Short bio: Computer Scientist, FOSS supporter (read more)
Tux Machines (TM)-specific
Partitions are physical or logical portions of a disk; a filesystem is the logical arrangement of data on a physical or logical partition so that your computer system can access and store data there.
Partitions and filesystems are nothing new to the computer world, but you will find that these parts of the operating system are much more visible and important as you use Linux. One of the great things about Unix in general is that it is hands on.
This may be daunting at first, but it enables you to have as much or as little control over how your system works as you want, optimize your system to meet your needs, and fix any problems that may crop up.
Windows users have pretty much had it easy with regards to installing their operating systems, which is a testament to Microsoft’s ability to provide a high-level installer that still performs low-level tasks without low-level user involvement.