Short bio: Computer Scientist, FOSS supporter (read more)
Tux Machines (TM)-specific
The Linux kernel and the distributions that package it typically provide very conservative defaults to certain network settings that affect networking parameters. These settings can be tuned via the /proc filesystem or using the sysctl program. The latter is often better, as it reads the contents of /etc/sysctl.conf, which allows you to keep settings across reboots.
The following is a snippet from /etc/sysctl.conf that may improve network performance:
net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 16777216
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 65536 16777216
The above isn't to replace what may already exist in /etc/sysctl.conf, but rather to supplement it.