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Reiser

Awkward History of Linux and Latest of Reiser5

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Linux
Reiser
  • Linux in 2020 [Ed: This is clearly conflating the kernel (Linux) with GNU, which predates it by almost one decade. It also perpetuates the myth that only Ubuntu brought GNU/Linux to the masses.]

    Hello. Today I would like to share with you, my perspective of Linux. Please take note that this is all my opinions and the way I see it. If you feel that I missed something very important or have a fact or two wrong, please let me know.

    So Linux was announced for the first time, on the 25 of August 1991 by a Finnish student, called Linus Torvalds. Little did he know, and the world knows that 30 years later the world would be using it on a daily basis.

    So From 1991, Linux has been maturing several Linux Distros (operating systems) came and went away, with a few of the first ones still around today. But it was mainly/only for those who are computer "geeks" and not for everyday users. But that all changed in October 2004, when the first version of Ubuntu was released.

  • Reiser5 Logical Volume Management - Updates
      Reiser5 Logical Volume Management - Updates
    
    
    I am happy to inform, that Logical Volumes stuff has become more
    stable. Also we introduce the following changes, which make logical
    volumes administration more flexible and simple:
    
    
                      1. No balancing by default
    
    
    Now all volume operations except brick removal don't invoke balancing
    by default. Instead, they mark volume as "unbalanced". To complete any
    operation with balancing specify option -B (--with-balance), or run
    volume.reiser4(8) utility with the option -b (--balance) later.
    
    This allows to speed up more than one operations over logical volume
    being performed at once. For example, if you want to add more than one
    brick to your volume at once, first add all the bricks, then run
    balancing. There is no need to balance a volume between the addition
    operations.
    
    
                        2. Removal completion
    
    
    Operation of brick removal always includes balancing procedure as its
    part. This procedure moves out all data block from the brick to be
    removed to remaining bricks of the volume. Thus, brick removal is
    usually a long operation, which may be interrupted for various reasons
    In such cases the volume is automatically marked with an "incomplete
    removal" flag.
    
    It is not allowed to perform essential volume operations on a volume
    marked as "with incomplete removal": first, user should complete
    removal by running volume.reiser4 utility with option
    -R (--finish-removal). Otherwise, the operation will return error
    (-EBUSY).
    
    There is no other restrictions: you are allowed to add a brick to
    unbalanced volume, and even remove a brick from an unbalanced volume
    (assuming it is not incomplete removal).
    
    Comment. "--finish-removal" is a temporary option. In the future the
    file system will detect incomplete removal and automatically perform
    removal completion by itself.
    
    
                    3. Balancing is always defined
    
    
    Operation of volume balancing (regardless of its balanced status) is
    always defined, and can be launched at any moment. If the volume is
    balanced, then the balancing procedure just scans the volume without
    any useful work.
    
    It is allowed to run more than one balancing threads on the same
    volume, however currently it will be inefficient: other threads will
    be always going after the single leader without doing useful work.
    Efficient volume balancing by many threads (true parallelism) is not a
    trivial task. We estimate its complexity as 2/5.
    
    
              4. Restore regular distribution on the volume
    
    
    Custom (defined by user) file migration can break fairness of data
    distribution among the bricks. To restore regular (fair) distribution
    on the volume, run volume.reiser4 utility with the option -S
    (--restore-regular). It launches a balancing procedure, which performs
    mandatory data migration of all files (including the ones marked as
    "immobile") in accordance with regular distribution policy on the
    volume. Moreover, when the balancing procedure encounters a file
    marked as "immobile", its "immobile" flag is cleared up.
    
    
                             5. How to test
    
    
    The new functionality is available starting with the kernel patch
    reiser4-for-linux-5.10-rc3 and reiser4progs-2.0.4 (Software Framework
    Release number of both is 5.1.3).
    
  • Reiser5 Stabilizing Its Logical Volume Functionality - Phoronix

    This New Year's Eve will mark one year since the announcement of the in-development Reiser5 file-system. While the outlook for getting Reiser5 upstreamed into the mainline kernel remains murky given the out-of-tree status of Reiser4, Edward Shishkin does continue advancing this latest Reiser file-system iteration.

    Since last year's initial Reiser5 announcement, more features continue to be ironed out for this evolution of Reiser4. The latest Reiser5 functionality hitting a point of stability is its logical volume management.

Reiser4/Reiser5 Updated For Linux 5.8

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Reiser

Edward Shishkin continues pushing ahead with not only maintaining the existing out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system code but also developing Reiser5 seemingly without any major corporate support. Reiser4 and the experimental Reiser5 file-system code were updated on Monday for Linux 5.8 kernel compatibility.

The Reiser4 kernel driver along with the unstable Reiser5 kernel code saw new patch releases for supporting them on the Linux 5.8 stable kernel (Linux 5.8.1 target to be exact).

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Reiser4/Reiser5 Updated For Linux 5.7 Kernel Compatibility

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Reiser

It was just over a week ago that Reiser4 was updated for Linux 5.6 support while now it's been updated for the newly-minted Linux 5.7 stable kernel along with updating the experimental Reiser5 file-system for this latest kernel series.

Uploaded today by Edward Shishkin was Reiser4 for Linux 5.7.1. Though given the minimal changes with 5.7.1 compared to last week's 5.7 release, the patch presumably should apply cleanly there as well. There are no reports of any other functional Reiser4 changes besides re-basing to the new kernel series.

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Reiser5 Updates For Linux 5.5 Along With Reiser4

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Reiser

The out-of-tree Reiser4 and Reiser5 (Reiser4 v5) patches have been updated against the recently stabilized Linux 5.5 kernel.

Main Reiser4 developer Edward Shishkin re-based the Reiser4 file-system patch against Linux 5.5.1 along with the experimental Reiser5.

At the end of 2019 is when Shishkin announced Reiser5 file-system development with introducing the concepts of local volumes capable of parallel scaling out and other key iterations over the current Reiser4 design.

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Reiser4 File-System Is Still Ticking In 2019 - Now Updated For Linux 5.3 Compatibility

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Linux
Reiser

Edward Shishkin continues near single-handedly maintaining the out-of-tree Reiser4 code that at this point still has no apparent trajectory towards mainline. The former Namesys developer previously indicated it's unlikely to see Reiser4 merged unless there is a company backing it to get it through the review process for merging into mainline. While Reiser4 was quite promising for its early time, it's only getting more difficult with Reiser4 effectively stagnating for years now while SUSE/openSUSE continues backing Btrfs, Ubuntu increasingly investing in ZFS support, Red Hat developing Stratis, XFS continuing to be advanced by Red Hat and others as well, Google continuing to invest in the likes of EXT4/F2FS, and there also being Bcachefs and other open-source storage solutions that are more promising than Reiser4 in 2019. Nevertheless, the out-of-tree kernel patches continue to be updated.

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Reiser4 Brought To The Linux 5.0 Kernel

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Reiser

For those still using the out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system, it may be about time to consider alternatives like Btrfs, XFS, ZFS On Linux, F2FS, or even the likes of Stratis and Bcachefs. But should you still be using this once promising file-system, the out-of-tree patches have been revised to now work with the Linux 5.0 kernel.

There still is no trajectory for Reiser4 to the mainline Linux kernel with no major companies or other stakeholders backing Reiser4 but just a small group of developers and enthusiasts left working on this successor to ReiserFS. With the latest code posted on Friday by former Namesys developer Edward Shishkin, the Reiser4 kernel driver has been re-based to the Linux 5.0 kernel but with no other changes to the file-system noted.

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Reiser4 File-System Benchmarks With Linux 4.17

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Graphics/Benchmarks
Linux
Reiser

It's been about three years since last carrying out any file-system performance benchmarks of Reiser4, but being curious how it stacks up against the current state of today's mainline Linux file-systems, here are some fresh performance tests of Reiser4 using the Linux 4.17 kernel. The Reiser4 performance was compared to Reiserfs, EXT4, Btrfs, XFS, and F2FS.

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Reiser4 Updated For Linux 4.14 & Introduces Zstd Compression Support

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Reiser

The out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system driver has been updated with compatibility for the latest Linux 4.14 stable series. Besides reworking the code to run on Linux 4.14, this controversial file-system has also added support for Zstd file-system compression.

Linux 4.14 introduced Zstd support in the mainline kernel and wired it in for SquashFS and Btrfs. Our Btrfs Zstd benchmarks have been promising for transparent file-system compression compared to the other supported algorithms. Reiser4 has now picked up Zstd compression as an eventual replacement to their Gzip compression support.

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Reiser4 Is Now Ready For Linux 4.13

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Reiser

For those wanting to use the Reiser4 file-system with the just-released Linux 4.13 kernel, patches are already available.

Less than one week after the release of the Linux 4.13 stable kernel, Edward Shishkin has already released an updated patch for the out-of-tree Reiser4 file-system for working with this new stable series.

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Reiser4 Updated For Linux 4.12, Experimental Data Striping Support

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Reiser

Those using the Reiser4 file-system in some capacity can now safely upgrade to the Linux 4.12 kernel.

Edward Shishkin has updated this out-of-tree file-system for the Linux 4.12 kernel so it can be built with the latest mainline stable release.

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More in Tux Machines

Kernel: Millennium Prize, Compute Express Link 2.0, HP Platform Profile Support

  • Millennium prize problems but for Linux

    There is a longstanding tradition in mathematics to create a list of hard unsolved problems to drive people to work on solving them. Examples include Hilbert's problems and the Millennium Prize problems. Wouldn't it be nice if we had the same for Linux? A bunch of hard problems with sexy names that would drive development forward? Sadly there is no easy source for tens of millions of euros in prize money, not to mention it would be very hard to distribute as this work would, by necessity, be spread over a large group of people. Thus it seems is unlikely for this to work in practice, but that does not prevent us from stealing a different trick from mathematicians' toolbox and ponder how it would work in theory. In this case the list of problems will probably never exist, but let's assume that it does. What would it contain if it did exist? Here's one example I came up with. it is left as an exercise to the reader to work out what prompted me to write this post. [...] A knee-jerk reaction many people have is something along the lines of "you can solve this by limiting the number of linker processes by doing X". That is not the answer. It solves the symptoms but not the underlying cause, which is that bad input causes the scheduler to do the wrong thing. There are many other ways of triggering the same issue, for example by copying large files around. A proper solution would fix all of those in one go.

  • Compute Express Link 2.0 Support Sent In For Linux 5.12, Enabling CXL 2.0 Memory Devices - Phoronix

    Immediately following the publishing of the Linux enablement patches for CXL 2.0 and that continued in the months since over several rounds of patches. That initial CXL 2.0 code is now slated for mainlining with the Linux 5.12 kernel. The initial Compute Express Link 2.0 focus for the Linux kernel has been on supporting Type-3 Memory Devices. The CXL 2.0 type-3 memory device support being fleshed out first is for serving as a memory expander for RAM or persistent memory and can optionally be interleaved with other CXL devices. For the lack of any CXL 2.0 hardware yet even within the confines of Intel, Widawsky worked out this initial enablement code thanks to writing up support around the specification within QEMU for emulation.

  • Linux 5.13 Should See HP Platform Profile Support - Phoronix

    Linux 5.12 is bringing the initial infrastructure around ACPI Platform Profile support and with this kernel it's implemented for newer Lenovo ThinkPad and IdeaPad laptops. The support allow for altering the system's power/performance characteristics depending upon your desire for a speedy, quiet, or cool experience. With Linux 5.13 it looks like HP laptops with this capability will begin to see working Platform Profile support too. Lenovo is the initial Linux user/supporter of this Platform Profile support while Dell has also expressed interest in supporting it on Linux for letting users manipulate their desire desired balance of performance vs. cool/quiet operation. There has been an HP patch implementing the support and it's looking like that is now ready to be queued into the x86 platform driver tree once the current Linux 5.12 merge window is over, which would mark it as material for 5.13.

Open Source Community Critical Of Chessbase, Fat Fritz 2

The development teams behind the two most successful and influential open-source chess programs, Stockfish and Leela Chess Zero, have issued statements denouncing the commercial program Fat Fritz 2 and the company Chessbase that is selling the program for 99,90 euros. The statements (Stockfish blog, lichess announcement) assert that the engine in Fat Fritz 2 is Stockfish with minimal changes, that Fat Fritz 2 has violated the GNU General Public License under which Stockfish is released, and that Chessbase's marketing has made false claims about Fat Fritz 2's playing strength. Read more

Videos/Audiocasts/Shows: Password Managers, Rust, and Laptops as Servers

  • Password Managers: A Tool Everybody Deserves - YouTube

    Lastpass was in the news recently and it made me realize how few people use a password manager, regardless of whether you prefer an offline or online solution not using a password manager leads to bad habits and much weaker passwords.

  • FLOSS Weekly 618: Rust - Steve Klabnik & Rust

    Steve Klabnik joins Doc Searls and Shawn Powers to talk about Rust. Rust, which was started at Mozilla, has grown to become one of the world's most relied-upon and fastest growing programming languages. Klabnik literally wrote the book on Rust. In the show, he visits how it differs from C++ and other alternatives, some of the many ways it is used, the large and familiar names (e.g. DropBox) that depend on it, the community culture around it, how open source and free software work are changing as we move toward a post-COVID world.

  • How to Homelab - Laptops as Servers?!

    In the latest episode of "How to Homelab", we take a look at the concept of using laptops as servers, and I give you my thoughts. It might just be a crazy enough idea to work!

Mozilla Leftovers

  • Firefox 86 brings multiple Picture-in-Picture, “Total Cookie Protection”

    In December 2019, Firefox introduced Picture-in-Picture mode—an additional overlay control on in-browser embedded videos that allows the user to detach the video from the browser. Once detached, the video has no window dressing whatsoever—no title bar, min/max/close, etc. PiP mode allows users who tile their windows—automatically or manually—to watch said video while consuming a bare minimum of screen real estate. Firefox 86 introduces the concept of multiple simultaneous Picture-in-Picture instances. Prior to build 86, hitting the PiP control on a second video would simply reattach the first video to its parent tab and detach the second. Now, you can have as many floating, detached video windows as you'd like—potentially turning any monitor into something reminiscent of a security DVR display. The key thing to realize about multi-PiP is that the parent tabs must remain open—if you navigate away from the parent tab of an existing PiP window, the PiP window itself closes as well. Once I realized this, I had no difficulty surrounding my Firefox 86 window with five detached, simultaneously playing video windows.

  • This Week in Glean: Boring Monitoring [Ed: Mozilla insists that it is not surveillance when they call it "data science" and "big data"]

    Every Monday the Glean has its weekly Glean SDK meeting. This meeting is used for 2 main parts: First discussing the features and bugs the team is currently investigating or that were requested by outside stakeholders. And second bug triage & monitoring of data that Glean reports in the wild. [...] It probably can! But it requires more work than throwing together a dashboard with graphs. It’s also not as easy to define thresholds on these changes and when to report them. There’s work underway that hopefully enables us to more quickly build up these dashboards for any product using the Glean SDK, which we can then also extend to do more reporting automated. The final goal should be that the product teams themselves are responsible for monitoring their data.

  • William Lachance: Community @ Mozilla: People First, Open Source Second [Ed: Is this why Mozilla pays its CEO over 3 million dollars per year (quadruple the older sum) while sacking even its own people and spying on Firefox users (people)?]

    It seems ridiculously naive in retrospect, but I can remember thinking at the time that the right amount of “open source” would solve all the problems. What can I say? It was the era of the Arab Spring, WikiLeaks had not yet become a scandal, Google still felt like something of a benevolent upstart, even Facebook’s mission of “making the world more connected” sounded great to me at the time. If we could just push more things out in the open, then the right solutions would become apparent and fixing the structural problems society was facing would become easy! What a difference a decade makes. The events of the last few years have demonstrated (conclusively, in my view) that open systems aren’t necessarily a protector against abuse by governments, technology monopolies and ill-intentioned groups of individuals alike. Amazon, Google and Facebook are (still) some of the top contributors to key pieces of open source infrastructure but it’s now beyond any doubt that they’re also responsible for amplifying a very large share of the problems global society is experiencing.