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Servers: Apache vs Nginx, Openstack, Red Hat, Cockpit and Docker

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Server
  • Apache vs Nginx Performance: Optimization Techniques

    Some years ago, the Apache Foundation’s web server, known simply as “Apache”, was so ubiquitous that it became synonymous with the term “web server”. Its daemon process on Linux systems has the name httpd (meaning simply http process) — and comes preinstalled in major Linux distributions.

    It was initially released in 1995, and, to quote Wikipedia, “it played a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web”. It is still the most-used web server software according to W3techs. However, according to those reports which show some trends of the last decade and comparisons to other solutions, its market share is decreasing. The reports given by Netcraft and Builtwith differ a bit, but all agree on a trending decline of Apache’s market share and the growth of Nginx.

  • Openstack Foundation branches out to 'open source infrastructure'

    Changes are underway at the Openstack Foundation, with the community branching out from the open source cloud platform to the umbrella of 'open infrastructure'.

    Openstack is the catch-all term for a series of open source cloud infrastructure components, ranging from bare metal provisioning (Ironic) to networking (Neutron) and compute (Nova), to name just a few.

    Originally emerging from a joint project between Rackspace and NASA, Openstack has travelled through various development models – such as the 'big tent' [link] approach, which essentially said that anything from any vendor could 'be' Openstack.

  • Maxta MxSP dons its Red Hat for container storage

    Maxta MxSP hyper-converged infrastructure is expanding integration with Red Hat. The software-only vendor has added support for Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform, which is built on Red Hat Container Native Storage with GlusterFS file system.

  • Red Hat Introduces Fuse 7, Buildah 1.0 to Ease App Development

    Today’s topics include Red Hat launching Fuse 7 and Buildah 1.0 for advanced application development, and a new ENCRYPT bill to create national encryption rules. 

    Red Hat is boosting its application development efforts with Fuse 7 and Buildah 1.0, which will help developers build and integrate cloud-native container applications. 

    With version 7, Red Hat is augmenting its Fuse cloud-native integration platform with a hosted low-code integration platform as a service called Fuse Online, allowing developers to create container-native integrated apps or APIs for OpenShift.

  • Cockpit 170

    Cockpit is the modern Linux admin interface. We release regularly. Here are the release notes from version 170.

  •  

  • Docker Advances Container Platform for the Multicloud World

    DockerCon 18 kicked off here on June 13 with Docker Inc. making a series of announcements that aim to further advance container adoption by enterprises.

    Docker announced it is enhancing its flagship Docker Enterprise Edition (EE) with a new federated application management capability that enables enterprises to manage and deploy containers across a multicloud infrastructure. The company is also improving its Docker Desktop application for developers with new template-based workflows for building container applications.

    "Federated application management shows how Docker Enterprise Edition can be used to provide a consistent, uniform secure environment across which you could manage applications on multiple clusters, whether they're on premises or in the cloud," Docker Chief Product Officer Scott Johnston told eWEEK.

Canonical on So-called 'Private Cloud'

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Ubuntu
  • 451 Research benchmarks public and private infrastructure cost

    451 Research’s latest report, ‘Busting the myth of private cloud economics ’, found that Canonical’s managed private OpenStack offering, BootStack, delivers private cloud with a TCO that matches public clouds. For multi-cloud operations, enterprise can benefit from a cost effective infrastructure by combining competitive public cloud services with Canonical’s managed private OpenStack cloud on-premise.

  • Private Cloud May Be the Best Bet: Report

    News flash: Private cloud economics can offer more cost efficiency than public cloud pricing structures.

    Private (or on-premises) cloud solutions can be more cost-effective than public cloud options, according to "Busting the Myths of Private Cloud Economics," a report 451 Research and Canonical released Wednesday. That conclusion counters the notion that public cloud platforms traditionally are more cost-efficient than private infrastructures.

    Half of the enterprise IT decision-makers who participated in the study identified cost as the No. 1 pain point associated with the public cloud. Forty percent mentioned cost-savings as a key driver of cloud migration.

    "We understand that people are looking for more cost-effective infrastructure. This was not necessarily news to us," said Mark Baker, program director at Canonical.

Server: Fuse Ignite, Fastest Machines and Kubernetes at Cisco

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  • EDI Transformations with Fuse Ignite and Trace Transformer

    As part of Red Hat JBoss Fuse 7, Red Hat introduces a new Integration Platform as a Service (iPaaS) called Fuse Ignite. Gartner uses the term citizen integrators to describe the iPaaS target market: folks who aren’t regularly concerned with integration. In my opinion, this market includes Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) analysts who focus on business rules and validations, rather than worrying about lines of code or Apache Camel routes. Therefore, Fuse Ignite introduces a mechanism to separate concerns, allowing EDI analysts to focus on their business mappings and transformations. On the other hand, developers can focus on low-level integration with systems and on writing code. Fuse Ignite offers a platform on which both citizen integrators and developers can coexist, collaborate, and contribute to an end-to-end integration.

  • IBM Summit: The US’s Best Chance to Retake Supercomputer Crown [Ed: Rob Enderle has just taken note of/mentioned, in a new article, that the US regains the HPC crown, but of course -- being the Microsoft propagandist he is -- GNU/Linux is not mentioned at all]
  • The fastest supercomputers in the world
  • How Cisco Is Expanding Its Container and Kubernetes Efforts

    While Cisco is well-known for its networking technologies, the company has increasingly become an adopter of and strong advocate for container technologies and the Kubernetes container orchestration system, in particular.

    Helping to lead Cisco's strategic direction for containers is the company's CTO for cloud computing, Lew Tucker. In a video interview with eWEEK, Tucker details Cisco current product lineup for containers and provides insight into the future direction.

More Links on GNU/Linux-Powered Summit Supercomputer

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  • ORNL Launches Summit Supercomputer

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory today unveiled Summit as the world’s most powerful and smartest scientific supercomputer.

    With a peak performance of 200,000 trillion calculations per second—or 200 petaflops, Summit will be eight times more powerful than ORNL’s previous top-ranked system, Titan. For certain scientific applications, Summit will also be capable of more than three billion billion mixed precision calculations per second, or 3.3 exaops. Summit will provide unprecedented computing power for research in energy, advanced materials and artificial intelligence (AI), among other domains, enabling scientific discoveries that were previously impractical or impossible.

  • America Unveils the World’s Fastest Supercomputer (And Yes: It Runs Linux)

    The United States has taken the shrink-wrap off Summit, its all-new $200 million supercomputer.

    And boy is it quick.

    Summit is now the fastest supercomputer in the America and the fastest supercomputer in the world, toppling¹ China’s ‘Sunway TaihuLight‘ system from the apex of petaflop achievement.

    But it gets even better.

  • Andrew Hutton of the OLS Needs Your Help, US Debuts World's Fastest Supercomputer, FCC's Repeal of Net Neutrality Goes into Effect Today and More

    The US now has the world's fastest supercomputer, named Summit, reclaiming its "speediest computer on earth" title from China and its Sunway TaihuLight system, OMG Ubuntu reports. And of course, the Summit, which boasts 200 petaflops at peak performance, runs Linux—RHEL to be exact. See the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory's post for more details.

World’s Fastest Supercomputer Running GNU/Linux

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GNU
Linux
Server
  • Move Over, China: U.S. Is Again Home to World's Speediest Supercomputer [Ed: In Top 500 everything runs GNU/Linux]
  • IBM's world-class Summit supercomputer gooses speed with AI abilities
  • The US again has the world's most powerful supercomputer
  • The US Again Has World’s Most Powerful Supercomputer

    Plenty of people around the world got new gadgets Friday, but one in Eastern Tennessee stands out. Summit, a new supercomputer unveiled at Oak Ridge National Lab is, unofficially for now, the most powerful calculating machine on the planet. It was designed in part to scale up the artificial intelligence techniques that power some of the recent tricks in your smartphone.

    America hasn’t possessed the world’s most powerful supercomputer since June 2013, when a Chinese machine first claimed the title. Summit is expected to end that run when the official ranking of supercomputers, from an organization called Top500, is updated later this month.

    [...]

    Summit has nearly 28,000 graphics processors made by Nvidia, alongside more than 9,000 conventional processors from IBM. Such heavy use of graphic chips is unusual for a supercomputer, and it should enable breakthroughs in deploying machine learning on tough scientific problems, says Thomas Zacharia, director of Oak Ridge National Lab. “We set out to build the world’s most powerful supercomputer,” he says, “but it's also the world’s smartest supercomputer.”

  • IBM and the DoE launch the world’s fastest supercomputer

    IBM and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) today unveiled Summit, the department’s newest supercomputer. IBM claims that Summit is currently the world’s “most powerful and smartest scientific supercomputer” with a peak performance of a whopping 200,000 trillion calculations per second. That performance should put it comfortably at the top of the Top 500 supercomputer ranking when the new list is published later this month. That would also mark the first time since 2012 that a U.S.-based supercomputer holds the top spot on that list.

    [...]

    IBM was the general contractor for Summit and the company collaborated with Nvidia, RedHat and InfiniBand networking specialists Mellanox on delivering the new machine.

Server News and LF

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  • Designing new cloud architectures: Exploring CI/CD – from data centre to cloud

    Nobody knows what DevOps really is, but if you are not doing, using, breathing, dreaming – being? – DevOps, you’re doing it wrong. All teasing aside, with the advent of DevOps, the gap that existed between development teams and operation teams has become closer, to the extent of some companies mixing the teams. Even so, some of those took a different approach and have multidisciplinary teams where engineers work on the product throughout the lifecycle, coding, testing and deploying – including on occasion security teams as well, now called DevOpsSec.

  • How not to kill your DevOps team
  • Kubernetes Deep Dive and Use Cases

    When containers were first introduced in 2008, Virtual Machines, or VMs, were the state-of-the-art option to optimize a data center’s physical resources. This arrangement worked well enough, but had some flaws: Virtual machines utilized too many resources because they required both a complete operating system, and emulated instructions to reach the physical CPU. Even with some technologies like Intel VT-x and AMD-V that attempted to solve the emulation problem, virtual machines were behind bare metal.

  • Mesos and Kubernetes: It's Not a Competition

    The project was founded in 2009. In 2010 the team decided to donate the project to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). It was incubated at Apache and in 2013, it became a Top-Level Project (TLP).

    There were many reasons why the Mesos community chose Apache Software Foundation, such as the permissiveness of Apache licensing, and the fact that they already had a vibrant community of other such projects.  

    It was also about influence. A lot of people working on Mesos were also involved with Apache, and many people were working on projects like Hadoop. At the same time, many folks from the Mesos community were working on other Big Data projects like Spark. This cross-pollination led all three projects -- Hadoop, Mesos, and Spark -- to become ASF projects.

  • Why Linux Works [Ed: it says "This article was originally published in October, 2017"]

    The Linux community works, it turns out, because the Linux community isn’t too concerned about work, per se. As much as Linux has come to dominate many areas of corporate computing – from HPC to mobile to cloud – the engineers who write the Linux kernel tend to focus on the code itself, rather than their corporate interests therein.

    Such is one prominent conclusion that emerges from Dawn Foster’s doctoral work, examining collaboration on the Linux kernel. Foster, a former community lead at Intel and Puppet Labs, notes, “Many people consider themselves a Linux kernel developer first, an employee second.”

    With all the “foundation washing” corporations have inflicted upon various open source projects, hoping to hide corporate prerogatives behind a mask of supposed community, Linux has managed to keep itself pure. The question is how.

  • The Linux Foundation Announces Keynote Speakers for Open Source Summit North America

    Keynote speakers include:

        Ajay Agrawal, Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning Expert, Author of Prediction Machines, and Founder of The Creative Destruction Lab
        Jennifer Cloer, Founder of reTHINKit and Creator and Executive Producer of The Chasing Grace Project
        Wim Coekaerts, Senior Vice President of Operating Systems and Virtualization Engineering, Oracle
        Ben Golub, Executive Chairman and Interim CEO, and Shawn Wilkinson, Co-founder, Storj Labs
        Preethi Kasireddy, Founder & CEO, TruStory
        Window Snyder, Chief Security Officer, Fastly
        Imad Sousou, Corporate Vice President and General Manager, Open Source Technology Center, Intel
        Sana Tariq, Senior Architect, E2E Service Orchestration, TELUS

Containers and Kubernetes

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OSS
  • Easier container security with entitlements

    During KubeCon + CloudNativeCon Europe 2018, Justin Cormack and Nassim Eddequiouaq presented a proposal to simplify the setting of security parameters for containerized applications. Containers depend on a large set of intricate security primitives that can have weird interactions. Because they are so hard to use, people often just turn the whole thing off. The goal of the proposal is to make those controls easier to understand and use; it is partly inspired by mobile apps on iOS and Android platforms, an idea that trickled back into Microsoft and Apple desktops. The time seems ripe to improve the field of container security, which is in desperate need of simpler controls.

  • Kubernetes, Four Years Later, and Amazon Redefining Container Orchestration

    Well, here we are. Kubernetes turns four years old this month—technically, on June 7, 2018—the very same platform that brings users and data center administrators scalable container technologies. Its popularity has skyrocketed since its initial introduction by Google. Celebrating the project’s birthday is not the only thing making the headlines today. Amazon recently announced the general availability of its Elastic Container Services for Kubernetes (EKS), accessible via Amazon Web Services (AWS).

    Once upon a time, it wasn’t a simple task to orchestrate and manage containers in the cloud. Up until this recent EKS announcement, it was up to the administrator to spin up a virtual machine through an Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2) service, run Kubernetes on top of a traditional Linux server installation in EC2 and rely on other AWS moving components to host the container image registry. The entire process was very involved. Not any more!

Buildah 1.0: Linux Container construction made easy

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Server

The good news about containers, such as Docker's, is they make it easy to deploy applications, and you can run far more of them on a server than you can on a virtual machine. The bad news is that putting an application into a container can be difficult. That's where Buildah comes in.

Buildah is a newly released shell program for efficiently and quickly building Open Container Initiative (OCI) and Docker compliant images and containers. Buildah simplifies the process of creating, building, and updating images while decreasing the learning curve of the container environment.

Read more

OpenStack Leftovers

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OSS
  • An Inside Look at OpenStack Security Efforts

    The open source OpenStack cloud platform is used by major corporations such as Walmart, the world's largest carriers, such as AT&T, and even the world's largest science experiment at CERN. While there are security elements that are directly integrated into OpenStack, security is not necessarily always the default configuration.

  • Kubernetes and OpenStack solving AI complexities at scale

    Stu Miniman and John Boyer of theCUBE interviewed Stephan Fabel, Director of Ubuntu Product and Development at the OpenStack Summit in Vancouver. Read on for the full interview, and to hear more on Kubernetes, Kubeflow and MicroK8s.

Containers: More Kubernetes/Microsoft at Linux Foundation, LINBIT to Bring Open Source Block Storage to Containers

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Server
OSS
  • Helm moves out of Kubernetes’ shadow to become stand-alone project

    Helm is an open source project that enables developers to create packages of containerized apps to make installation much simpler. Up until now, it was a sub-project of Kubernetes, the popular container orchestration tool, but as of today it is a stand-alone project.

    Both Kubernetes and Helm are projects managed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF). The CNCF’s Technical Oversight Committee approved the project earlier this week. Dan Kohn, executive director at the CNCF says the two projects are closely aligned so it made sense for Helm to be a sub-project up until now.

  • Helm, an open-source project for managing Kubernetes apps, gets its own home inside the Cloud Native Computing Foundation

    Another project has joined the Cloud Native Computing Foundation, after members voted to include Helm at the incubation stage within the organization’s roster of open-source projects.

    Helm was originally developed at Google and Deis, which was acquired by Microsoft last year. It is designed to help users of the Kubernetes container-orchestration project (also under the CNCF’s wing) find packages that facilitate the deployment of apps on Kubernetes.

  • LINBIT to Bring Open Source Block Storage to Containers

    Containerized applications now can access block storage typically accessed by high-performance storage systems supporting enterprise applications based on relational databases thanks to LINBIT.

    Available now in beta, LINSTOR is block storage software native to containers and is compatible with both Kubernetes clusters and the OpenShift platform-as-a-service (PaaS) environment from Red Hat, via support for the Container Storage Interface (CSI) being developed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).

    LINBIT COO Brian Hellman says LINSTOR is the latest addition to a portfolio of open source software-defined storage (SDS) offerings that make it possible for IT organizations to employ any underlying storage hardware they want to access block-based storage.

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4 Neat New GTK Themes for Your Linux Desktop

The new Yaru/Communitheme theme might be the talk of the Ubuntu town right now, but it’s not the only decent desktop theme out there. If you want to give your Linux desktop a striking new look ahead of the autumn then the following quad-pack of quality GTK themes might help you out. Don’t be put off by the fact you will need to manually install these skins; it’s pretty to install GTK themes on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS above, providing you set hidden folders to show (Ctrl + H) in Nautilus first. Read more Also: Getting Things GNOME

Python wriggles onward without its head

At the third annual PyBay Conference in San Francisco over the weekend, Python aficionados gathered to learn new tricks and touch base with old friends. Only a month earlier, Python creator Guido van Rossum said he would step down as BDFL – benevolent dictator for life – following a draining debate over the addition of a new way to assign variables within an expression (PEP 572). But if any bitterness about the proposal politics lingered, it wasn't evident among attendees. Raymond Hettinger, a Python core developer, consultant and speaker, told The Register that the retirement of Python creator Guido van Rossum hasn't really changed things. "It has not changed the tenor of development yet," he said. "Essentially, [Guido] presented us with a challenge for self-government. And at this point we don't have any active challenges or something controversial to resolve." Read more

Today in Techrights

today's leftovers

  • How to Install R on Ubuntu 18.04
  • How to Install HTTP Git Server with Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
  • Everything You Need to Know about Linux Containers, Part I: Linux Control Groups and Process Isolation
  • Robert Roth: Five or More GSoC
  • Adventures with NVMe, part 2
    A few days ago I asked people to upload their NVMe “cns” data to the LVFS. So far, 643 people did that, and I appreciate each and every submission. I promised I’d share my results, and this is what I’ve found:
  • The Next Challenge For Fwupd / LVFS Is Supporting NVMe SSD Firmware Updates
    With UEFI BIOS updating now working well with the Fwupd firmware updating utility and Linux Vendor Firmware Service (LVFS) for distributing these UEFI update capsules, Richard Hughes at Red Hat is next focusing on NVMe solid-state drives for being able to ship firmware updates under Linux. Hughes is in the early stages at looking to support NVMe firmware updates via LVFS/fwupd. Currently he is hoping for Linux users with NVMe drives to send in the id-ctrl identification data on your drives to him. This data will be useful so he knows what drives/models are most popular but also for how the firmware revision string is advertised across drives and vendors.
  • [Older] Language, Networking Packages Get Updates in Tumbleweed
    There were two openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots this past week that mostly focused on language and network packages. The Linux Kernel also received an update a couple days ago to version 4.17.13. The packages in the 20180812 Tumbleweed snapshot brought fixes in NetworkManager-applet 1.8.16, which also modernized the package for GTK 3 use in preparations for GTK 4. The free remote desktop protocol client had its third release candidate for freerdp 2.0.0 where it improved automatic reconnects, added Wave2 support and fixed automount issues. More network device card IDs for the Intel 9000 series were added in kernel 4.17.13. A jump from libstorage-ng 4.1.0 to version 4.1.10 brought several translations and added unit test for probing xen xvd devices. Two Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures fixes were made with the update in postgresql 10.5. Several rubygem packages were updated to versions 5.2.1 including rubygem-rails 5.2.1, which makes the master.key file read-only for the owner upon generation on POSIX-compliant systems. Processing XML and HTML with python-lxml 4.2.4 should have fewer crashes thanks to a fix of sporadic crashes during garbage collection when parse-time schema validation is used and the parser participates in a reference cycle. Several YaST packages receive updates including a new ServiceWidget to manage the service status with yast2-ftp-server 4.1.3 as well with yast2-http-server, yast2-slp-server and yast2-squid 4.1.0 versions.
  • Red Hat Inc Risk Points versus Technology
  • 10 Efficient Raspberry Add-ons To Enhance Performance - Part 8
    Sometimes you may find yourself in great need to improve the functionality of your Raspberry Pi. There is a good chance your Raspberry does not support the functionality you want. There is also a chance that it supports your dream functionality but with the help of an external tool. An add-on in other words. It is pretty obvious that your dream add-on exists in the market or someone somewhere is cracking an algorithm to build. Never mind, here we compile a list of the best add-ons to get for your Raspberry in 2018.
  • Secure Email Service Tutanota sees F-Droid Release
    Back in February, I reviewed an email provider called Tutanota. If you read the article, you will remember that I thought very highly of the service. In my eyes, there were very few downsides to using the encrypted mail service, one of them being that you couldn’t use third-party email clients like Thunderbird for desktop computers or K-9 Mail for mobile devices.
  • Motorola Announces Android Pie Updates for 8 smartphones excluding Moto E5 & G5
  • How To Unsend Emails On Gmail For Android?
  • Nerd Knobs and Open Source in Network Software
    Tech is commoditizing. I've talked about this before; I think networking is commoditizing at the device level, and the days of appliance-based networking are behind us. But are networks themselves a commodity? Not any more than any other system. We are running out of useful features, so vendors are losing feature differentiation. This one is going to take a little longer… When I first started in network engineering, the world was multiprotocol, and we had a lot of different transports. For instance, we took cases on IPX, VIP, Appletalk, NetBios, and many other protocols. These all ran on top of Ethernet, T1, Frame, ATM, FDDI, RPR, Token Ring, ARCnet, various sorts of serial links ... The list always felt a little too long, to me. Today we have IPv4, IPv6, and MPLS on top of Ethernet, pretty much. All transports are framed as Ethernet, and all upper layer protocol use some form of IP. MPLS sits in the middle as the most common "transport enhancer." The first thing to note is that space across which useful features can be created is considerably smaller than it used to be.
  • Meetings that make people happy: Myth or magic?
    People tend to focus on the technical elements of meeting prep: setting the objective(s), making the agenda, choosing a place and duration, selecting stakeholders, articulating a timeline, and so on. But if you want people to come to a meeting ready to fully engage, building trust is mission-critical, too. If you need people to engage in your meetings, then you're likely expecting people to come ready to share their creativity, problem-solving, and innovation ideas.
  • Building microprocessor architectures on open-source hardware and software
     

    "The real freedom you get from open source projects is much more, and more important than the fact that you don't have to pay for it," Frank Gürkaynak, Director of ETHZ's Microelectronics Design Center, writes in an article posted on All About Circuits. "Researchers can take what we provide and freely change it for their experiments. Startup companies can build on what we provide as a starting point and concentrate their time and energy on the actual innovations they want to provide. And people who are disturbed by various attacks on their systems [1, 2] have the chance to look inside and know what exactly is in their system."

  • Create DIY music box cards with Punchbox
    That first time almost brought tears to my eyes. Mozart, sweetly, gently playing on the most perfect little music box. Perfectly! No errors in timing or pitch. Thank you, open source—without Mido, Svgwrite, PyYAML, and Click, this project wouldn't have been possible.
  • Fund Meant to Protect Elections May Be Too Little, Too Late
    The Election Assistance Commission, the government agency charged with distributing federal funds to support elections, released a report Tuesday detailing how each state plans to spend a total of $380 million in grants allocated to improve and secure their election systems. But even as intelligence officials warn of foreign interference in the midterm election, much of the money is not expected to be spent before Election Day. The EAC expects states to spend their allotted money within two to three years and gives them until 2023 to finish spending it. Election experts have expressed skepticism that the money will be enough to modernize election equipment and secure it against state-sponsored cyber threats.