It's called sudo
Sometimes, I get email spam that is too interesting to delete immediately. Here's one that arrived at my work account, advertising a free "webinar" about a security product:
Organizations can no longer tolerate the security risks posed by intentional, accidental or indirect misuse of privileges. However, organizations need to provide the extended enterprise with necessary privileges within specified guidelines to do their job safely.
You will learn how to securely delegate privileges and authorization without disclosing the root password, including [...]
Maybe I wasn't aware that people didn't know how to do this already, so I'll explain it here. In Unix and Linux systems, this is managed using the "sudo" command.