Short bio: Computer Scientist, FOSS supporter (read more)
Tux Machines (TM)-specific
I’ll have to glaze over the last few console programs I wanted to mention, and leave it to you to investigate them fully.
I should mention that none of these are linked to Ubuntu in particular; I’ve given links to the Ubuntu package search pages but these are probably available — if not already installed — in every distro.
You already have alsamixer installed on your computer; you probably just don’t know it’s there. alsamixer does everything most graphical volume controls do, and does it just as well.
I mention htop a lot, and that’s because I use it a lot. It’s much more attractive than the conventional top program, and much more functional.