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Sunday, 19 Feb 17 - Tux Machines is a community-driven public service/news site which has been around for over a decade and primarily focuses on GNU/LinuxSubscribe now Syndicate content

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Quick Roundup

Type Title Author Replies Last Postsort icon
Story 4 categories of Linux distributions Rianne Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 11:55pm
Story Linux 4.9.10 Rianne Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 11:40pm
Story 7 features Linux could borrow from other systems Rianne Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 11:34pm
Story Hands-On: Raspberry Pi 7-inch Touch Display and case Rianne Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 11:31pm
Story Red Hat and Fedora Roy Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 5:48pm
Story A musician's transition from distro to distro Roy Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 5:35pm
Story Games for GNU/Linux Roy Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 5:29pm
Story Samsung’s latest Artik module offers quad A9 SoC Roy Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 5:13pm
Story Best Windows Like Linux Distributions For New Linux Users Mohd Sohail 15/02/2017 - 4:54pm
Story Today in Techrights Roy Schestowitz 15/02/2017 - 3:00pm

Linux Graphics

Filed under
Graphics/Benchmarks
Linux
  • Vulkan 1.0.40 Released With Fixes, SMPTE 2086 HDR Metadata Support
  • Intel's Linux Graphics Driver To Enable Atomic Support By Default

    The patch landed in Intel's drm-intel-next-queued branch this week for enabling atomic support by default on the hardware platforms where it's fully supported.

    Following this mailing list discussion, atomic support is now being turned on by default for the Intel Linux DRM driver while it's disabled-by-default support has been in good shape since Linux ~4.9. Though due to the timing of this change-over, this looks like it will be a change for Linux 4.12 as Intel's 4.11 DRM feature work is already over with the 4.11 merge window being imminent.

  • X.Org Server 1.20 Breaks The Video Driver ABI

    Just a quick note for anyone who routinely builds the latest X.Org Server from Git, the video driver ABI has been broken again, thus you'll need to rebuild your dependent DDX drivers assuming they have been modified for this new ABI.

Leftovers: Software (Ardour 5.6, Parole 0.9 and More)

Filed under
Software
  • Ardour 5.6 released

    Another two months of development has rolled by, involving more than 600 commits by developers, and it's time for us to release Ardour 5.6. Although there are no major new features in this release, there is the usual list of dozens of bug fixes major and minor, plus some workflow and GUI enhancements. There has been a significant rearrangement of the transport bar to try to use space more efficiently and effectively. The new design also permits session navigation while using the Mixer tab, and there are numerous optionally visible elements. Similarly, the Preferences dialog was rearranged to try to make it easier to find and browse the many, many available options. Other interesting new features: session archiving, a new General MIDI default synth for MIDI tracks, and direct and immediate control of routing for heavily multichannel (typically multitimbral) synth plugins.

  • Ardour 5.6 Digital Audio Workstation Released

    Available this weekend is the newest release of the Ardour digital audio workstation software for Linux, macOS, and Windows.

    Ardour 5.6 features some speed-up improvements in different areas, a mini-timeline was added to the toolbar, there's the ability to archive a session, various editor improvements, restored save-as support to work as intended, and more. There are also action/binding changes, scripting improvements, plugin improvements, and a wide-range of fixes.

  • Roundup of Recent App Updates: Harmony, Komorebi, Alduin

    Time for our weekly round up of recent app updates that weren’t quite big enough to merit their own dedicated post

    If you’re averse to Electron apps you’re advised to look away now. If an app you love got an update this week chances are it’s because we didn’t know about it, rather than we hate the app.

  • Xfce’s Parole Media Player Gets First Update In Over a Year

    Parole 0.9.0 brings a number of new features to Linux desktops, including a new mini-mode, working ‘play’ and ‘replay’ icons in the content area, and the window title and content title show the filename if no corresponding ID3 tag is detected.

  • Xfce Parole Media Player 0.9 Released

    Xfce developers have restored work on their Parole Media Player as the primary media player for this lightweight desktop environment.

  • Write Markdown with 8 Exceptional Open Source Editors

    By way of a succinct introduction, Markdown is a lightweight plain text formatting syntax created by John Gruber together with Aaron Swartz. Markdown offers individuals “to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format, then convert it to structurally valid XHTML (or HTML)”. Markdown’s syntax consists of easy to remember symbols. It has a gentle learning curve; you can literally learn the Markdown syntax in the time it takes to fry some mushrooms (that’s about 10 minutes). By keeping the syntax as simple as possible, the risk of errors is minimized. Besides being a friendly syntax, it has the virtue of producing clean and valid (X)HTML output. If you have seen my HTML, you would know that’s pretty essential.

5 Linux Music Players You Should Consider Switching To

Filed under
Software

There are dozens of Linux music players out there, and this makes it difficult to find the best one for our usage. In the past we’ve reviewed some of these players, such as Cantata, Exaile, or even the lesser known ones like Clementine, Nightingale and Quod Libet.

In this article I will be covering more music players for Linux that in some aspects are even better than the ones we’ve already told you about.

Read more

Samsung’s Chromebook Pro gives me hope in Chrome OS—thanks to Android’s help

Filed under
Android
Reviews

The market is about to be flooded with a new wave of Chromebooks, all focused on Android apps. Chrome OS and Android were always meant for different devices, but now OEMs are making Chromebooks that can deliver the best of both worlds. Google's Play Store has already come to some older Chromebooks, but Samsung's new Chromebook Plus and Pro models are the first that explicitly play up their Android compatibility.

These devices follow in the footsteps of the Asus Chromebook Flip, which was the first Chrome OS two-in-one back when the operating system didn't really lend itself to that type of hardware design. Now a convertible design is apt to run Chrome OS and Android apps on the same system, but this union of operating systems isn't perfect yet.

Read more

An Everyday Linux User Review Of Fedora 25 - Oh No, So Many Problems

Filed under
Red Hat
Reviews

So where does that leave us?

I have always loved Fedora but I love music more and the amount of hassle and the amount of hoops I have had to jump through to try and get it working this time is just not worth the effort. The Google Chrome thing is also an issue for me. It works fine in openSUSE so why is it not working in Fedora?

Wayland seems to be performing well enough and I haven't experienced any problems that seem to be related to the graphical side of things.

Unfortunately I have witnessed far too many errors, notifications, application crashes and general pointless pain to be able to recommend Fedora 25. Fedora 23 worked great, 25 doesn't.

I recommend either CentOS or openSUSE for now.

Read more

today's leftovers

Filed under
Misc
  • "elementary OS Pay-What-You-Want App Store" - Lunduke Hour - Feb 8, 2017
  • Podcast Season 5 Episode 2

    In this episode: We’ve got a live recording from FOSDEM (thanks Mike!), lots of news, lots of Finds and an awesome Voice of the Masses.

  • Intel's Atom C2000 chips are bricking products – and it's not just Cisco hit

    Intel's Atom C2000 processor family has a fault that effectively bricks devices, costing the company a significant amount of money to correct. But the semiconductor giant won't disclose precisely how many chips are affected nor which products are at risk.

    On its Q4 2016 earnings call earlier this month, chief financial officer Robert Swan said a product issue limited profitability during the quarter, forcing the biz to set aside a pot of cash to deal with the problem.

  • PSA: Intel Atom C2000 Chips Flaw Bricking Routers/NAS/Firewall devices that are powered by Linux, pfSense and FreeNAS
  • Bored with ho-hum cloud backups? Use Usenet (yes, Usenet!) instead

    Cloud backups these days are all the rage—for good reason. Rather than dealing with shuffling physical media offsite, you can simply back up the data offsite, where it can be stored in one of many professionally monitored data centers.

    Unfortunately, this kind of service isn’t free, and the cost can be a barrier. However, there is a cost-effective way to store your cloud backups: Usenet. With access to a Usenet news server, you can simply upload your backup there, and it will be stored redundantly in news servers all over the world. Best of all, this approach typically costs considerably less than a cloud backup service.

  • Intel Core i3 2100 Sandy Bridge vs. Core i3 7100 Kabylake Performance

    As a reminder, the Core i3 7100 is a dual-core processor with Hyper Threading, has a 3.9GHz base frequency (no Turbo Boost), 3MB Cache, HD Graphics 630 @ 1.1GHz, and a 51 Watt TDP. The Core i3 2100 from the start of 2011 was a dual-core with Hyper Threading too and a 3MB cache but only a 3.1GHz clock frequency and HD Graphics 2000 running @ 1.1GHz. The i3-2100 CPU had a 65 Watt TDP for this 32nm CPU compared to the i3-7100 being on a 14nm process and TDP of just 51 Watts.

  • [Cacti] Release Notes - 1.0.0
  • Dark Adwaita and HighContrast Themes for Qt

    One of our goals for Fedora Workstation is to run Qt applications in GNOME as seamlessly as possible. Their look should be as close to their GTK+ counterparts as possible, you shouldn’t have to set things on two different places just to make the change in both GTK+ and Qt applications.

  • Accelerated compositing in WebKitGTK+ 2.14.4

    WebKitGTK+ 2.14 release was very exciting for us, it finally introduced the threaded compositor to drastically improve the accelerated compositing performance. However, the threaded compositor imposed the accelerated compositing to be always enabled, even for non-accelerated contents. Unfortunately, this caused different kind of problems to several people, and proved that we are not ready to render everything with OpenGL yet.

  • openSUSE Tumbleweed – Review of the Week 2017/06

    This week we managed to get out 7 snapshots – I am going to review the snapshots {0203..0209}.

Wine and Games

Filed under
GNU
Linux
Gaming
  • Wine Staging 2.1 Adds Improvements to the CSMT Patchset, Based on Wine 2.1

    The Wine Staging team announced today, February 9, 2017, the availability of the Wine Staging 2.1, a development release that implements various improvements and addresses numerous issues.

    Coming hot on the heels of Wine 2.1, on which it's based, the Wine Staging 2.1 release has revamped the CSMT (Command Stream Multithreading) patchset, which is the application's number one functionality, used for using the available GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and CPU (Central Processing Unit) more efficiently by moving the execution of OpenGL commands to a separate thread, to support Direct3D 10 and 11.

  • Old School RTS Make a Comeback (on Linux too)

    We had already mentioned that Cossacks would be coming on Linux – it’s been on Windows since last year (2016) and for a long time we had no news about when it would appear on Linux, but it seems now that the date is fixed – it will be released on the 15th of March 2017 both on Mac and Linux.

  • Civilization VI: Quick Port Report

    So Civ VI should be out now by the time you read this, and we have had a couple of days on the beta before the release. After spending about 4 hours on the game, it’s wayyyyyy too early to have any definitive opinion about how good Civ VI really is (and what the additions of districts, civics tree and envoys actually bring), but we can at least say how good the port looks so far, in single-player mode. First, the first thing you will notice is the first, dark loading screen – at least during the first load. It’s been quite long on my hardware (i5 3.4 Ghz with GTX970, 8GB RAM, 1080p screen), more than a minute – it reminds me a lot of Mankind Divided in that sense. Note that this is not unique to Civ VI, Civ V had a pretty long loading screen as well. But once the game is loaded it’s about it, so it’s not that bad. And subsequent loads were shorter.

Microsoft 'Loves' Linux in Munich

Filed under
GNU
Linux
Microsoft

Red Hat and Fedora

Filed under
Red Hat

Future of Ubuntu phones and Ubuntu 17.04

Filed under
Ubuntu

RecalboxOS and PiE-Ink

Filed under
Linux
Hardware
  • [Older] RecalboxOS – Raspberry Pi Gaming System

    If you are interested in gaming then you should look into the RecalboxOS which runs on the Raspberry Pi. RecalboxOS has numerous console emulators and even provides Kodi which is a media center for playing videos, music, pictures, games and more. This article will cover the installation and configuration of the gaming system and not Kodi.

  • PiE-Ink is a Raspberry Pi name tag that uses an e ink display

    In today’s maker edition of “why didn’t we think of that before?”, we have a customisable name tag based on a Raspberry Pi hooked up to an e ink display.

    The “PiE-Ink” was created by user “esper2142“, who is quickly identified as Josh King, a systems engineer at Cisco thanks to the included demo video.

OSS Leftovers

Filed under
OSS
  • Intel open sources deep learning with BigDL for Apache Spark
  • Intel, Cloudera open source tech unleashes power of artificial intelligence workloads

    Intel and data management company Cloudera have jointly launched a solution aimed at speeding up the process of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) workloads.

  • Wyatt Emmerich: State should lean on open source software to save money, reduce brain drain
  • Open source code could save money, spur tech growth [Ed: as above]

    Mississippi spends $250 million a year on software to run its government. Much of this software is proprietary code with big national companies. We get locked in to the software. Switching becomes impossible. Steep price increases follow. Taxpayers lose.

    Garrett proposes a better way. Working with our university computer departments, the Legislature should create a Center for Collaborative Software Development. A portion of our state IT spending should be set aside to support this. Student teams could design and compete for state software contracts using open source under university supervision. The winners could go on to found successful software companies based in Mississippi.

  • Inclusive Development gets open source tools from IBM

    IBM is embarking on a new era of open source accessibility by releasing tooling, samples and design patterns to help streamline the development of inclusive web and mobile applications.

    They have recently released two new projects on the developerWorks/open community, AccProbe and Va11yS, to help alleviate accessibility roadblocks during the agile development process, strengthen the user experience by adhering to industry standards, and reduce costs by ensuring accessibility is done right from the beginning.

  • Business applications: the next hurdle for open source adoption

    Is open source finally overcoming the long-held reservations that still persist among some non-technical executives, and even a sizeable number of business technology professionals?

    According to Matthew Lee, regional manager for Africa at SUSE, the German-based, multinational, open-source software company, the answer is both yes – and no.

    "There is no question that open source has become mainstream in many areas. It has more than proven itself in the infrastructure space after hanging around on the periphery of the enterprise providing non-critical functions such as firewalls and Web servers. Now it is starting to move up the enterprise stack but it still faces a significant challenge when it comes to business applications," he said.

  • Circulate on Fridays: Farming from shipping containers and open source

    Get all your circular economy relevant reading and viewing in one place every weekend with Circulate on Fridays. Today, we’re focusing on open source, the potential impact of a new EU circular economy finance platform, and why the future of farming is in shipping containers!

  • Open Networking Summit Announces Initial Keynote Speakers from Amadeus, Andreessen Horowitz, AT&T, Google, Intel, Microsoft, Visa and More
  • The Tizen Partners Summit will be held in Warsaw, Poland, from 23rd to 24th February 2017
  • Struggling for Relevance: Is Mozilla Really Killing Off Firefox? [Ed: Misleading and inane headline; does not say FirefoxOS]

    Mozilla has announced that it is abandoning its efforts to develop a new operating system for smartphones and other connected devices. The decision to shut down the connected devices division will affect about 50 Firefox employees, including Ari Jaaksi, the senior vice president who had headed the initiative.

  • SnapRoute Raises $25M For Open-Source Network Operating System [Ed: but Microsoft in the details]
  • (VIDEO) IAB Tech Lab Priorities: Open Source Kit For In-App Ads, RTB Standard Revamp
  • France updates IT project evaluation tool Mareva

    The IT project management solution was first made available in 2005, by ADAE, the precursor to DINSIC. Support for free and open source software was added sometime after August 2007, when Mareva supported its use in OpenOffice. In 2014, it switched to support LibreOffice, a much more rapidly developing open source office suite.

  • The Linux Foundation Offers Free Open Source Licensing Course: “Compliance Basics for Developers”

    Open Source has grown from a mere idea to a philosophy that drives some of the most crucial innovations around the world. The concept of reviewing code made by others, introducing your own changes, and then distributing the code back to the community creates a feedback loop that helps individual developers accomplish much more as a community than what they can do alone.

  • A new open source dataset links human motion and language

    Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. The new KIT Motion-Language Dataset will help to unify and standardize research linking human motion and natural language, as presented in an article in Big Data, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Big Data website until March 9, 2017.

  • AtCore: Printing with threads

    When connect to a 3d printer with your compuer you are really just connecting to a serial device. There are some commads you can send it in the form G# and M# commands . These commands do all kinds of stuff every thing from homing the axises to feeding filment and moving the head around. When you slice your model and generate that gcode file you are making generating basicly a long list of comamnds for the printer to follow. The gcode files are plain text and have to be sent out thru a serial device to the printer. Its not complicated to parse the file you just send a command and wait for the printer to return a message indicated its finished the comamnd and then send the next command. We have had this working for some time using a QEventLoop and a while to keep the loop going until the printer is ready for a new command. This was working wonderfully Untill we realized that we were having some blocking problems when printing. After some discussion tomaz , patrick and I decided the best way to fix this is for us to split the printing to its own thread so it can no longer block other parts by hyjacking the main event loop while printing.

FOSS Databases in the News

Filed under
OSS
  • MariaDB North American Roadshow Supports Accelerating Adoption of Open Source Relational Databases in the Enterprise
  • Leaders in Data Management and Open Source Innovation to Gather in Boston for Postgres Vision 2017
  • RethinkDB joins The Linux Foundation

    When the company behind RethinkDB shut down last year, a group of former employees and members of the community formed an interim leadership team and began devising a plan to perpetuate the RethinkDB open-source software project by transitioning it to a community-driven endeavor. Today’s announcement by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) marks the culmination of that effort. The CNCF purchased the rights to the RethinkDB source code and contributed it to The Linux Foundation under the permissive ASLv2 license.

  • The liberation of RethinkDB

    There was just one small hiccup with RethinkDB, though it felt forgivable at the time: RethinkDB is open source, but licensed under the AGPL. Whatever your own feelings for the AGPL, it is indisputable that its vagueness coupled with its rarity and its total lack of judicial precedent makes risk-averse lawyers very nervous (especially in companies that have substantial intellectual property to protect) — to the point that it’s not uncommon for companies to ban the use of AGPL-licensed software entirely. This makes the AGPL anti-collaborative, and worse, it’s often the point: when companies license software under the AGPL that they also make available commercially (that is, under a license palatable to the enterprise), they are exhibiting the corporate open source anti-pattern of dual-licensing for profit. (Viz.: Oracle’s infamous relicensing of BerkeleyDB as AGPL.)

BSD Leftovers

Filed under
BSD

Programming and Security News

Filed under
Development
Security
  • RSPIRV: Google's Rust Implementation Of SPIR-V

    Google developers have been working on a number of open-source projects in the Vulkan space and one of their latest is SPIR-V processing with Rust.

    RSPIRV is another project under the Google umbrella on GitHub. RSPIRV is a Rust implementation of SPIR-V module processing functionalities. SPIR-V, of course, being the intermediate representation/language used by Vulkan as well as OpenCL 2.1+ and can also be used in OpenGL.

  • Optimize PHP with finely tuned IT resources and settings

    More than 90% of PHP-based websites still use PHP version 5. Of those websites, less than one quarter run the latest supported version, PHP 5.6. Despite the release of PHP 7 in December 2015, which has been documented and benchmarked as up to two times faster than PHP 5.6, the adoption rate is only around 3% among websites that use the language. The first step -- before optimizing PHP using the following tips -- is to upgrade to version 7.

  • Node for Java Developers

    The biggest audience for my Node.js workshops, courses and books (especially when I’m teaching live) is Java developers. You see, it used to be that Java was the only language professional software developers/engineers had to know. Not anymore. Node.js as well as other languages like Go, Elixir, Python, Clojure, dictate a polyglot environment in which the best tool for the job is picked.

  • Morocco's First Open Source ERP Uses Java EE 7!
  • Hazelcast's Parallel Streaming Engine Targets Java/Big Data Programmers

    In-memory data grid (IMDG) specialist Hazelcast Inc. yesterday launched a new distributed processing engine for Big Data streams. The open-source, Apache 2-licenced Hazelcast Jet is designed to process data in parallel across nodes, enabling data-intensive applications to operate in near real-time.

  • On new zlib breaking perl
  • anytime 0.2.1
  • Security updates for Friday
  • Capsule8 Launches Linux-Based Container Security Platform

    Cybersecurity startup Capsule8 this week announced that it has raised US$2.5 million to launch the industry's first container-aware, real-time threat protection platform designed to protect legacy and next-generation Linux infrastructures from existing and potential attacks.

    CEO John Viega, CTO Dino Dai Zovi and Chief Scientist Brandon Edwards, all veteran hackers, cofounded the firm. They raised seed funding from Bessemer Venture Partners, as well as individual investors Shandul Shah of Index Ventures and ClearSky's Jay Leek.

Android Leftovers

Filed under
Android

GNOME News

Filed under
GNOME
  • halting problem :: Epoxy

    Epoxy is a small library that GTK+, and other projects, use in order to access the OpenGL API in somewhat sane fashion, hiding all the awful bits of craziness that actually need to happen because apparently somebody dosed the water supply at SGI with large quantities of LSD in the mid-‘90s, or something.

    As an added advantage, Epoxy is also portable on different platforms, which is a plus for GTK+.

    Since I’ve started using Meson for my personal (and some work-related) projects as well, I’ve been on the lookout for adding Meson build rules to other free and open source software projects, in order to improve both their build time and portability, and to improve Meson itself.

    As a small, portable project, Epoxy sounded like a good candidate for the port of its build system from autotools to Meson.

  • Meson Build System Takes 45% Less Time Than Autotools For Epoxy

    GNOME developers continue investing in the Meson Build System and the results continue to be much faster than Autotools and generally other build systems too.

    GNOME developer Emmanuele Bassi shared his latest findings after bringing Meson over to libepoxy, the library for abstracting some of the OpenGL / OpenGL ES differences and setup behavior across windowing systems and other environments.

  • A new way of writing Gtk+ applications

    I love working with Gtk+ - it is a great GUI toolkit with a good developer experience. But React has totally changed how GUI apps are written.

  • [Vide] [GNOME 3.24] User Accounts - Feb 10
  • GNOME MPV is a Sleek GTK+ Frontend for mpv

    I recently blogged about my love affair (of sorts) with mpv, the nimble, open-source media player based on mplayer.

    Stock mpv is, for those used to all-singing and all-dancing video players, a little… austere. GNOME MPV is an attractive GTK+ front-end to mpv.

    If you find mpv too minimal, gnome-mpv is sure to help.

Nouveau: Mesa 13.0 vs. 17.0 vs. 17.1-devel OpenGL Benchmarks

Filed under
Graphics/Benchmarks

Having now published RADV/RadeonSI Mesa 17.0 benchmarks and Intel i965/ANV Mesa 17.0 benchmarks compared to Mesa 13.0 and 17.1-devel, here are now benchmarks of the Nouveau NVC0 Gallium3D driver for seeing how this open-source NVIDIA 3D driver performs on the imminent Mesa 17.0 release.

With Mesa 17.0, OpenGL 4.3 is still exposed by NVC0 even though it implements all the OpenGL 4.5 extensions, it doesn't yet pass the GL CTS. But at least with Mesa 17.0, NVIDIA Maxwell support goes from OpenGL 4.1 to 4.3. There are also other new features to Mesa 17.0.

Read more

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Linux Mint 18.1 Is The Best Mint Yet

The hardcore Linux geeks won’t read this article. They’ll skip right past it… They don’t like Linux Mint much. There’s a good reason for them not to; it’s not designed for them. Linux Mint is for folks who want a stable, elegant desktop operating system that they don’t want to have to constantly tinker with. Anyone who is into Linux will find Mint rather boring because it can get as close to the bleeding edge of computer technology. That said, most of those same hardcore geeks will privately tell you that they’ve put Linux Mint on their Mom’s computer and she just loves it. Linux Mint is great for Mom. It’s stable, offers everything she needs and its familiar UI is easy for Windows refugees to figure out. If you think of Arch Linux as a finicky, high-performance sports car then Linux Mint is a reliable station wagon. The kind of car your Mom would drive. Well, I have always liked station wagons myself and if you’ve read this far then I guess you do, too. A ride in a nice station wagon, loaded with creature comforts, cold blowing AC, and a good sound system can be very relaxing, indeed. Read more

Make Gnome 3 more accessible for everyday use

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When to Use Which Debian Linux Repository

Nothing distinguishes the Debian Linux distribution so much as its system of package repositories. Originally organized into Stable, Testing, and Unstable, additional repositories have been added over the years, until today it takes more than a knowledge of a repository's name to understand how to use it efficiently and safely. Debian repositories are installed with a section called main that consists only of free software. However, by editing the file /etc/apt/sources.list, you can add contrib, which contains software that depends on proprietary software, and non-free, which contains proprietary software. Unless you choose to use only free software, contrib and non-free are especially useful for video and wireless drivers. You should also know that the three main repositories are named for characters from the Toy Story movies. Unstable is always called Sid, while the names of Testing and Stable change. When a new version of Debian is released, Testing becomes Stable, and the new version of Testing receives a name. These names are sometimes necessary for enabling a mirror site, but otherwise, ignoring these names gives you one less thing to remember. Read more

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