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today's howtos

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  • How to Install LXQt Desktop Environment in Ubuntu

    LXQT is a lightweight, modular, fast, and user-friendly desktop environment. The free, open-source LXQT is the successor of the LXDE desktop environment. Lubuntu and a few other Linux distribution have default LXQT desktop environments. LXQT is based on QT rather than GTK+.

    The main reason to use LXQT desktop over other environments is low resource utilization, elegant and clean user interfaces. Secondly, the high level of customization to meet desktop usability need.

  • How to Install Blizzard App on Ubuntu – Linux Hint

    Blizzard Entertainment is a game development company that creates some top-rated games that work well on Linux. Blizzard develops, an online platform with multiple social networking services, digital rights management and digital distribution, etc.

    The only issue with Blizzard is that it is not available in Linux. However, most of the games still work appropriately on Linux by using Wine in it. In case you want to install the Blizzard app on Ubuntu easily, then read this complete article. In this article, we will cover the full details on “how to install Blizzard app on Ubuntu.”

  • How to install GeForce Now on Linux Mint 20

    In this video, we are looking at how to install GeForce Now on Linux Mint 20.

  • How to install Milkman Karlson on a Chromebook

    RAID is a virtualization platform for data storage that integrates several physical disc drives into one or more logical units. Based on the required level of reliability and efficiency, data is scattered across the drives in one of many ways, referred to as RAID levels. Different systems are known as ‘RAID’ followed by an integer, such as RAID 0 or RAID 1. Each system, or level of RAID, provides a different balance between the key goals, i.e. stability, usability, performance, and strength.

    RAID uses disc mirroring or disc striping methods, mirroring on more than one drive would copy similar data. Partition striping allows distributing data across many disc drives. The storage capacity of each drive is split into units that range from a sector (512 bytes) up to multiple megabytes. RAID levels higher than RAID 0 offer protection against unrepairable read errors in the field, as well as against entire physical drive failures.

    The RAID devices are deployed via the application driver md. The Linux software RAID array currently supports RAID 0 (strip), RAID 1 (mirror), RAID 4, RAID 5, RAID 6, and RAID 10. Mdadm is a Linux utility used to control and manage RAID devices for applications. Several core operating modes of mdadm are assembled, build, create, follow, monitor, grow, incremental and auto-detect. The name derives from the nodes of the multiple devices (md) that it controls or manages. Let’s look at creating different kinds of Raid arrays using mdadm.

  • How to Save Disk Space using Btrfs Deduplication – Linux Hint

    Deduplication is a software feature that is used to remove duplicate data blocks (redundant data blocks) from a filesystem to save disk spaces. The Btrfs filesystem is a modern Copy-on-Write (CoW) filesystem that supports deduplication.
    If you need to keep a lot of redundant data (i.e., file backups, database) on your computer, then the Copy-on-Write (CoW) and deduplication feature of the Btrfs filesystem can save a huge amount of disk spaces.

    In this article, I will show you how to save disk spaces using the Btrfs deduplication feature. So, let’s get started.

  • How to install Milkman Karlson on a Chromebook

    Today we are looking at how to install Milkman Karlson by Dani on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

  • Start, Stop, and Restart Nginx Web Server on Linux – Linux Hint

    NGINX is an open-source web server with features for load balancing, caching, and functioning as a reverse proxy.
    Igor Sysoev created it to overcome the limits of scaling and concurrency existing within regular web servers, offering an event-based, asynchronous architecture that enhances NGINX’s performance and stability as a web server.

    As is the case with managing all servers, you’ll find yourself needing to start, stop, and restart the NGINX web server for various reasons.

    This guide discusses how to use various methods to manage the NGINX service running on a Linux system.

  • Install and Use Btrfs on Fedora 33 – Linux Hint

    Btrfs (B-Tree Filesystem) is a modern copy-on-write (CoW) filesystem for Linux. It aims to implement many advanced filesystem features while focusing on fault tolerance, repair, and easy administration. The Btrfs filesystem is designed to support the requirement of high performance and high-capacity storage servers.

    If you want to learn more about the Btrfs filesystem, check my article Introduction to Btrfs Filesystem.

    In this article, I am going to show you how to install Btrfs on Fedora 33 and use it. So, let’s get started.

  • How to Enable Btrfs Filesystem Compression – Linux Hint

    The Btrfs filesystem supports filesystem-level data compression. It means that the filesystem data will be compressed automatically as new data is written to the filesystem. When you access the files stored in your Btrfs filesystem, those files’ data will be automatically decompressed.

    This feature of the filesystem will save you a lot of disk space and will save you a lot of time that you would have spent compressing your files manually.

    In this article, I am going to show you how to enable the Btrfs filesystem-level compression on a Btrfs filesystem. So, let’s get started.

  • How to Enable and Disable Wayland on Ubuntu

    You might have heard or even come across a Linux distribution using Wayland—for example, Fedora 25—as its default display server.
    Whether you are looking to test Wayland, understand what it is before using it, or learn how to enable and disable it on Ubuntu, this guide will prove valuable in one way or the other.

    This guide will discuss what Wayland is, how it works, and how to enable and disable it on your Ubuntu system.

    Let’s get started.

  • How To Change the Swappiness of Your Linux System

    Memory is a critical part of any system. The Linux kernel knows this and tries to ensure there’s enough memory at the system’s disposal. One way the Kernel manages memory is by using a swap system to create additional memory space.

    In this tutorial, we will talk about what a swap is, how it works, and finally, how to customize the swappiness of your Linux system.

  • Install HAProxy to Configure Load Balancing Server on Debian 10

    Load-balancing is the most common practice of distributing incoming web traffic among multiple back-end servers. This makes the application highly available even if some of the servers go down for some reason. Load Balancing increases the efficiency and reliability of a web application. HAProxy load-balancer is used for the same purpose. It is the most widely used load-balancer in industries. As per the official website, HAProxy is used by leading companies like AWS, Fedora, Github, and many more.

    HAProxy or High Availability Proxy provides high availability and proxying solution. It is written in C and works at network and application layers of the TCP/IP model. The best thing is that it has a free community edition, and it is an open-source application. It works on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris operating systems. The enterprise edition is also there, but it has a price tag.

  • Understanding Bash Shell Configuration On Startup

    For years, the Bash shell [1] has been an integral part of many Linux distributions. In the beginning, Bash was chosen as the official GNU shell because it was well-known, quite stable, and offered a decent set of features.

    Today the situation is somewhat different — Bash is still present everywhere as a software package but has been replaced by alternatives in the standard installation. These include, for example, Debian Almquist shell (Dash) [2] (for Debian GNU/Linux) or Zsh [3] (for GRML [5]). In the well-known distributions Ubuntu, Fedora, Arch Linux, and Linux Mint, Bash has so far remained the standard shell.

    It is quite helpful to understand Bash startup and to know how to configure this properly. This includes the customization of your shell environment, for example, setting the $PATH variable, adjusting the look of the shell prompt, and creating aliases. Also, we will have a look at the two files .bashrc and .bash_profile that are read on startup. The corresponding knowledge is tested in Exam 1 of the Linux Professional Institute Certification [4].

  • Restore arrows to gtk3 scrollbars

    A couple of months ago, I posted about a fix for extremely annoying default behaviour of gtk3 scrollbars:

    That fix is in Easy, however, today I received an email from Alfons, asking about the missing arrows at the ends of the scrollbars. SeaMonkey, Inkscape and LibreOffice use gtk3 and exhibit this lack-of-arrows.

More in Tux Machines

Open Hardware: Crowbits, Raspberry Pi, and RISC-V

  • Crowbits Master Kit Tutorial - Part 2: ESP32 intrusion scanner and visual programming - CNX Software - Embedded Systems News

    I started Crowbits Master Kit review last month by checking out the content, user manual, and some of the possible projects for the ESP32 educational kit including a 2G phone and a portable game console. For the second part of the review, I’ll go through one of the lessons in detail, namely the intrusion scanner to show the whole process and how well (or not) it works. Let’s go to Lesson 5 directly, although I’d recommend going through the first lessons that provide details about the hardware and visual programming basics using Letscode program, which is basically a custom version of Scratch for Crowbits

  • RP2040-PICO-PC small computer made with the Raspberry Pi RP2040-PICO module first prototypes are ready

    It’s small base board for RP2040-PICO the $4 module with the Cortex-M0+ processor made by Raspberry Pi foundation.

    We were ready with the prototype for a long time but the RP2040-PICO modules were tricky to source

  • ESP32-C6 WiFI 6 and Bluetooth 5 LE RISC-V SoC for IoT devices coming soon - CNX Software - Embedded Systems News

    Espressif Systems introduced their first RISC-V wireless SoC last year with ESP32-C3 single-core 32-bit RISC-V SoC offering both 2.4GHz WiFi 4 and Bluetooth 5.0 LE connectivity, and while the company sent some engineering samples of ESP32-C3 boards months ago, general availability of ESP32-C3-DevKitM-1 and modules is expected shortly. But the company did not stop here, and just announced their second RISC-V processor with ESP32-C6 single-core 32-bit RISC-V microcontroller clocked at up to 160 MHz with both 2.4 GHz WiFi 6 (802.11ax) and Bluetooth 5 LE connectivity.

Linux, NetBSD, and OpenBSD

  • EXT4 With Linux 5.13 Looks Like It Will Support Casefolding With Encryption Enabled - Phoronix

    While EXT4 supports both case-folding for optional case insensitive filenames and does support file-system encryption, at the moment those features are mutually exclusive. But it looks like the upcoming Linux 5.13 kernel will allow casefolding and encryption to be active at the same time. Queued this week into the EXT4 file-system's "dev" tree was ext4: handle casefolding with encryption.

  • SiFive FU740 PCIe Support Queued Ahead Of Linux 5.13 - Phoronix

    Arguably the most interesting RISC-V board announced to date is SiFive's HiFive Unmatched with the FU740 RISC-V SoC that features four U74-MC cores and one S7 embedded core. The HiFive Unmatched also has 16GB of RAM, USB 3.2 Gen 1, one PCI Express x16 slot (operating at x8 speeds), an NVMe slot, and Gigabit Ethernet. The upstream kernel support for the HiFive Unmatched and the FU740 SoC continues. With the Linux 5.12 cycle there was the start of mainlining SiFive FU740 SoC support and that work is continuing for the upcoming Linux 5.13 cycle.

  • The state of toolchains in NetBSD

    While FreeBSD and OpenBSD both switched to using LLVM/Clang as their base system compiler, NetBSD picked a different path and remained with GCC and binutils regardless of the license change to GPLv3. However, it doesn't mean that the NetBSD project endorses this license, and the NetBSD Foundation's has issued a statement about its position on the subject.


    Realistically, NetBSD is more or less tied to GCC, as it supports more architectures than the other BSDs, some of which will likely never be supported in LLVM.


    As of NetBSD 9.1, the latest released version, all supported platforms have recent versions of GCC (7.5.0) and binutils (2.31.1) in the base system. Newer (and older!) versions of GCC can be installed via Pkgsrc, and the following packages are available, going all the way back to GCC 3.3.6: [...]

  • Review: OpenBSD 6.8 on 8th Gen Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon 13.3"

    10 days ago, I bought this X1 Carbon. I immediately installed OpenBSD on it. It took me a few days to settle in and make myself at home, but here are my impressions.


    This was the smoothest experience I've had getting OpenBSD set up the way I like it. The Toshiba NB305 in 2011 was a close second, but the Acer I used between these two laptops required a lot more tweaking of both hardware and kernel to get it to feel like home.

Audio/Video and Games: This Week in Linux, MineTest, OpenTTD, and Portal Stories: Mel

  • This Week in Linux 146: Linux on M1 Mac, Google vs Oracle, PipeWire, Bottom Panel for GNOME Shell - TuxDigital

    On this episode of This Week in Linux, we’ve got an update for Linux support on Apple’s M1 Mac hardware. KDE Announces a new patch-set for Qt 5. IBM Announced COBOL Compiler For Linux. Then later in the show we’re bringing back everyone’s favorite Legal News segment with Google v. Oracle reaching U.S. Supreme Court. We’ve also got new releases to talk about such as PipeWire 0.3.25 and JingOS v0.8 plus GNOME Designers are exploring the possibility of having a bottom panel. Then we’ll round out the show with some Humble Bundles about programming in Python. All that and much more on Your Weekly Source for Linux GNews!

  • MineTest: I Am A Dwarf And I'm Digging A Hole

    People have been asking me to play MineTest for ages so I thought I should finally get around to it, if you've never heard of it MineTest is an open source Minecraft clone that surprisingly has a lot of community support

  • OpenTTD Went to Steam to Solve a Hard Problem - Boiling Steam

    OpenTTD, the free and open-source software recreation of Transport Tycoon Deluxe, has been a popular game for a long time, but recently something unusual happened. The team behind the project decided to release the game on Steam (still free as always) and this has changed everything. Let me explain why this matters. If you have ever played OpenTTD on Linux, let me venture that you have probably relied on your distro’s package manager to keep your game up-to-date. In theory, this is the BEST way to keep your packages up to date. Rely on maintainers. In practice however, it’s far from being something you can rely on, beyond security updates. Debian stable tends to have really old packages, sometimes years behind their latest versions. So on Debian stable you end up with OpenTTD 1.08 as the most recent version. That’s what shipped in April 2018. Just about 3 years old.

  • Portal Stories: Mel gets Vulkan support on Linux in a new Beta | GamingOnLinux

    Portal Stories: Mel, an extremely popular and highly rated mod for Portal 2 just had a new Beta pushed out which adds in Vulkan support for Linux. Much like the update for Portal 2 that recently added Vulkan support, it's using a special native build of DXVK, the Vulkan-based translation layer for Direct3D 9/10/11. Compared with the Portal 2 update, in some of my own testing today it seems that Portal Stories: Mel seems to benefit from the Vulkan upgrade quite a bit more in some places. At times giving a full 100FPS increase! So for those on weaker cards, this will probably be an ideal upgrade. Another game to test with Vulkan is always great too.

today's howtos

  • How to Install TeamSpeak Client on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux - Linux Shout

    TeamSpeak is a free voice conferencing software available to install on Linux, Windows, macOS, FreeBSD, and Android. It is the pioneer in its areas of other platforms such as Discord. TeamSpeak allows free of cost access to around 1000 public TeamSpeak servers or even your own private one. In parallel to online games, you can use the current TeamSpeak to communicate with friends via speech and text.

  • How To Install Robo 3T on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Robo 3T on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, Robo3T formerly known as RobMongo is one of the best GUI tools for managing and querying MongoDB database. It provides GUI tools for managing & querying the MongoDB database. It embeds the actual mongo shell that allows for CLI as well as GUI access to the database. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of Robo 3T RobMongo on an Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa) server. You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to Install Java on Ubuntu Step by Step Guide for Beginners

    Some programs/tools/utility on Ubuntu required java/JVM, without java these programs are not working. Are you facing the same problem? Don’t worry! Today I am going to cover in this article how to install Java on Ubuntu. This article will cover the complete tutorial step by step. You can get java on Ubuntu via three packages JRE, OpenJDK and Oracle JDK. Java and Java’s Virtual Machine (JVM) are widely used and required to run much software.

  • "apt-get command not found" error in Ubuntu by Easy Way

    apt-get command is used to manage package in Ubuntu and other Debian based distribution. You can install, remove software in Ubuntu, You can update upgrade ubuntu and other operating systems with help of this command. If you want to install new software on the Linux operating system by apt-get command but you get the error “apt-get command not found“. This is really the biggest problem for the new user. Neither you can install new packages nor you can update and upgrade ubuntu. apt-get is not working, how will you install a new package? If the problem only of installing new packages then it can be solved. You can use dpkg command to install deb files in ubuntu and derivatives.

  • How to upgrade Linux Mint 19.3 (Tricia) to Mint 20.1 (Ulyssa) - Linux Shout

    Are you planning to upgrade your existing Linux Mint 19.3 (Tricia) PC or Laptop to Linux Mint 20.1 Ulyssa, then following the simple steps given in the tutorial… Linux Mint is one of the popular distros among users who want a Windows-like operating system but with the benefits of Linux and a user-friendly interface. As Mint is an Ubuntu derivative, thus not only we have the access to a large number of packages to install but also stability. The process of upgrading Mint is very easy, we can use GUI or command to do that. However, in this article, we will show you how to upgrade from Tricia (19.3) to Ulyssa (20.1) using CLI, thus first you have to make sure that your existing Mint 19.3 is on 64-bit because 20.1 doesn’t support 32-bit.

  • How to Install Node js in Ubuntu Step by Step Explanation for Beginners

    Node.js is an open source cross-platform JavaScript run-time environment that allows server-side execution of JavaScript code. In simple words you can run JavaScript code on your machine (server) as a standalone application, and access form any web browser. When you create a server side application you need Node.js, it is also help to create front-end and full-stack. npm (Node Package Manager) is a package manager for the JavaScript programming language, and default package manager for Node.js. This tutorial will cover step by step methods “how to install node js in ubuntu 19.04″. in case you need the latest Node.js and npm versions. If you are using Node.js for development purposes then your best option is to install Node.js using the NVM script. Although this tutorial is written for Ubuntu the same instructions apply for any Ubuntu-based distribution, including Kubuntu, Linux Mint and Elementary OS.

  • How to play Geometry Dash on Linux

    Geometry Dash is a music platformer game developed by Robert Topala. The game is available to play on iOS, Android, as well as Microsoft Windows via Steam. In the game, players control a character’s movement and navigate through a series of music-based levels while avoiding obstacles and hazards.

  • How To Set Up a Firewall with UFW in Ubuntu \ Debian

    The Linux kernel includes the Netfilter subsystem, which is used to manipulate or decide the fate of network traffic headed into or through your server. All modern Linux firewall solutions use this system for packet filtering. [...] The default behavior of the UFW Firewall is to block all incoming and forwarding traffic and allow all outbound traffic. This means that anyone trying to access your server will not be able to connect unless you specifically open the port. Applications and services running on your server will be able to access the outside world.