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Server: BSD, OpenStack, and GNU/Linux

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  • From Unix to Linux: Key Trends in the Evolution of Operating Systems (Part 2)

    According to the McKusick article cited earlier, BSD's popularity seems to stem from the cost-free distribution of the system, more than from any technical superiority over Bell Labs’ Unix. As I mentioned, AT&T had no scruples about folding BSD innovations back into Unix. The C code in BSD now looks dated and sometimes a bit scary, but the tools and operating system were production-ready and popular.

    When Digital Equipment Corporation brought out their VAX minicomputers as a replacement for the PDP series, the Berkeley crew grabbed the VAX Unix port from AT&T and built a new version of BSD on it. Mini-computers became a central part of the computing landscape in the late 1970s and early 1980s (before personal computers became commercially available), and BSD's popularity grew along with the VAX. A popular warning was, "All the world is not a VAX." This referred to bad habits that computer science students were picking up because the VAX helpfully did things such as provide them with zeroed-out memory if they failed to initialize the memory explicitly. If programmers relied on finding zeros in uninitialized memory, their programs would go horribly wrong when ported to other systems. This was now a world where programmers expected to move between computer systems, and take their programs with them. That world was created by Unix and BSD.

    BSD was also the impetus for the great eruption that brought Unix into the commercial mainstream: the founding of Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy and his colleagues took advantage of the permissive BSD license to sell computers with their enhanced version of BSD, called SunOS. Sun Microsystems’ workstations and mini-computer servers wiped out a generation of other mini-computer companies and started to set the standard for modern computing and networking—all based on SunOS, which meant BSD.

  • Most Reliable Hosting Company Sites in November 2020

    The most reliable hosting company site in November 2020 was New York Internet (NYI), which responded to all of Netcraft’s requests in November. NYI offers a comprehensive set of hybrid IT solutions across cloud, multi-cloud, colocation and bare metal in its US data centres. So far in 2020, NYI has appeared seven times in the top 10.

    In November, the top eight sites each responded to all of Netcraft’s requests and were separated by average connection time. Webair appeared in second place. The hosting provider has provided managed hosting solutions for over 18 years and offers colocation across North America, Europe and Singapore.

    Hyve Managed Hosting wraps up the podium places, in third. Hyve provides a range of services including cloud hosting for business with full management services. These services are complemented by 35 data centres across Europe, North and South America, Asia and Australia.

    Whilst Linux continues to dominate the top 10, FreeBSD makes an appearance in first place in November with NYI.

  • Forecasting the future of cloud with OpenStack experts | Ubuntu

    OpenStack, the cloud computing platform, has proved to be a beacon of success for open source. It rounds off 10 years in existence this year, a period which has seen it reach nearly 200 countries, and we want to look ahead to what the future holds for the technology. We’ve spoken to a number of journalists and other leading experts, including the Open Infrastructure Foundation, the organisation which manages the development of the technology, to understand how OpenStack may develop in the future.

    While we’ve seen businesses of all sizes adopt OpenStack to embrace the cutting edge and engage with the likes of AI and containers, predicting its next steps is not such an easy question to answer. John Leonard, Research Editor from the UK’s Computing, explains: “That’s a little hard to say. Open source is now the default rather than the exception and there are many more open source collaborations now covering different areas, notably the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF). I expect OpenStack will end up focusing on areas of IaaS less well served by Kubernetes, perhaps around serverless and storage innovations.”

    [...]

    Tytus Kurek, Product Manager at Canonical believes the foundational element of OpenStack will prove important; “Whereas the interest has long spread to other technologies, OpenStack remains the foundation of private cloud infrastructure across many organisations. In the following years we’re expecting to see continuous improvements around its stability, security and integration as well as supportability for 5G, AI/ML, edge and even more advanced use cases.”

    What’s vital though, is no matter how they grow over the coming years, OpenStack and its contemporaries remain true to the foundations and virtues of open source – ensuring that as many people can contribute and benefit.

  • Moving to a More “Open” Environment

    The expansion and proliferation of open source organizations such as the Linux Foundation and the OpenStack Foundation attest to how much open source projects have become mainstream.

  • Benefits of Hosting on A Linux Server [Ed: Is this a real article? No. It's borderline SEO spam, as the first link in it reveals.]

    One major benefit of Linux is that it doesn’t slow down over time as compared to Windows. As more and more programs and background processes are added the operating system gets addled with a lot of requests.

More in Tux Machines

Chafa 1.6.0: Wider

Here’s another one from the terminal graphics extravaganza dept: Chafa 1.6.0 brings fullwidth character support, so in addition to the usual block elements and ASCII art, you now get some mean CJK art too. Or grab as many fonts as you can and combine all of the Unicode into one big glorious mess. Chafa can efficiently distinguish between thousands of symbols, so it also runs fast enough for animations — up to a point. Since some users want this in environments where it’s not practical to build from source or even to have nice things like GLib, I’ve started adding statically linked builds. These are pretty bare-bones (fewer image loaders, no man page), so look to your steadfast distribution first. Speaking of distributions, a big thank you to the packagers. Special thanks go to Florian Viehweger for getting in touch re. adding it to OpenBSD ports, and Mo Zhou (Debian), Michael Vetter (openSUSE), Herby Gillot (MacPorts), @chenrui and Carlo Cabrera (Homebrew) for getting 1.6 out there before I could even finish this post. Read more

ClusBerry 9500-CM4 – A Raspberry Pi CM4 cluster, industrial style

Raspberry Pi cluster boards / solutions pop-up from time to time. But so far, I think we’ve seen only one based on Raspberry Pi CM4 modules with the upcoming Turing Pi 2 mini-ITX cluster board supporting four of those. TECHBASE has now unveiled a different kind of Raspberry Pi CM4 cluster with ClusBerry 9500-CM4 integrating up to eight Raspberry Pi Computer Module 4 in a DIN-Rail housing for industrial applications. Read more

Rotary Un-Smartphone is a rotary dial phone based on Arduino, 4G LTE module

If you feel nostalgic and misses the days of the rotary dial phone, Sky’s Edge “Rotary Un-Smartphone” is an open-source hardware rotary dial phone controlled by an Arduino board and equipped with a multi-mode 4G/3G/2G module. It’s a bit more advanced that you old rotary phone with recent cellular technology, ePaper & OLED displays, quick dialing buttons, and the rotary dial can both be used to dial full phone number or quickly access your contact list. Read more Also: 42Gears SureMDM Simplifies Setting up Kiosk Mode on Linux Devices

today's howtos

  • How to kill all user sessions on Linux using shell script

    There are multiple ways to automate the system administrator task on Linux. It drastically reduces human efforts and saves reasonable time. shell script is one of the methods to automate frequent jobs. For a scenario, you want to run a weekly job or EOD job to populate some data for reporting purposes. To do so, you need to kill all ssh sessions that are currently accessing the application on the system before beginning the job.

  • How to install GSnap in Audacity on a Chromebook - VST Plugins

    Today we are looking at how to install GSnap, a free VST plugin, in Audacity on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below. If you have any questions, please contact us via a YouTube comment and we would be happy to assist you!

  • How to Install GitLab on Debian 10 (Buster)

    GitLab is a free and opensource front-end Git repository that features a Wiki and an issue tracking feature. It allows you to host Git repositories on your own server and setup DevOps platform. In this guide, we are going to install GitLab CE (Community Edition) on Debian 10 (Buster) system.

  • Unix Tutorial - Annual Digest - 2020

    Wow, 2020 just flew by! With one lockdown after another, most of the year was spent working from home and checking local government websites for guidance around when schools and after-schools would re-open. I didn’t blog as much as I hoped but stayed sane and otherwise productive - so can’t complain much about 2020.