz   (2.0MB)
      https://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/autoconf-2.69c.tar.xz   (1.3MB)
    
    Here are the GPG detached signatures[*]:
      https://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/autoconf-2.69c.tar.gz.sig
      https://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/autoconf/autoconf-2.69c.tar.xz.sig
    
    Use a mirror for higher download bandwidth:
      https://www.gnu.org/order/ftp.html
    
    [*] Use a .sig file to verify that the corresponding file (without the
    .sig suffix) is intact.  First, be sure to download both the .sig file
    and the corresponding tarball.  Then, run a command like this:
    
      gpg --verify autoconf-2.69c.tar.gz.sig
    
    If that command fails because you don't have the required public key,
    then run this command to import it:
    
      gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 384F8E68AC65B0D5
    
    and rerun the 'gpg --verify' command.
    
    This release was bootstrapped with the following tools:
      Automake 1.16.2
    
    Noteworthy changes and bug fixes since the previous beta (2.69b):
    
    * A performance regression in AC_PROG_CXX has been corrected.
      See https://savannah.gnu.org/support/index.php?110285 for details.
    
    * AC_PROG_YACC has been reverted to using ‘bison -y’.  After 2.70,
      we will instead add an AC_PROG_BISON macro for programs that
      require Bison extensions.
      See https://savannah.gnu.org/support/index.php?110266 for details.
    
    * AC_PROG_LEX no longer looks for a library providing the function
      ‘yywrap’.  LEXLIB will only be set to ‘-lfl’ or ‘-ll’ if a
      scanner that defines both ‘main’ and ‘yywrap’ itself still needs
      something else from that library.
    
      Packages should define yywrap themselves, or use %noyywrap.
    
    * When ‘$CC -E’ doesn’t run the C preprocessor, AC_PROG_CPP now looks
      in $PATH for ‘cpp’ before falling back to ‘/lib/cpp’.
    
    * AC_TYPE_PID_T now gives pid_t the correct definition on 64-bit
      native Microsoft Windows.
    
    * AC_INIT now trims extra white space from its arguments.  For instance,
    
        AC_INIT([  GNU  Hello  ], [1.0])
    
      will set PACKAGE_NAME to “GNU Hello”.
    
    * autoreconf will now run gtkdocize and intltoolize when appropriate.
    
    * autoreconf now avoids complaints from subsidiary tools about
      unknown warning categories.  For example, ‘autoreconf -Wcross’
      will no longer cause complaints from (current released versions of)
      aclocal and automake.
    
    * Generated configure scripts no longer fail catastrophically when
      stdin, stdout, or stderr is closed on startup.
    
    * Many bugs related to building Autoconf itself have been corrected.
      These mostly affected non-GNU operating systems and situations where
      optional tools are not available.
    
    * The obsolete macros AC_DIAGNOSE, AC_FATAL, AC_WARNING, and
      _AC_COMPUTE_INT are now replaced with modern equivalents by
      autoupdate.
    
    * The macro AC_OBSOLETE is obsolete.  Autoupdate will replace it with
      m4_warn([obsolete], [explanation]).  If possible, macros using
      AC_OBSOLETE should be converted to use AU_DEFUN or AU_ALIAS instead,
      which enables autoupdate to replace them, but this has to be done by
      hand and is not always possible.
    
    * AC_FC_LINE_LENGTH now documents the maximum portable length of
      "unlimited" Fortran source code lines to be 250 columns, not 254.
    
    * Warnings about obsolete constructs are now on by default.
      They can be turned off with '-Wno-obsolete'.
    
    * autoconf will now issue warnings (in the ‘syntax’ category) if the
      input file is missing a call to AC_INIT and/or AC_OUTPUT.
    
    * AC_INIT will now issue warnings (in the “syntax” category) for a
      non-literal URL argument, and for a TARNAME argument which is either
      non-literal or contains characters that should not be used in file
      names (e.g. ‘*’).
    

JDK 16: What’s coming in Java 16

Although not due to arrive until March 2021, Java Development Kit (JDK) 16 has begun to take shape, with proposed features including concurrent thread-stack processing for garbage collection, support for C++ 14 language features, and an “elastic metaspace” capability to more quickly return unused class metadata memory to the OS. JDK 16 will be the reference implementation of the version of standard Java set to follow JDK 15, which arrived September 15. The six-month release cadence for standard Java would have JDK 16 arriving next March. Read more

Linux Kernel Latest Developments and New Linux Foundation Report

  • AMD Ryzen 9 3900XT CPUFreq Governor Comparison With Linux 5.9

    One of the most frequent questions received at Phoronix in recent times is whether the "schedutil" governor is ready for widespread use and if it can compare in performance to, well, the "performance" governor on AMD Linux systems. Here are some benchmarks of an AMD Ryzen 9 3900XT using the latest Linux 5.9 development kernel in looking at the performance differences between the CPUFreq governor options of Ondemand, Powersave, Performance, and Schedutil.

  • Intel Engineers Begin Landing Open-Source Support For TDX, Intel Key Locker

    Last month Intel published a whitepaper on TDX as Trust Domain Extensions as a means of better securing virtual machines. TDX allows for isolating VMs from the hypervisor and other non-VMM system software. Intel TDX builds off other recent work around MKTME memory encryption and other features. We are now beginning to see that software side support roll-out along with the also-new Key Locker instructions.

  • HPE Preparing SGI UV5 Support For The Linux Kernel

    Recent hardware enablement work on the Linux kernel is HPE bringing up UV5 support. Succeeding the SGI UV4 support is now UV5 under the ownership of HPE. UV5 is the latest iteration of their x86_64 based supercomputer architecture.

  • Linux 5.10 To Support Nitro Enclaves For Security-Critical Applications

    The kernel support for Nitro Enclaves landed this week in char-misc-next ahead of the Linux 5.10 cycle kicking off next month. Nitro Enclaves is a capability of Amazon AWS' EC2 cloud for protecting highly sensitive data. Nitro Enclaves provide additional isolation and security by punting the sensitive work/data off to an isolated virtual machine without persistent storage access and other reductions to possible attack surfaces while also providing cryptographic attestation for ensuring only trusted/authorized code is running.

  • Linux Foundation Adds Entry-Level Certification

    The Linux Foundation has announced the development of a new entry-level certification exam to complement their existing Linux Foundation Certified Sysadmin (LFCS) and Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE) exams. This new certification, the Linux Foundation Certified IT Associate (LFCA), targets people just moving into systems administration.

  • How open-source software transformed the business world [Ed: Today ZDNet deletes GNU and Free software from history, citing this 'report' from LF (made using proprietary software)]

    The Linux Foundation goes into many examples, but I'm going to focus on telecommunications and networking since it's a field I know well. 

  • Software-defined vertical industries: transformation through open source

    What do some of the world’s largest, most regulated, complex, centuries-old industries such as banking, telecommunications, and energy have in common with rapid development, bleeding-edge innovative, creative industries such as the motion pictures industry? They’re all dependent on open source software.  That would be a great answer and correct, but it doesn’t tell the whole story. A complete answer is these industries not only depend on open source, but they’re building open source into the fabric of their R&D and development models. They are all dependent on the speed of innovation that collaborating in open source enables.