Language Selection

English French German Italian Portuguese Spanish

Learning The Linux File System

Filed under

Before we get started, let’s avoid any confusion. There are two meanings to the term “File System” in the wonderful world of computing: First, there is the system of files and the directory structure that all of your data is stored in. Second, is the format scheme that is used to write data on mass storage devices like hard drives and SSD’s. We are going to be talking about the first kind of file system here because the average user will interact with his or her file system every time they use a computer, the format that data is written in on their storage devices is usually of little concern to them. The many different file systems that can be used on storage is really only interesting to hardware geeks and is best saved for another discussion. Now that that’s cleared up, we can press on. (Read the rest at Freedom Penguin)

More in Tux Machines

How new Linux users can increase their odds of success

The Linus Tech Tips YouTube channel has been putting out a series of videos called the Switching to Linux Challenge that has been causing a bit of a stir in the Linux community. I’ve been keeping an eye on these developments, and thought it was a good time to weigh in with my thoughts. This article focuses on how new Linux users can increase their odds for success — I have also written a companion article, “What desktop Linux needs to succeed in the mainstream”, which looks at the other side of the problem. Linux is, strictly speaking, an operating system kernel, which is a small component of a larger system. However, in the common usage, Linux refers to a family of operating systems which are based on this kernel, such as Ubuntu, Fedora, Arch Linux, Alpine Linux, and so on, which are referred to as distributions. Linux is used in other contexts, such as Android, but the common usage is generally limited to this family of Linux “distros”. Several of these distros have positioned themselves for various types of users, such as office workers or gamers. However, the most common Linux user is much different. What do they look like? The key distinction which sets Linux apart from more common operating systems like Windows and macOS is that Linux is open source. This means that the general public has access to the source code which makes it tick, and that anyone can modify it or improve it to suit their needs. However, to make meaningful modifications to Linux requires programming skills, so, consequentially, the needs which Linux best suits are the needs of programmers. Linux is the preeminent operating system for programmers and other highly technical computer users, for whom it can be suitably molded to purpose in a manner which is not possible using other operating systems. As such, it has been a resounding success on programmer’s workstations, on servers in the cloud, for data analysis and science, in embedded workloads like internet-of-things, and other highly technical domains where engineering talent is available and a profound level of customization is required. The Linux community has also developed Linux as a solution for desktop users, such as the mainstream audience of Windows and macOS. However, this work is mostly done by enthusiasts, rather than commercial entities, so it can vary in quality and generally any support which is available is offered on a community-run, best-effort basis. Even so, there have always been a lot of volunteers interested in this work — programmers want a working desktop, too. Programmers also want to play games, so there has been interest in getting a good gaming setup working on Linux. In the past several years, there has also been a commercial interest with the budget to move things forward: Valve Software. Valve has been instrumental in developing more sophisticated gaming support on Linux, and uses Linux as the basis of a commercial product, the Steam Deck Read more

today's leftovers

  • x86 Straight-Line Speculation Mitigation Patches Updated For Linux - Phoronix

    A year after Arm processors began mitigating straight-line speculation, Linux developers have been working on similar straight-line speculation mitigations for x86/x86_64 processors. The past few months we have been seeing Linux kernel and GCC and LLVM/Clang patches around straight-line speculation mitigation for Intel / AMD processors. The issue at hand is over processors speculatively executing instructions linearly in memory past an unconditional change in control flow.

  • EPEL 9 Ready To Provide Extra Packages For RHEL 9, CentOS Stream 9 - Phoronix

    launched and that effectively serving as the bleeding-edge of the RHEL9 upstream, EPEL 9 has already launched. Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux "EPEL" continues to provide a vast assortment of packages to complement the official packages in the RHEL/CentOS repository. EPEL packages continue to be derived from their Fedora counterpart and simply augment what is available to RHEL / CentOS (and Oracle Linux, et al) users.

  • Raku Advent Calendar: Day 5 – Santa Claus is Rakuing Along
  • There is a surge in Linux gamers with the release of Windows 11

    The surge can also be due to the Steam Deck effect.

  • XWayland Adds Support For Touchpad Gestures - Phoronix

    XWayland is increasingly great shape especially when it comes to fulfilling the needs of gamers with simply running games lacking native Wayland support with great speed. But when it comes to other use-cases there are occasionally gaps and areas not yet fulfilled by XWayland versus the conventional X.Org Server. One of the latest examples of a feature now correctly wired up is touchpad gesture handling. Should you be a fan of touchpad gestures, they should now be working under XWayland. Developer Povilas Kanapickas implemented support for touchpad gestures within the XWayland code that is now in the xserver Git tree. Povilas noted, "The implementation is relatively straightforward because both wayland and Xorg use libinput semantics for touchpad gestures."

  • 178: Blender 3.0, EndeavourOS, CentOS Stream 9, Steam Deck, NixOS, CrossOver | This Week in Linux

    On this episode of This Week in Linux, a brief note about Linus Tech Tips reaction videos, Blender 3.0, EndeavourOS, CentOS Stream 9, NixOS 21.11, Open 3D Engine, Heroic Games Launcher, Steam Deck, Fedora, Fedora Linux, Red Hat, RHEL, Ventoy 1.0.62, CrossOver 21.1, SDL 2.0.18, Xen Project 4.16, Tesseract 5.0, and Neovim 0.6.0. All that and much more on Your Weekly Source for Linux GNews!

Give your Terminal a Retro Look Using this Neat Application

Want to give your Terminal a retro look? This guide contains instructions to help you to install Cool Retro Terminal application in all Linux distributions. Read more

today's howtos

  • How To Install Apache Hadoop on Debian 11 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Apache Hadoop on Debian 11. For those of you who didn’t know, Apache Hadoop is an open-source, Java-based software platform that manages data processing and storage for big data applications. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the Apache Hadoop on a Debian 11 (Bullseye).

  • What To Do After Installing Parabola KDE and GNOME System

    This is our recommended stuffs for you after finished Parabola GNU/Linux installation with either GNOME or KDE Desktop. Let's start it!

  • Install opensource CyberPanel on Almalinux | Rocky linux 8

    Looking for a free and open-source web hosting control panel? Then try out CyberPanel on AlmaLinux or Rocky Linux 8. It is a free alternative to the popular WHM Cpanel that comes with an OpenLiteSpeed Web server to provide the best possible performance. CyberPanel has a web-based, graphical, and user interactive Dashboard, from where we can access Users, Vhost Templates; multiple PHP Versions; MySQL Database, and more. It also offers a CLI tool that commands can be used on the Server terminal to perform various useful operations such as creating users, resetting permissions, and other tasks.

  • How to set up an SFTP server on Debian 11 Server – Citizix

    In this guide we are going to set up an sftp server on an Debian 11. We will also set up a form of chroot where users can only access sftp with the shared credentials. The File Transfer Protocol is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network. FTP isn’t popular today because it Lacks Security. When a file is sent using this protocol, the data, username, and password are all shared in plain text, which means a hacker can access this information with little to no effort. For data to be secure, you need to use an upgraded version of FTP like SFTP.

  • How to work with SFTP client in Linux – 10 sftp commands

    In this guide, we will learn how to do basic operations on an sftp server. The File Transfer Protocol is a standard communication protocol used for the transfer of computer files from a server to a client on a computer network. FTP isn’t popular today because it Lacks Security. When a file is sent using this protocol, the data, username, and password are all shared in plain text, which means a hacker can access this information with little to no effort. For data to be secure, you need to use an upgraded version of FTP like SFTP.

  • Raspberry PI Pico Ethernet Port: adding the WIZNET Ethernet HAT

    Raspberry PI Pico works greatly to keep sensors measurements, combining/analyzing them and delivering data to external world. Adding an Etherneth port to Raspberry PI Pico with the WIZnet Ethernet HAT (based on W5100S chip) add a networking layer to improve communications