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today's howtos

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HowTos
  • Mullvad and TailScale coexisting (or “Hello Nftables!”)

    The fix was simple eventually – add two rules to the rules created by Mullvad, allowing access to & from the tailscale interface. However, since I took a look at Nftables, and I am sure I’ll forget it in a few days, I wanted to jot down the commands here for future reference.

  • The Origin of the Shell

    CTSS was developed during 1963 and 64. I was at MIT on the computer center staff at that time. After having written dozens of commands for CTSS, I reached the stage where I felt that commands should be usable as building blocks for writing more commands, just like subroutine libraries. Hence, I wrote "RUNCOM", a sort of shell driving the execution of command scripts, with argument substitution. The tool became instantly most popular, as it became possible to go home in the evening while leaving behind long runcoms executing overnight. It was quite neat for boring and repetitive tasks such as renaming, moving, updating, compiling, etc. whole directories of files for system and application maintenance and monitoring.

  • Self-modifying code in production

    YouTube famously uses a rolling cipher and effective downloader tools need to be able to decipher it to produce useful links to video files. The cipher changes every few days so downloader tools avoid the need for daily manual updates by automatically downloading the JavaScript implementation of the cipher from YouTube and caching the result.

    I use three downloader tools that have some automated mechanism for dealing with cipher updates.

  • The better way to make an Ubuntu 20.04 ISO that will boot on UEFI systems

    First, I've learned that you don't want to extract ISO images with 7z, however tempting and easy it seems. 7z has at least two issues with ISO images; it will quietly add the El Torito boot images to the extracted tree, in a new subdirectory called '[BOOT]', and it doesn't extract symlinks (and probably not other Rock Ridge attributes). The Ubuntu 20.04.1 amd64 live server image has some symlinks, although their presence isn't essential.

    The two reliable ways I know of to extract the 20.04.1 ISO image are with bsdtar (part of the libarchive-tools package in Ubuntu) and with xorriso itself. Bsdtar is easier to use but you probably don't have it installed, while you need xorriso anyway and might as well use it for this once you know how. So to unpack the ISO into our scratch tree, you want: [...]

  • How to Add Local User to Sudo Group in Debian Linux

    In Linux/Unix systems, sudo is a program that grants a regular user elevated privileges to execute administrator-level tasks. Once a regular user is added to the sudo group, they are able to carry out tasks that a reserve for the root user. Such include installing and removing software packages, starting and stopping services, updating and upgrading the system to mention a few.

  • How to Install PHP 8 on Debian - Cloudbooklet

    How to Install PHP 8 on Debian. This guide let you learn how install the latest PHP version 8 on your Debian system or your Debian server on any VPS or any Cloud or any Dedicated hosting and configure it with Apache and Nginx.

    The latest PHP 8 version is officially released on November 26th, 2020. It comes with a number of new features and a few incompatibilities that you should be aware of before upgrading from the previous version.

    This installation is tested on Google Cloud Platform with a Compute Compute Engine VM Instance. So this set up is guaranteed to work on all Linux based servers.

  • Configuring Dwm's Panel Is Easy With Dwmblocks - YouTube

    Dwm has a builtin panel that can be a bit tough to configure. Getting it to display the information that you want is not as simple as it should be. Thankfully, there is a program called dwmblocks that makes this a lot easier!

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