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SUSE

Tumbleweed Gets New KDE Frameworks, systemd

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SUSE

KDE Frameworks 5.74.0 and systemd 246.4 became available in openSUSE Tumbleweed after two respective snapshots were released this week.

Hypervisor Xen, libstorage-ng, which is a C++ library used by YaST, and text editor vim were also some of the packages update this week in Tumbleweed.

The most recent snapshot released is 20200919. KDE Frameworks 5.74.0 was released earlier this month and its packages made it into this snapshot. KConfig introduced a method to query the KConfigSkeletonItem default value. KContacts now checks the length of the full name of an email address before trimming it with an address parser. KDE’s lightweight UI framework for mobile and convergent applications, Kirigami, made OverlaySheet of headers and footers use appropriate background colors, updated the app template and introduced a ToolBarLayout native object. Several other 5.74.0 Framework packages were update like Plasma Framework, KTestEditor and KIO. Bluetooth protocol bluez 5.55 fixed several handling issues related to the Audio/Video Remote Control Profile and the Generic Attribute Profile. A reverted Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures patch that was recommended by upstream in cpio 2.13 was once again added. GObject wrapper libgusb 0.3.5 fixed version scripts to be more portable. Documentation was fixed and translations were made for Finnish, Hindi and Russian in the 4.3.42 libstorage-ng update. YaST2 4.3.27 made a change to hide the heading of the dialog when no title is defined or the title is set to an empty string. Xen’s minor updated reverted a previous libexec change for a qemu compatibility wrapper; the path used exists in domU.xml files in the emulator field. The snapshot is trending stable at a 99 rating, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

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Feature Requests, Submit Requests for openSUSE Jump Take Shape

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SUSE

The openSUSE Project is progressing with the state of openSUSE Jump, which is the interim name given to the experimental distribution in the Open Build Service.

openSUSE Leap Release Manager Lubos Kocman sent an email to the project titled “Update on Jump and Leap 15.3 and proposed roadmap for the next steps” that explains the progress that has been made with Jump 15.2.1.

“We have some exciting news to share about the openSUSE Jump effort!” Kocman wrote. “We will have a Jira partner setup (coming) for openSUSE this week!”

Access to Jira will allow openSUSE Leap contributors to see updates on community feature requests and be able to comment on requested information or allow them to request information. The process will be tested initially by one of the community members to see if it works properly.

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openSUSE Tumbleweed vs. Leap 15.2 vs. Jump Alpha Benchmarks

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SUSE

Following the recent alpha debut of the openSUSE Jump distribution for testing that is working to synchronize SUSE Linux Enterprise with openSUSE Leap, there was an inquiry made about the performance of it. So for addressing that premium member's question, here are some benchmarks carried out recently of the latest openSUSE Leap 15.2 against the openSUSE Jump in its early state against the rolling-release openSUSE Tumbleweed.

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SUSE/OpenSUSE: OpenSUSE + LibreOffice Conference, ZeroLogon, YaST and More

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SUSE
  • Conference organizers announce schedule and platform registration

    Organizers of the online openSUSE + LibreOffice Conference are pleased to announce that the schedule for the conference is published.

    All times on the schedule are published in Coordinated Universal Time. The conference will take place from live Oct. 15 to Oct. 17 using the oslo.gonogo.live platform.

    There are more than 100 talks scheduled, covering the openSUSE and LibreOffice projects. There are talks about open-source projects, cloud and container technologies, embedded devices, community development, translations, marketing, documentation, Future Technologies, Quality Assurance and more.

  • SUSE Addresses “ZeroLogon” Vulnerability

    On September 11, Secura research published a new software vulnerability called “ZeroLogon”, which exploits a protocol weakness in the SMB Netlogon protocol. This vulnerability may affect users of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server running Samba servers in older or non-standard configurations. Attackers could use it to bypass access control to the domain controller.

  • Digest of YaST Development Sprint 108

    In our previous post we reported we were working in some mid-term goals in the areas of AutoYaST and storage management. This time we have more news to share about both, together with some other small YaST improvements.

  • Johann Els on running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server on SAP

Tumbleweed Snapshots bring updated Inkscape, Node.js, KDE Applications

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SUSE

Four openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots were released since the last article.

KDE’s Applications 20.08.1, Node.js, iproute2 and inkscape were updated in the snapshots throughout the week.

The 20200915 snapshot is trending stable at a rating of 97, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer. Many YaST packages were updated in this snapshot. The 4.3.19 yast2-network package forces a read of the current virtualization network configuration in case it’s not present. The Chinese pinyin character input package libpinyin updated to 2.4.91, which improved auto correction.

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IBM and SUSE/OpenSUSE

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Red Hat
SUSE
  • IBM Z and Linux Innovation: 20 Years and Counting

    IBM was ahead of its time in relationship to the upstart Linux operating system in the mid-1990s. Twenty years later and a huge amount of innovation later, IBM and the open source system are partners in thousands of systems globally.

  • OpenPOWER Foundation Introduces IBM Hardware and Software Contributions at OpenPOWER Summit 2020

    A2O POWER processor core, an out-of-order follow-up to the A2I core, and associated FPGA environment

  • Conference Organizers Announce Schedule, Platform Registration

    Organizers of the openSUSE + LibreOffice Conference are pleased to announce the schedule for the conference is published.  

    All times on the schedule are published in Coordinated Universal Time. The conference will take place live Oct. 15 through Oct. 17 using the https://oslo.gonogo.live/ platform.

    There are more than 100 talks scheduled that range from talks about the openSUSE and LibreOffice projects to talks about documentation. There are talks about open-source projects, cloud and container technologies, embedded devices, community development, translations, marketing, future technologies, quality assurance and more. 

    There will be multiple sessions happening at the same time, so some talks might overlap. Attendees have an option to personalize a schedule so that they are reminded when the live talk they would like to see begins. 

  •        

  • openSUSE Projects Support Hacktoberfest Efforts

    The openSUSE community is ready for Hacktoberfest, which is run by Digital Ocean and DEV that encourages people to make their first contributions to open source projects. The openSUSE + LibreOffice Virtual Conference will take place during Hacktoberfest and is listed as an event on the website. The conference will have more than 100 talks about open source projects ranging from documentation to the technologies within each project.

Firefox, Ceph Major Versions Arrive in Tumbleweed

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SUSE

Six openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots have arrived in the rolling release since the last Tumblweed update.

KDE’s Plasma 5.19.5, php and Ceph were among more of the known updates.

The display-oriented email client Alpine updated to version 2.23 in the 20200908 snapshot and provided support for the Simple Authentication and Security Layer-IR IMAP extension. The open-source disk encryption package cryptsetup 2.3.4 added support options for the 5.9 kernel and fixed a Common Vulnerabilities and Exposure affecting the memory write. A couple of RubyGem packages were updated in the snapshot and the 2.43 libcap package added some more release time checks for non-git tracked files. The snapshot is trending stable at a rating of 99, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Also trending at a 99 rating, snapshot 20200907 brought two package updates with fetchmail 6.4.12 and perl-Cpanel-JSON-XS 4.23. Fetchmail provided some regression fixes that were introduced in the versions between the 6.4.12 update and the previous 6.4.8 version in Tumbleweed.

Just four packages were updated in the 20200906 snapshot. The Heaptrack fast heap memory profiler updated to version 1.2.0; the package that allows you to track all heap memory allocations at run-time removed a fix-compile patch for 32bit. New features were added in the libvirt 6.7.0 version; added support for device model command-line passthrough for xen was one of the changes and there was also a change to the spec file that enables the same hypervisor drivers for openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise. The update of php 7.4.10 fixed a memory leak and python-libvirt-python 6.7.0 add all new APIs and constants in libvirt 6.7.0.

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Fedora, Red Hat and SUSE

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Red Hat
SUSE
  • Fedora IoT becomes an edition

    The Fedora 33 release is currently scheduled for late October; as part of the process of designing this release, the deadline for system-wide change proposals was set for June 30. This release already has a substantial number of big changes in the works, so one might be forgiven for being surprised by a system-wide change proposal that appeared on August 4, which looks to be pre-approved. Not only that, but this proposal expands the small set of official Fedora "editions" by adding the relatively obscure Fedora Internet of Things Edition.

    The Fedora distribution is released in a number of forms, including a fair number of "Fedora spins" that skew the distribution toward a specific use case. The flagship Fedora products, though, are the editions, of which there are currently only two: Fedora Workstation and Fedora Server. The former is obviously aimed at desktop deployments, while the latter is meant to be useful on back-end systems. This set of editions has been stable for some time.

    There are a few "emerging editions" in the works, including Fedora CoreOS and Silverblue. Also on that list is Fedora IoT which is now poised to become the third edition to be part of the Fedora 33 release. The proposal notes that this is "largely a paperwork exercise at this point". While the remaining work may be confined to paperwork, the project may want to put some effort into documentation sooner or later; actual information about what Fedora IoT is and how to work with it is relatively hard to find.

    [...]

    One other significant difference with Fedora IoT is a relatively strong focus on the use of containers to install applications. The podman tool is provided for this purpose; it's meant to look a lot like Docker, but without the need for any background daemons. Podman comes configured to pull images from docker.io by default. Your editor attempted to use it to install a few versions of NetHack that must all surely be legitimate, but none of them consented to run correctly — thus saving your editor a considerable amount of wasted time.

    Beyond those changes, though, Fedora IoT feels much like any other Fedora system. The commands work in the same way, and the usual packages are available. This makes for a relatively rich and comfortable environment for embedded-systems work.

    One can't help wonder about the ultimate objective, though. Fedora comes with no support guarantees, a fact that is sure to give pause to any companies thinking about which operating system to install in their million-device products. If Fedora is to have any chance of being deployed in such systems, some sort of commercial support option will have to materialize. When that happens, it may well go under the name of "Red Hat IoT" or some such. Fedora itself may not make it onto all of those devices, but Fedora users will have played with the technology first and helped to make it better.

  • Open source: the pathway to innovation

    Open source technology has seen widespread adoption over the past ten to fifteen years as organisations cross-industry have caught on to its undeniable benefits.

    As the largest open source company in the world, at Red Hat, we believe in the power of open source and its ability, from both a software and cultural perspective, to push the boundaries of technological capabilities. Here’s why.

    [...]

    Open source software is by definition ‘open’, offering companies full visibility and transparency of the code – this means bugs and defects can be identified much more quickly than in proprietary software, leading to enhanced security. As Linus Torvalds, the founder of the open source operating system Linux, once said: “given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”.

    Secondly, it doesn’t include many of the costs associated with proprietary software, such as licensing fees – this is a big perk for businesses, allowing them to significantly reduce operating costs. Then there is the added cost of wanting to switch to a different software provider down the line; using open source software helps to avoid the pitfall of getting locked into using an expensive proprietary vendor.

    Open source also enables companies to better customise their software. Unlike proprietary software that is developed within the four walls of the company and based on limited input, open source software is typically better tailored to the customers’ needs, as the users themselves can add their preferred features while the technology is in development.

    [...]

    Female contributors are definitely becoming more widely recognised. And even though there is still more work to be done, throughout my career I’ve encountered more women in the context of open source than in proprietary software, and I’ve witnessed more inclusive meritocracy within open source companies. Besides the fact that open thinking is an essential part of supplementing the open source, open communities, by their design, make it much easier for individuals from all backgrounds to participate, have a voice, and share their experience and skills.

    It’s been proven time and again that the more diversity you can bring to a project, the better the outcome is, as you’re benefitting from a greater variety of perspectives, ideas and experience. For this reason, I’d argue that open source is both the fastest and most inclusive way to innovate.

  • Collaboration integral to operations, Red Hat CFO says

    When the pandemic hit, CFO Laurie Krebs, with other function leaders at open-source operating system company Red Hat, created a war room to respond to customers' deferral requests and other payment concessions.

    "Our premier product is an operating system, so, [for that to] go dark is not an option for a lot of customers," Krebs said.

    Rather than create a single playbook, the team approached each request on a case-by-case basis. "To some people, cash is important," she said. "To other people, holding onto their subscription is important."

    The war room's collaborative approach, in which representatives from sales, sales operations, technical accounting and business finance weighed requests as a team, defines how the company approaches all of its policymaking, said Krebs, who took over as CFO last year after serving as vice president of global tax.

  • Want to make better decisions? Encourage disagreement

    Dissent is incredibly important to successful open decision making. When you're seeking collaboration on an important decision, you don't want to be surrounded by people who always agree with everything you say. You already know everything that you're saying and what you believe to be the best path forward. However, you also know (or should know) that your knowledge, experience, and visibility of the entire picture is limited. What you really need are perspectives from people with knowledge, experience, and visibility complementary to yours. That helps round out your perspective—people who will bring up something that you didn't think of or didn't fully comprehend its importance.

    In this article, I'll explore in more depth the importance of dissension during decision making. I'll present a compilation of ideas from a number of my colleagues (at Red Hat), which arose in an open forum discussion we had on the subject.

    [...]

    When presenting an idea and asking for opinions in a meeting, plenty more great ideas and perspectives may be left unsaid. How can we unleash the power that this potential represents?

    [...]

    Using this method can empower your group to fully explore various ways to achieve their objectives. It should present decision makers with all available perspectives and enable them to make the decision that is best for the group.

    Best of all, since they've been included in a decision making process, the entire group will feel ownership over the decision and passionately work to implement and execute it.

  • Here’s What’s .NEXT for Nutanix and SUSE

    Let’s start by stating the obvious. At SUSE, we’re passionate about advancing open source technology to provide better customer outcomes. While that ethos is at the core of SUSE’s business, the truth is that many of our partners embrace that same passion, and work with SUSE to deliver better experiences for their own customers and end users.

  • Adapting for Hybrid Cloud – Part 3 of 3: The Results

    Most enterprises today are pursuing a hybrid strategy, mixing and matching public and on-prem venues depending on each workload’s requirements. One of the issues facing enterprises with hybrid today is the difference in pricing and procurement models. For public cloud, on-demand operating expense pricing is pretty mainstream, and this on-demand access to huge capacity is one of the key drivers behind public cloud adoption, driving more rapid instantiation of resources, allowing the scaling of applications to suit changing demands, making innovation easier and simplifying entry into new markets.

  • SLES for SAP Applications 15 SP2: What’s New and What’s Next

Tumbleweed Rises from Rebuilt Packages

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SUSE

With “literally all 15,000” packages being rebuilt in snapshot 20200826, openSUSE Tumbleweed roared back from a stability rating of 36 in the rebuild snapshot to a 95 rating in snapshot 20200901, according to the snapshot reviewer.

Each snapshot progressively increased in stability this week.

Snapshot 20200901 brought ImageMagick 7.0.10.28, which provided a patch for correct colospace and fixed paths for conversion of Photoshop EPS files. VirtualBox 6.1.13 arrived in the snapshot and updated the sources to run with versions above the 5.8 Linux Kernel with no modifications needed to the kernel. The library for rendering Postscript documents, libspectre 0.2.9, now requires Ghostscript 9.24 and fixed memory leaks and crashes to the program caused by malformed documents. One major version update to the game freecell-solver was made in the snapshot; version 6.0.1 had some code cleanup, minor bug fixes and the addition of a compile time option. openSUSE’s snapper package updated to 0.8.13 and fixed the Logical Volume Manager setup for volume groups and logical volumes with one character-long names. Other notable packages updated in the snapshot were xapian-core 1.4.17, openldap2 2.4.52 and qalculate 3.12.1.

Trending at a 87 rating, snapshot 20200831, brought less than a handful of updates. The packages updated in the snapshot were bind 9.16.6, libverto 0.3.1, permissions 1550_20200826, and suse-module-tools 15.3.4. The bind package, which implements the Domain Name System (DNS) protocols for the Internet, fixed several Common Vulnerabilities and Exposure including one that made it possible to trigger an assertion failure by sending a specially crafted large TCP DNS message.

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Between Ubuntu 20.04 and openSUSE Leap 15.2 Releases

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SUSE
Ubuntu

This year 2020 is amazing as two big European computer operating systems come out. They are Ubuntu and openSUSE more precisely version Focal Fossa and Leap 15.2. They are ranked number 4th and 13th on Distrowatch.com.This article sums up these two for everyone to quickly download or purchase a computer with them.

The leading operating system for PCs, IoT devices, servers and the cloud.

The makers' choice for sysadmins, developers and desktop users.

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More in Tux Machines

Graphics: Coming Next in AMD and Mesa 20.3

  • AMD Ryzen 5000 leak shows a powerful APU to strike back at Intel’s Tiger Lake

    This popping up in Linux now suggests that we could see these Ryzen 5000 chips sooner rather than later. Currently, their anticipated debut is early 2021, but maybe it’ll be very early 2021; perhaps at CES? Or could we see a reveal possibly even this year? Who knows, and of course all this is pure guesswork, although the latter still seems rather unlikely. Whatever the case, Ryzen 5000 APUs for notebooks aren’t far away now, and will of course go up against Intel’s Tiger Lake CPUs which have already been revealed, and will start pitching up in laptops before the end of 2020 (we already know that some notebooks will be arriving in November). These 11th-gen mobile chips from Intel look to be shaping up very impressively from what we’ve seen thus far, and of course come with Xe integrated graphics, which represents a big step forward for gaming on a laptop – and that’s why RDNA 2 graphics will be key for AMD with its incoming Van Gogh APUs.

  • AMD Linux Kernel Patch Confirms Next-Gen Van Gogh APUs With DDR5 And RDNA2

    After a Linux kernel patch with 275K lines of code came out on Friday, the people over at Phoronix began to snoop around for any hidden information. Among the lines of code, they discovered that the upcoming Van Gogh APUs from AMD will have Navi 2 GPUs and will use DDR5 system memory.

  • Mesa 20.3 Can Now Consume SPIR-V Binaries Generated By LLVM's libclc

    Libclc is the LLVM library around OpenCL C programming language support and goes along with Clang's OpenCL front-end. Jesse Natalie of Microsoft has seen his two month old merge request land on Friday for being able to make use of libclc SPIR-V binaries that can be used by Mesa OpenCL code. Ultimately this code in part allows converting a libclc SPIR-V library into a set of NIR functions. Earlier this year the effort was started by Red Hat's David Airlie for being able to support a SPIR-V library generated from libclc to implement OpenCL runtime functions. Microsoft though pursued the work over the finish as part of their effort for getting OpenCL over Direct3D 12 (and OpenGL).

France’s open data lab launches study into open source and education

Etalab, the French governmental open data lab, has begun a study on the importance of open source software in higher education and research. The study will identify open source use in education, and compare institutional strategies on open data and open access and the sovereignty of education. Read more

Openwashing of Failing Swift by Apple

FreeBSD 12.2-BETA3 Now Available

The third BETA build of the 12.2-RELEASE release cycle is now available.

Installation images are available for:

o 12.2-BETA3 amd64 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 i386 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpc GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpc64 GENERIC64
o 12.2-BETA3 powerpcspe MPC85XXSPE
o 12.2-BETA3 armv6 RPI-B
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 BANANAPI
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 BEAGLEBONE
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBIEBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBIEBOARD2
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 CUBOX-HUMMINGBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 RPI2
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 WANDBOARD
o 12.2-BETA3 armv7 GENERICSD
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 GENERIC
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 RPI3
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 PINE64
o 12.2-BETA3 aarch64 PINE64-LTS

Note regarding arm SD card images: For convenience for those without
console access to the system, a freebsd user with a password of
freebsd is available by default for ssh(1) access.  Additionally,
the root user password is set to root.  It is strongly recommended
to change the password for both users after gaining access to the
system.

Installer images and memory stick images are available here:

    https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/releases/ISO-IMAGES/12.2/

The image checksums follow at the end of this e-mail.

If you notice problems you can report them through the Bugzilla PR
system or on the -stable mailing list.

If you would like to use SVN to do a source based update of an existing
system, use the "releng/12.2" branch.

A summary of changes since 12.2-BETA2 includes:

o An installation issue with certctl(8) had been fixed.

o Read/write kstats for ZFS datasets had been added from OpenZFS.

o The default vm.max_user_wired value had been increased.

o The kern.geom.part.check_integrity sysctl(8) had been extended to work
  on GPT partitions.

o The cxgbe(4) firmware had been updated to version 1.25.0.0.

o Fixes for em(4) and igb(4) have been addressed.

o A fix for a potential NFS server crash had been addressed.

o A lock order reversal between NFS server and server-side krpc had been
  addressed.

A list of changes since 12.1-RELEASE is available in the releng/12.2
release notes:

    https://www.freebsd.org/releases/12.2R/relnotes.html

Please note, the release notes page is not yet complete, and will be
updated on an ongoing basis as the 12.2-RELEASE cycle progresses.

=== Virtual Machine Disk Images ===

VM disk images are available for the amd64, i386, and aarch64
architectures.  Disk images may be downloaded from the following URL
(or any of the FreeBSD download mirrors):

    https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/releases/VM-IMAGES/12.2-BETA3/

The partition layout is:

    ~ 16 kB - freebsd-boot GPT partition type (bootfs GPT label)
    ~ 1 GB  - freebsd-swap GPT partition type (swapfs GPT label)
    ~ 20 GB - freebsd-ufs GPT partition type (rootfs GPT label)

The disk images are available in QCOW2, VHD, VMDK, and raw disk image
formats.  The image download size is approximately 135 MB and 165 MB
respectively (amd64/i386), decompressing to a 21 GB sparse image.

Note regarding arm64/aarch64 virtual machine images: a modified QEMU EFI
loader file is needed for qemu-system-aarch64 to be able to boot the
virtual machine images.  See this page for more information:

    https://wiki.freebsd.org/arm64/QEMU

To boot the VM image, run:

    % qemu-system-aarch64 -m 4096M -cpu cortex-a57 -M virt  \
	-bios QEMU_EFI.fd -serial telnet::4444,server -nographic \
	-drive if=none,file=VMDISK,id=hd0 \
	-device virtio-blk-device,drive=hd0 \
	-device virtio-net-device,netdev=net0 \
	-netdev user,id=net0

Be sure to replace "VMDISK" with the path to the virtual machine image.

=== Amazon EC2 AMI Images ===

FreeBSD/amd64 EC2 AMIs are available in the following regions:

  af-south-1 region: ami-085b7b5b76d8f88e1
  eu-north-1 region: ami-0d2aaf811cd455b5d
  ap-south-1 region: ami-0c85211fa78c701f5
  eu-west-3 region: ami-08c4c388a19042fb3
  eu-west-2 region: ami-030841f586c12d392
  eu-south-1 region: ami-035fcb9515104859e
  eu-west-1 region: ami-0d5e826250c10cd3a
  ap-northeast-2 region: ami-01adc51da511ea8fc
  me-south-1 region: ami-04b2ddbedee42d57a
  ap-northeast-1 region: ami-0e5b3fc6777cd037d
  sa-east-1 region: ami-08be6405809912e60
  ca-central-1 region: ami-0c954a7d72d7b483c
  ap-east-1 region: ami-04377808aeca208a7
  ap-southeast-1 region: ami-02e1e04501c308c0b
  ap-southeast-2 region: ami-0e9ae229b9ca55677
  eu-central-1 region: ami-002e88141d3b00ee2
  us-east-1 region: ami-0c678fade90df8f04
  us-east-2 region: ami-0967c088cbf208659
  us-west-1 region: ami-0dafae7edc2b2f376
  us-west-2 region: ami-07e4d062d094f5364

FreeBSD/aarch64 EC2 AMIs are available in the following regions:

  af-south-1 region: ami-07c05f6349125a1c7
  eu-north-1 region: ami-041e507b80cb59335
  ap-south-1 region: ami-064907659b94c4823
  eu-west-3 region: ami-000c4a31405be8e94
  eu-west-2 region: ami-0debbacd03a24e562
  eu-south-1 region: ami-0c358e05477cd8b6b
  eu-west-1 region: ami-0fc48c1fef0e255f0
  ap-northeast-2 region: ami-06bd715c00c4237b7
  me-south-1 region: ami-04a671aa9611f8a74
  ap-northeast-1 region: ami-008e0fa8be5e5c44c
  sa-east-1 region: ami-03c2f687354f086b4
  ca-central-1 region: ami-0647aa16bc62701a3
  ap-east-1 region: ami-08f54406159203762
  ap-southeast-1 region: ami-007e5e33e3e4d9152
  ap-southeast-2 region: ami-0a028a4f5beeed373
  eu-central-1 region: ami-072e09d78436cf375
  us-east-1 region: ami-0218fa187d85dc688
  us-east-2 region: ami-06e8312e95743ce1a
  us-west-1 region: ami-0211983509f75ee9b
  us-west-2 region: ami-038188157f971a711

=== Vagrant Images ===

FreeBSD/amd64 images are available on the Hashicorp Atlas site, and can
be installed by running:

    % vagrant init freebsd/FreeBSD-12.2-BETA3
    % vagrant up

=== Upgrading ===

The freebsd-update(8) utility supports binary upgrades of amd64 and i386
systems running earlier FreeBSD releases.  Systems running earlier
FreeBSD releases can upgrade as follows:

	# freebsd-update upgrade -r 12.2-BETA3

During this process, freebsd-update(8) may ask the user to help by
merging some configuration files or by confirming that the automatically
performed merging was done correctly.

	# freebsd-update install

The system must be rebooted with the newly installed kernel before
continuing.

	# shutdown -r now

After rebooting, freebsd-update needs to be run again to install the new
userland components:

	# freebsd-update install

It is recommended to rebuild and install all applications if possible,
especially if upgrading from an earlier FreeBSD release, for example,
FreeBSD 11.x.  Alternatively, the user can install misc/compat11x and
other compatibility libraries, afterwards the system must be rebooted
into the new userland:

	# shutdown -r now

Finally, after rebooting, freebsd-update needs to be run again to remove
stale files:

	# freebsd-update install
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