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Gentoo

A brief discussion about package installation times in Gentoo Linux

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Gentoo

I thought that perhaps users of binary-based Linux distributions who are contemplating trying out the source-based distribution Gentoo Linux might be interested to know a bit about installation times in contrast to binary distributions. I am not going to go into great detail here; this is just to give interested people a quick idea of possible package installation times in Gentoo Linux.

The package manager of a binary-based distribution such as Ubuntu downloads and installs binary (i.e. pre-built) packages. On the other hand, Gentoo’s package manager Portage downloads source-code packages and builds the binaries (executables) on your machine. Nevertheless, a small number of Portage packages contain binaries rather than source code, either because the source code could take many hours to build on older hardware or because the source code is simply not available in the public domain. An example of the first scenario is Firefox, which is available in Gentoo both as the source code package www-client/firefox and as the binary package www-client/firefox-bin so that the user can choose which to install (‘merge’, in Gentoo parlance). An example of the second scenario is TeamViewer, which is only available as the binary package net-misc/teamviewer because TeamViewer is closed-source software (i.e. the company that develops TeamViewer does not release its source code).

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Security Issues at Gentoo Narrowed Down to Crappy Password

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Gentoo
Security
  • Linux experts are crap at passwords!

    Fortunately, Gentoo’s GitHub respository wasn’t the primary source for Gentoo code, and few, if any, Gentoo users were relying on it for software updates.

  • Gentoo publishes detailed report after its GitHub was compromised

    You may have seen the news towards the end of June that Gentoo, a fairly advanced Linux distribution, had its GitHub repository compromised after an attacker managed to gain access to one of the connected accounts. Now, Gentoo has published a comprehensive report about the incident and it turns out that the gaff was due to not following rudimentary security tips.

  • Weak Admin Password Caused Compromise of Gentoo GitHub repository

    Gentoo have finished their investigation of the hack that affected their project last week on GitHub. The point of vulnerability has turned out to be a weak Administrator password. upon compromise the hackers added the Linux killer command “rm -rf /” so when users cloned the project to their computers all their data will be erased.

Microsoft, the NSA, and GitHub

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Gentoo
Microsoft
Security
  • Gentoo hacker's code changes unlikely to have worked

    Linux distribution Gentoo's maintainers say attempts by attackers last week to sabotage code stored on Github is unlikely to have worked.

    Gentoo's Github account was compromised in late June.

    The attacker was able to gain administrative privileges for Gentoo's Github account, after guessing the password for it.

    Gentoo's maintainers were alerted to the attack early thanks to the attacker removing all developers from the Github account, causing them to be emailed.

  • NSA Exploit "DoublePulsar" Patched to Work on Windows IoT Systems

    An infosec researcher who uses the online pseudonym of Capt. Meelo has modified an NSA hacking tool known as DoublePulsar to work on the Windows IoT operating system (formerly known as Windows Embedded).

    The original DoublePulsar is a hacking tool that was developed by the US National Security Agency (NSA), and was stolen and then leaked online by a hacking group known as The Shadow Brokers.

    At its core, DoublePulsar is a Ring-0 kernel mode payload that acts like a backdoor into compromised systems. DoublePulsar is not meant to be used on its own, but together with other NSA tools.

  • Predictable password blamed for Gentoo GitHub organisation takeover [Ed: when Microsoft takes over the NSA gets all these passwords. (NSA PRISM)]

    Gentoo has laid out the cause and impact of an attack that saw the Linux distribution locked out of its GitHub organisation.

    The attack took place on June 28, and saw Gentoo unable to use GitHub for approximately five days.

    Due a lack of two-factor authentication, once the attacker guessed an admin's password, the organisation was in trouble.

Security: Open Source Security Podcast and Inaccurate Gentoo Coverage

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Gentoo
Security
  • Open Source Security Podcast: Episode 103 - The Seven Properties of Highly Secure Devices

    We take a real world view into how to secure our devices. What works, what doesn't work, and why this list is actually really good.

  • Github code repository for Gentoo Linux hacked [Ed: Lots of inaccuracies here]

    The Gentoo Linux distribution's Github repository was hacked last June 28, with the attackers modifying the code there.

    Github is a repository for all sorts of source code projects in a variety of programming languages. Gentoo Linux is one such project, stored in Github.

    Gentoo Linux administrators updated users as soon as the issue was found out.

  • Gentoo warning after GitHub hack [Ed: Crack, not "hack"]

    A key Gentoo Linux source code repository should be considered compromised after “unknown individuals” gained access to Gentoo’s Github organisation.

    In an email to the Gentoo announcement list, developer Alec Warner said that the individuals had seized control of the GitHub Gentoo organisation “and modified the content of repositories as well as pages there”.

Gentoo Needs to Delete GitHub

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Gentoo
Security
  • Gentoo GitHub mirror hacked and considered compromised

    Linux distribution Gentoo has had its GitHub mirror broken into and taken over, with GitHub pages changed and ebuilds replaced.

    In an alert, Gentoo said the attacker gained control of the Github Gentoo organisation at June 28, 20:20 UTC.

    "All Gentoo code hosted on github should for the moment be considered compromised," the alert said.

  • Et tu, Gentoo? Horrible gits meddle with Linux distro's GitHub code

    If you have fetched anything from Gentoo's GitHub-hosted repositories today, dump those files – because hackers have meddled with the open-source project's data.

    The Linux distro's officials sounded the alarm on Thursday, revealing someone managed to break into its GitHub organization account to modify software and webpages.

    Basically, if you downloaded and installed materials from Gentoo via GitHub, you might be compromised by bringing in malicious code. And until the all clear is given, you should avoid fetching anything from the project's 'hub org account.

    "Today, 28 June, at approximately 20:20 UTC unknown individuals have gained control of the Github Gentoo organization, and modified the content of repositories as well as pages there," Gentoo dev Alec Warner said in a bulletin.

  • Gentoo Linux GitHub organisation hacked, content modified

    The GitHub organisation of the Gentoo Linux distribution has been compromised and the project behind Gentoo is warning users not to use code from this source.

    In a statement, the Gentoo leadership said some unknown individuals had gained control of the GitHub Gentoo organisation on 28 June at 20.20 UTC and modified the content and pages.

    Gentoo is a Linux distribution meant for advanced users. The source is compiled locally depending on user preferences and is often optimised for specific hardware.

Gentoo-Based Porteus Kiosk 4.7 Brings More Mitigations Against Spectre Flaws

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Gentoo

Powered by the long-term supported Linux 4.14.50 kernel, Porteus Kiosk 4.7.0 is the second release of the operating system in 2018 and comes five months after version 4.6 to introduce more mitigations against the Spectre security vulnerabilities, though the next-gen Spectre flaws require microcode firmware updates for Intel CPUs.

"Newly discovered "Spectre Next Generation" vulnerabilities require updated microcode from Intel which is not available yet. Please consider enabling automatic updates service for your kiosks to receive latest fixes and patches as soon as they become available," reads today's announcement.

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The story of Gentoo management

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Gentoo

I have recently made a tabular summary of (probably) all Council members and Trustees in the history of Gentoo. I think that this table provides a very succinct way of expressing the changes within management of Gentoo. While it can’t express the complete history of Gentoo, it can serve as a useful tool of reference.

What questions can it answer? For example, it provides an easy way to see how many terms individuals have served, or how long Trustee terms were. You can clearly see who served both on the Council and on the Board and when those two bodies had common members. Most notably, it collects a fair amount of hard-to-find data in a single table.

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A short history of Gentoo copyright

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Gentoo
Legal

As part of the recent effort into forming a new copyright policy for Gentoo, a research into the historical status has been conducted. We've tried to establish all the key events regarding the topic, as well as the reasoning behind the existing policy. I would like to shortly note the history based on the evidence discovered by Robin H. Johnson, Ulrich Müller and myself.

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Encryption in Gentoo and GNOME

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Gentoo
GNOME
  • On OpenPGP (GnuPG) key management

    Over the time, a number of developers have had problems following the Gentoo OpenPGP key policy (GLEP 63. In particular, the key expiration requirements have resulted in many developers wanting to replace their key unnecessarily. I’ve been asked to write some instructions on managing your OpenPGP key, and I’ve decided to go for a full blog post with some less-known tips. I won’t be getting into detailed explanations how to use GnuPG though — you may still need to read the documentation after all.

    [...]

    Signing keys are used to sign data, i.e. to prove its authenticity. Using multiple signing subkeys is rather trivial — you can explicitly specify the key to use while creating a signature (note that you need to append ! to key-id to force non-default subkey), and GnuPG will automatically use the correct subkey when verifying the signature. To reduce the wear of your main signing subkey, you can create a separate signing subkey for Gentoo commits. Or you can go ever further, and have a separate signing subkey for each machine you’re using (and keep only the appropriate key on each machine).

  • Fractal Hackfest, Strasbourg (day 2)

    The encryption is a needed feature but encryption is hard to do in rooms. Matrix uses public-key cryptography, for rooms they are using Megolm, that's a protocol to exchange encrypted messages with more than one and share that message keys in a one-to-one secure communication.

    I don't know a lot about this E2E because for me it's more important to have the client working with a basic functionality before the encryption. So you should read the official doc because maybe this that I'm writing here is completely wrong.

    To do all this E2E key sharing, client side encryption and communication, Riot has three different implementations of the same lib, so they have this code in the JavaScript SDK, the same ported to iOS version in ObjectiveC and the same ported to Android in Java. Below this lib there's the libolm that does the real encryption.

Copyright 101 for Gentoo contributors

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Gentoo
Legal

While the work on new Gentoo copyright policy is still in progress, I think it would be reasonable to write a short article on copyright in general, for the benefit of Gentoo developers and contributors (proxied maintainers, in particular). There are some common misconceptions regarding copyright, and I would like to specifically focus on correcting them. Hopefully, this will reduce the risk of users submitting ebuilds and other files in violation of copyrights of other parties.

First of all, I’d like to point out that IANAL. The following information is based on what I’ve gathered from various sources over the years. Some or all of it may be incorrect. I take no responsibility for that. When in doubt, please contact a lawyer.

Secondly, the copyright laws vary from country to country. In particular, I have no clue how they work across two countries with incompatible laws. I attempt to provide a baseline that should work both for US and EU, i.e. ‘stay on the safe side’. However, there is no guarantee that it will work everywhere.

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More in Tux Machines

today's leftovers

  • Ubuntu Podcast from the UK LoCo: S12E33 – The Sentinel

    This week we’ve been to the Linux Application Summit in Barcelona. We round up news from the Ubuntu and desktop Linux community and bring you our picks from the wider tech news. It’s Season 12 Episode 33 of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson and Martin Wimpress are connected and speaking to your brain.

  • Kubernetes and the misconception of multi-cloud portability
  • Linux 5.5 To Finally Expose NVMe Drive Temperatures Via HWMON

    Linux for years has supported monitoring NVMe drive temperatures when installing the nvme user-space utility and run as root, etc. But now finally with Linux 5.5 the kernel is supporting NVMe drive temperature reporting through the hardware monitoring "HWMON" infrastructure alongside other hardware sensors. Come the Linux 5.5 stable release in early 2020 is the NVMe HWMON support to allow reporting the current NVMe drive temperature sensor(s) and min/max thresholds via this kernel infrastructure. This in turn allows user-space to simply query the data over sysfs without the need for any utilities, no root requirement, and should gracefully work with the various programs that report HWMON sensor readings to Linux desktop users.

  • PHP 5.3 To PHP 7.4 Performance Benchmarks On AMD EPYC

    With the big PHP 7.4.0 release due out next week, yesterday we published our PHP 7.4.0 benchmarks using the near-final build for this annual update to PHP. Those benchmarks compared previous releases as far back as PHP 5.6. But out of curiosity after that article I went to do some benchmarks going back to PHP 5.3 through PHP 7.4 and PHP 8.0-dev. With the AMD EPYC 7642 server running Ubuntu 19.10 used in yesterday's article, I ran the final PHP 5.3/5.4/5.5 benchmarks added in to yesterday's data. So for those curious how the historical PHP5 performance compares to the imminent PHP 7.4, these benchmarks are for your enjoyment today.

  • Wine Patches Coming To Allow UMIP Emulation - Works Around Issues For Ryzen 3000

    Coming up this weekend with the Linux 5.4 kernel is emulation/spoofing of the SGDT/SIDT/SMSW instructions around UMIP for allowing newer 64-bit Windows games to run on Wine and Steam Play (Proton). With newer CPUs like the AMD Ryzen 3000 series that support UMIP, these instructions are not allowed to run in user-space with Wine due to UMIP. So while the first stable kernel release is about to land with this support, some Wine-based emulation not contingent on the kernel patches is also in the works.

  • The different way to check whether you are using a 32-bit or 64-bit version of Linux on your computer
  • KF6 Sprint - Day One

    Today we started our KF6 sprint at the MBition office in Berlin. Beside the people attending in person, we have David Faure joining us via web conference. Thanks already to the people at MBition that spend time on making it possible to host the sprint there. First stuff to be discussed were some high level things, like does the monthly release scheme work out well. Short answer: yes :) The short period works well, allows people to fix issues directly in frameworks and still have that reasonable fast provided to the users. And the overhead of release creation is low, thanks to automation.

  • Zidoo M9 is a Rockchip RK3399 TV Box/Mini PC/SBC with Dual OS Support

    Zidoo has launched several TV boxes running Android over the years, some of which we reviewed such as Zidoo X9 (2015), or Zidoo H6 Pro.

  • Goldman Sachs is planning on giving some of its most valuable software to Wall Street for free

    Goldman Sachs wants to give away some of its most valuable software. The investment bank spent countless hours over 14 years developing a platform called Alloy to help it access and analyze the growing set of financial databases being created across the firm. Now Goldman is taking the unusual step of making that program, as well as the language underlying it, available to the rest of Wall Street for free as open-source software in collaboration with a nonprofit called Finos. The software and language "have grown to become critical tools within our firm across the trade lifecycle that help us price, assess and evaluate risk, clear transactions, and perform regulatory reporting," said Neema Raphael, co-chief data officer at Goldman. By making it publicly available, "we'll unlock tremendous value for the industry when we co-develop and share models."

  • Open source transparency comes to root of trust hardware

    Geopolitics have put enterprise data centers in the crosshairs of international espionage. From all corners of the globe, hackers of all sorts, including those aligned with national spy agencies, are zeroing in on hardware roots of trust. For any computing platform, the root of trust is the ultimate line of defense against cybersecurity attacks. No matter how secure your operating system and applications appear to be, they are acutely vulnerable if running on a hardware platform whose root of trust has been compromised by an unauthorized party.

  • Cloud Print becomes the latest product to face Google death squad

    At the end of 2020, after over a decade in beta, Google will pick up its product-ending shotgun and take Cloud Print for a talk behind the back shed, from which it will never return. "Beginning January 1, 2021, devices across all operating systems will no longer be able to print using Google Cloud Print," Google said in a support note. "We recommend that over the next year, you identify an alternative solution and execute a migration strategy." Last week for its own Chrome OS operating system, Google added CUPS printing, which it will use instead of Cloud Print.

  • Google shuts down its Cloud Print service after 10-year Beta

    Google revealed plans to shut down Cloud Print, a cloud-based printing solution, at the end of 2020 permanently. The company launched Cloud Print back in 2010 as a solution to print from any Internet connected device to compatible printers. The main benefit of the solution was that users did not have to install printer drivers on their client devices and that devices did not need to be in the same local network as the printer. The solution enabled printing on devices without official support from the printer's manufacturer or drivers for that particular device. On Windows users could install the Google Cloud Printer application to add cloud printing functionality to the operating system.

  • Google Cloud Print will be shut down on December 31, 2020

    After offering printing from any device, from any location, to any web-connected printer with Cloud Print, Google is shutting down the service that has technically been a beta product since 2010. Cloud Print will be gone by the end of next year and users will need to find an alternative before December 31, 2020. Chrome OS, which originally relied on Cloud Print entirely for printing needs, eschewing the need to develop native printing controls, is now going full native. Chrome OS already handles some administrative tasks for printers that use the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS). Google promises to expand administrative options through the end of the year, and add more robust support for external print servers and other security policy administration in 2020. Since Chrome OS and its apps relied entirely on Cloud Print, Google will also be developing APIs for third-party developers to handle printing tasks.

Why You Should Be Using Linux

How many times have you been happily working away when, out of nowhere, Windows either forced a reboot to update, stopped responding, or completely crashed? With Linux, those events are a thing of the past. Because of the way Linux was designed, you (the user) have complete control over nearly everything. Say, for example, an application fails on you. Instead of that application taking the entire desktop along for the ride (an issue that often stumps even software development providers), you can log into what’s called a virtual console and force that crashed application closed via the command line. Yes, that does take a bit more skill than the average user possesses, but once you know how it’s done, it becomes second nature. The likelihood of that actually happening, however, is low. The few instances where this has happened to me was due to my using beta or “nightly” releases of software, which the average user wouldn’t be working with. Linux simply works and works with an almost unheard of reliability. Read more

Industrial-grade Linux OS gets Over-the-Air updates

Modern embedded systems need a reliable and secure way to deliver software updates remotely. Toradex aims to accomplish this by publishing critical operating system updates to customers with devices running TorizonCore, an easy-to-use industrial-grade Linux OS. The system will provide full control over which updates and when these updates are pushed to their devices by way of a web interface. Additionally, customers will be able to push their own updates to their devices using the same OTA system. Managing deployed devices is made easy by providing a high-level view of all devices and their current status. Grouping devices together into fleets is supported and makes managing updates for many devices easy. Every device publishes information up to the server which can prove useful for evaluating device health, inconsistencies in deployed devices, etc. Read more

SUSE/OpenSUSE Development Report

  • openSUSE Tumbleweed – Review of the week 2019/47

    Another week, in which openQA did block some of the snapshots – and some issues it was unfortunately not able to see. Anyway, during the week 2019/47 we have released three snapshot into the wild (1116, 1118 and 1119), containing those changes: Mesa 19.2.4: fixes critical rendering issues from earlier Mesa 19.2.3. As this rendering issue did not happen on all graphics adapters, openQA had no chance of spotting it Linux kernel 5.3.11 KDE Plasma 5.17.3 Subversion 1.13.0 binutils 2.33.1

  • YaST Team: Highlights of YaST Development Sprints 88 and 89

    A few weeks ago, we wrote about the new ItemSelector widget that is finding its way into YaST user interfaces. It turned out that just a simple on/off status is not enough in some cases, so we had to extend that concept. For example, software modules may have dependencies, and we want to show the difference between one that was explicitly selected by the user and one that was auto-selected because some other software module requires it. This kind of shook the foundations of the underlying classes; all of a sudden a bit is no longer just a bit, but it needs to be broken down into even smaller pieces. Well, we cheated; we now use integer values instead. Most of the class hierarchy still only uses 0 and 1, but the new YCustomStatusItemSelector also supports using higher numbers for application-defined purposes. For each possible status value, the application defines the name of the icon to be displayed (for graphical UIs like the Qt UI), the text equivalent (for text mode / the NCurses UI), and an optional nextStatus which tells the widget what status to cycle to when the user changes the status of an item with a mouse click or with the keyboard. A value of -1 lets the application handle this. So this is not a one-trick-pony that is useful only for that one use case (the software modules), but a generic tool that might find good uses in other places all over YaST as well.