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The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache Rya as a Top-Level Project

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OSS

The Apache Software Foundation (ASF), the all-volunteer developers, stewards, and incubators of more than 350 Open Source projects and initiatives, announced today Apache® Rya™ as a Top-Level Project (TLP).

Apache Rya (pronounced "ree-uh") is a Cloud-based Big Data triple store (subject-predicate-object) database used to process queries in milliseconds. The project was originally developed at the Laboratory for Telecommunication Sciences, and was submitted to the Apache Incubator in September 2015.

"We are very excited to reach this important milestone showing the maturity of the project and of the community around it," said Dr. Adina Crainiceanu, Vice President of Apache Rya and Associate Professor of Computer Science at the U.S. Naval Academy. "RDF (Resource Description Framework) triple data format is simple and flexible, making it easy to express diverse datasets such as connections between users on social media, financial data and transactions, medical data, and many others. Rya provides a scalable solution to store and query such data. The publication of the first research article about Rya garnered interest from industry, academia, and several government agencies. Bringing the project to ASF allowed collaboration and increased pace of development."

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Also: Apache Promotes Rya To Being A Top-Level Project

Databases: Percona and InfluxDB

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Server
OSS

Server: Kubernetes and So-Called 'DevOps'

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Server
  • Kubernetes Project Releases Version 1.16

    SUSE, and the SUSE CaaS Platform team in particular, congratulates the Kubernetes Project of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation on the release of Kubernetes 1.16.
    The most major change in this release is actually a feature that is already in widespread use. Custom Resource Definitions (CRD) are a major foundation of Kubernetes extensibility and are used by many features and projects; however, they have been in beta since version 1.7, over two years ago. They finally graduate to general availability (GA) and stable status in this release, meaning that anyone using the current version of the feature and its API can expect compatibility for any future 1.x release as well as any 2.x release yet to come.

  • The use of open source software in DevOps has become strategic for organizations of all sizes

    A higher percentage of top performing teams in enterprise organizations are using open source software, according to a survey conducted by DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA) and Google Cloud. Additionally, the proportion of Elite performers (highest performing teams) nearly tripled from last year, showing that DevOps capabilities are driving performance.

  • Kubernetes 1.16 Offers New Promise for IPv6 Cloud Native Deployments

    Kubernetes, for the un-initiated is a container orchestration platform that is deployed and supported in all the major public cloud provides and is also widely used on-premises as well. Every new Kubernetes update has features that are in alpha, beta and those that have reached general availability. In the 1.16 update, for networking professionals there is one alpha feature that stands above all others : IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack.

    "If you enable IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack networking for your Kubernetes cluster, the cluster will support the simultaneous assignment of both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses," the Kubernetes feature documentationstates.

    The dual stack will support both Kubernetes Pods, which represent a set of running containers; as well as Kubernetes Services, which provide a way to abstract an application running on a set of Pods as a network service. The Kubernetes Enhancement Proposal (KEP) that defines the dual-stack feature, notes that Kubernetes has provides support for IPv6-only clusters as alpha features since the Kubernetes 1.9release which debuted in December 2017.

  • No, Kubernetes is Not the New OpenStack, Says Canonical

    It’s easy to think of Kubernetes as the great disruptor of earlier generations of cloud-native platforms, such as OpenStack. But that view would be just as wrong as assuming that Kubernetes and containers have totally killed off old-school virtual machines. That’s what Stephan Fabel of Canonical had to say in an interview about the past, present and future of Kubernetes and other cloud-native technologies within the enterprise.

    [...]

    As a result of these differences, Fabel says OpenStack and Kubernetes each serve distinct types of workloads. For example, OpenStack might appeal to telcos, which are “more prone to adopting configuration management type approaches, where workloads have to be stateful and long-running.” Kubernetes, meanwhile, is better-suited for workloads that are deployed as REST- or HTTP-based services.

    To help prove his point about the continued relevance of OpenStack, Fabel says Canonical is on track to witness “the most commercial activity in OpenStack” ever in the coming quarter, with business coming from a variety of verticals. Clearly, Fabel says, OpenStack remains a go-to solution for enterprises of many different stripes.

Server: Kubernetes/OpenShift, OpenStack, and Red Hat's Ansible

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Red Hat
Server
  • 9 steps to awesome with Kubernetes/OpenShift presented by Burr Sutter

    Burr Sutter gave a terrific talk in India in July, where he laid out the terms, systems and processes needed to setup Kubernetes for developers. This is an introductory presentation, which may be useful for your larger community of Kubernetes users once you’ve already setup User Provisioned Infrastructure (UPI) in Red Hat OpenShift for them, though it does go into the deeper details of actually running the a cluster. To follow along, Burr created an accompanying GitHub repository, so you too can learn how to setup an awesome Kubernetes cluster in just 9 steps.

  • Weaveworks Named a Top Kubernetes Contributor

    But anyone who knows the history of Weaveworks might not be too surprised by this. Weaveworks has been a major champion of Kubernetes since the very beginning. It might not be too much of a coincidence that Weaveworks was incorporated only a few weeks after Kubernetes was open sourced, five years ago. In addition to this, the very first elected chair of the CNCF’s Technical Oversight Committee, responsible for technical leadership to the Cloud Native Foundation was also headed up by our CEO, Alexis Richardson(@monadic) (soon to be replaced by the awesome Liz Rice (@lizrice) of Aqua Security).

  • Improving trust in the cloud with OpenStack and AMD SEV

    This post contains an exciting announcement, but first I need to provide some context!

    Ever heard that joke “the cloud is just someone else’s computer”?

    Of course it’s a gross over-simplification, but there’s more than a grain of truth in it. And that raises the question: if your applications are running in someone else’s data-centre, how can you trust that they’re not being snooped upon, or worse, invasively tampered with?

  • Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15 Enhances Infrastructure Security and Cloud-Native Integration Across the Open Hybrid Cloud

    Red Hat, Inc., the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced the general availability of Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15, the latest version of its highly scalable and agile cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) solution. Based on the OpenStack community’s "Stein" release, Red Hat OpenStack Platform 15 adds performance and cloud security enhancements and expands the platform’s ecosystem of supported hardware, helping IT organizations to more quickly and more securely support demanding production workloads. Given the role of Linux as the foundation for hybrid cloud, customers can also benefit from a more secure, flexible and intelligent Linux operating system underpinning their private cloud deployments with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

  • Red Hat Ansible Automation Accelerates Past Major Adoption Milestone, Now Manages More Than Four Million Customer Systems Worldwide

    Red Hat, Inc., the world's leading provider of open source solutions, today announced that more than four million customer systems worldwide are now automated by Red Hat Ansible Automation. Customers, including Energy Market Company, Microsoft, Reserve Bank of New Zealand and Surescripts all use Red Hat Ansible Automation to automate and orchestrate their IT operations, helping to expand automation across IT stacks.

    According to a blog post by Chris Gardner with Forrester Research, who was the author of The Forrester Wave™: Infrastructure Automation Platforms, Q3 2019, "Infrastructure automation isn’t just on-premises or the cloud. It’s at the edge and everywhere in between."1 Since its launch in 2013, Red Hat Ansible Automation has provided a single tool to help organizations automate across IT operations and development, including infrastructure, networks, cloud, security and beyond.

Server: Ubuntu 19.10 Release Schedule, IBM LinuxONE III with Ubuntu and SUSE on Cloud Foundry Foundation and More LF

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Server
SUSE
Ubuntu
  • Ubuntu 19.10 Release Schedule and Expected Features

    This is a continually updated article to inform you about Ubuntu 19.10 release date, features and other important things associated with it.

    The development for Ubuntu 19.10 is nearing its end and it’s time to look at what new features and improvement this new release brings.

    Ubuntu 19.10 is an important release because it will set the course of development for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (long term support). I have always felt that the LTS version release takes a lot of features from its predecessor.

    In other words, Ubuntu 19.10 will be a glimpse of the features you would be getting in Ubuntu 20.04.

  • Announcing the new IBM LinuxONE III with Ubuntu

    Enterprises today need the most secure, and flexible system to support their initiatives, and for that system to grow and evolve for tomorrow. The latest LinuxONE system was designed to support mission-critical initiatives and allow enterprises to be innovative as they design and scale their environment. LinuxONE III provides features for advanced data protection and privacy, enterprise resiliency and scalability, and cloud enablement and integration.

    Reliability and continuity are critical to the success of any business. With this release, they’ll benefit from up to 10:1 consolidation for key workloads, and up to 190 cores and 40TB of memory. And with 99.999%* availability and up to 7.4x better resilience, enterprises can confidently run and scale their business-critical workloads. The new LinuxONE III provides the highest levels of availability and scalability, so business-critical workloads run flawlessly, recover quickly, and grow seamlessly.

  • Project Quarks: Native Cloud Foundry for Kubernetes

    At the recent Cloud Foundry Summit EU in the Netherlands, Vlad Iovanov of SUSE gave a keynote demo of Project Quarks, the project that integrates Cloud Foundry and Kubernetes, by packaging the Cloud Foundry Application Runtime as containers instead of virtual machines. Vlad explains the current capabilities of Quarks, with a look at its future as a Kubernetes Operator. It’s a fairly technical topic, but Vlad uses creative diagrams and an understandable demo to show the power of Quarks.

    Cloud Foundry Foundation has posted all recorded talks from CF Summit EU on YouTube. Check them out if you want to learn more about what is happening in the Cloud Foundry world! I’ll be posting more SUSE Cloud Application Platform talks here over the coming days. Watch Vlad’s talk below...

  • Broad Deployment Of Cloud Foundry Almost Double In Just 2 Years

    As businesses embark on their digital transformation journey, developers are driving innovation across cloud native environments for building into the future. According to a recently released report by Cloud Foundry Foundation, 45 percent of user respondents describe their Cloud Foundry use as “broad” compared to 30 percent in 2018 and 24 percent in 2017. The report also revealed that 39 percent of developers are deploying applications in less than one day.

    What points out towards a healthy and growing community of developers is the fact that almost one in five respondents started using Cloud Foundry in just the last 12 months.

  • The Linux Foundation to Host Open Source Project for Drone Aviation Interoperability

    The Linux Foundation today announced it will host the InterUSS Platform Open Source Project to enable trusted, secure and scalable interoperability between UAS Service Suppliers (USSs) that advances safe, equitable and efficient drone operations. Initial contributors include both industry and regulatory organizations Wing, AirMap, Uber and the Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation (FOCA).

    Similar to the evolution of cities, our skies are becoming busier with traffic. In an effort to unleash innovation and ensure safety, aviation regulators around the world are implementing UAS Traffic Management (UTM, also referred to as U-Space) to support rapidly increasing and highly diverse drone operations. Under UTM, a set of USSs (also known as U-Space Service Providers orUSPs) assist drone operators to conduct safe and compliant operations. USSs can provide service in overlapping airspace and share data when required to support services such as a strategic deconfliction of flight plans and remote identification and industry is developing standards for this data sharing through organizations such as ASTM International. The InterUSS Project provides a forum for collaboration and development of standards-compliant, open source implementations that facilitate communication in the UTM/U-Space environment.

Kubernetes 1.16 available from Canonical

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Ubuntu

Canonical announces full enterprise support for Kubernetes 1.16, with support covering Charmed Kubernetes, MicroK8s and kubeadm.

MicroK8s will be updated with Kubernetes 1.16 enabling users access to the latest upstream release with a single-line command in under 60 seconds. In addition, MicroK8s gets new add-ons with one line installs of Helm and Cilium as well as enhancements, upgrades and bug fixes. Cilium adds enhanced networking features including Kubernetes Network Policy support. With MicroK8s 1.16, users can develop and deploy enterprise grade Kubernetes on any Linux desktop, server or VM across 42 Linux distros.

Canonical’s Charmed Kubernetes 1.16 will come with exciting changes like support for Kata Containers, AWS IAM, SSL passthrough and more. Using Kata Containers, insecure or untrusted pods can be run safely in isolation without disrupting trusted pods in deployments. Identity Access Management on AWS can be used to login to your Charmed Kubernetes cluster. Users get more control over their deployments while benefitting from reduced complexity due to improved LXD support and enhanced Prometheus and OpenStack integration.

“At Canonical, we enable enterprises by reducing the complexity of their Kubernetes deployments. We are actively involved in the Kubernetes community to ensure we listen to, and support our users’ and partners’ needs. Staying on top of security flaws, community issues and features to improve Kubernetes is critical to us. We keep the Ubuntu ecosystem updated with the latest Kubernetes, as soon as it becomes available upstream,” commented Ammar Naqvi, Product Manager at Canonical.

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Did Lilu Ransomware Really Infect Linux Servers

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Linux
Server
Security

Note that the domain name of this folder has been hidden from view making it impossible for us to verify if these files were actually on a Linux server. The article goes on to note that “Lilocked doesn't encrypt system files, but only a small subset of file extensions, such as HTML, JS, CSS, PHP, INI, and various image file formats. This means infected servers continue to run normally.”

This limitation raises the obvious question of whether the core of the Linux server itself has been compromised or whether merely applications connected to the core have been hacked. There are many very insecure website building applications such as Wordpress and many insecure web mail applications such as Exim that have been repeatedly hacked over the years. Both Wordpress and Exim have suffered from dozens of major security problems that have nothing to do with the security of the Linux operating system which is at the core of all Linux servers. All of the file formats mentioned in the article are files used on Wordpress websites and files that can be transmitted via Exim email programs.

[...]

So instead of 6000 websites on 6000 servers being infected, it looks more like 6000 files on less than 1000 websites were infected. And many of these websites could have been on the same server – meaning that perhaps only a couple dozen out of the worlds 10 million Linux servers had infected files – and none of the files were actually in the core of any Linux servers.

[...]

Many of these articles were exact copies of the Zdnet article. Thus far, not a single so-called “security expert” has bothered either to look into the evidence provided much less challenge or disagree with this silly claim.

Instead, make even more extreme claims, noting that there are millions of Linux servers running outdated, un-patched and insecure versions of Exim software. This is a fact. But given how many holes have been found in the Exim software, the problem is not with the Linux servers, it is with the Exim software. In my humble opinion, the design of Exim is not secure and the design of Postfix is more secure.

The solution to this Exim problem is to demand that Cpanel support support Postfix and to ask Debian to also switch from Exim to Postfix (something Ubuntu has already done for very obvious reasons). This is the benefit of the diversity of free open source software. If one program has problems, there is quite often a more secure alternative that can be installed with just the click of a button. This is a problem that has been going on for years. But it can be fixed in a matter of minutes.

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CentOS 8 To Be Released Next Week

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The CentOS Project has announced that CentOS 8.0 will be available for download beginning Tuesday, September 24. This release was deferred so that work to release CentOS 7.7 could be completed, which means that CentOS 7.7 will be out shortly as well (and 7.7 it is already beginning to appear in mirrors and repos). This comes 20 weeks to the day from the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

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Kubernetes Leftovers

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  • With its Kubernetes bet paying off, Cloud Foundry doubles down on developer experience

    More than 50% of the Fortune 500 companies are now using the open-source Cloud Foundry Platform-as-a-Service project — either directly or through vendors like Pivotal — to build, test and deploy their applications. Like so many other projects, including the likes of OpenStack, Cloud Foundry went through a bit of a transition in recent years as more and more developers started looking to containers — and especially the Kubernetes project — as a platform on which to develop. Now, however, the project is ready to focus on what always differentiated it from its closed- and open-source competitors: the developer experience.

  • Kubernetes in the Enterprise: A Primer

    As Kubernetes moves deeper into the enterprise, its growth is having an impact on the ecosystem at large.

    When Kubernetes came on the scene in 2014, it made an impact and continues to impact the way companies build software. Large companies have backed it, causing a ripple effect in the industry and impacting open source and commercial systems. To understand how K8S will continue to affect the industry and change the traditional enterprise data center, we must first understand the basics of Kubernetes.

  • Google Cloud rolls out Cloud Dataproc on Kubernetes

    Google Cloud is trialling alpha availability of a new platform for data scientists and engineers through Kubernetes.

    Cloud Dataproc on Kubernetes combines open source, machine learning and cloud to help modernise big data resource management.

    The alpha availability will first start with workloads on Apache Spark, with more environments to come.

  • Google announces alpha of Cloud Dataproc for Kubernetes

    Not surprisingly, Google, the company that created K8s, thinks the answer to that question is yes. And so, today, the company is announcing the Alpha release of Cloud Dataproc for Kubernetes (K8s Dataproc), allowing Spark to run directly on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)-based K8s clusters. The service promises to reduce complexity, in terms of open source data components' inter-dependencies, and portability of Spark applications. That should allow data engineers, analytics experts and data scientists to run their Spark workloads in a streamlined way, with less integration and versioning hassles.

Databases: MariaDB, ScyllaDB, Percona, Cassandra

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Server
  • MariaDB opens US headquarters in California

    MariaDB Corporation, the database company born as a result of forking the well-known open-source MySQL database...

  • ScyllaDB takes on Amazon with new DynamoDB migration tool

    There are a lot of open-source databases out there, and ScyllaDB, a NoSQL variety, is looking to differentiate itself by attracting none other than Amazon users. Today, it announced a DynamoDB migration tool to help Amazon customers move to its product.

  • ScyllaDB Announces Alternator, an Open Source Amazon DynamoDB-Compatible API

    ScyllaDB today announced the Alternator project, open-source software that will enable application- and API-level compatibility between Scylla and Amazon’s NoSQL cloud database, Amazon DynamoDB. Scylla’s DynamoDB-compatible API will be available for use with Scylla Open Source, supporting the majority of DynamoDB use cases and features.

  • ScyllaDB Secures $25 Million to Open Source Amazon DynamoDB-compatible API

    Fast-growing NoSQL database company raises funds to extend operations and bring new deployment flexibility to users of Amazon DynamoDB.

  • ScyllaDB Announces Alternator, an Open Source Amazon DynamoDB-Compatible API

    ScyllaDB today announced the Alternator project, open-source software that will enable application- and API-level compatibility between Scylla and Amazon’s NoSQL cloud database, Amazon DynamoDB. Scylla’s DynamoDB-compatible API will be available for use with Scylla Open Source, supporting the majority of DynamoDB use cases and features.

  • ScyllaDB powers up Alternator: an open Amazon DynamoDB API

    Companies normally keep things pretty quiet in the run up to their annual user conferences, so they can pepper the press with a bag of announcements designed to show how much market momentum and traction that have going.

    Not so with ScyllaDB, the company has been dropping updates in advance of its Scylla Summit event in what is perhaps an unusually vocal kind of way.

    [...]

    Scylla itself is a real-time big data database that is fully compatible with Apache Cassandra and is known for its ‘shared-nothing’ approach (a distributed-computing architecture in which each update request is satisfied by a single node –processor/memory/storage unit to increase throughput and storage capacity.

  • Percona Announces Full Conference Schedule for Percona Live Open Source Database Conference Europe 2019

    The Percona Live Open Source Database Conference Europe 2019 is the premier open source database event. Percona Live conferences provide the open source database community with an opportunity to discover and discuss the latest open source trends, technologies and innovations. The conference includes the best and brightest innovators and influencers in the open source database industry.

  • Thwarting Digital Ad Fraud at Scale: An Open Source Experiment with Anomaly Detection

    Our experiment assembles Kafka, Cassandra, and our anomaly detection application in a Lambda architecture, in which Kafka and our streaming data pipeline are the speed layer, and Cassandra acts as the batch and serving layer. In this configuration, Kafka makes it possible to ingest streaming digital ad data in a fast and scalable manner, while taking a “store and forward” approach so that Kafka can serve as a buffer to protect the Cassandra database from being overwhelmed by major data surges. Cassandra’s strength is in storing high-velocity streams of ad metric data in its linearly scalable, write-optimized database. In order to handle automation for provisioning, deploying, and scaling the application, the anomaly detection experiment relies on Kubernetes on AWS EKS.

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More in Tux Machines

HP Linux Imaging & Printing Drivers Are Now Supported on Debian GNU/Linux 10.2

HP Linux Imaging and Printing (HPLIP) software, an open-source and free print, scan and fax driver solution for HP printers and scanners, has been updated today to version 3.19.12 for Linux-based operating systems. HPLIP 3.19.12 is here to add support for several new printers, including HP Color LaserJet Pro M256dn, HP Color LaserJet Pro M255dn, HP Color LaserJet Pro M256nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro M255nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro M256dw, HP Color LaserJet Pro M255dw, HP Color LaserJet Pro M155a, HP Color LaserJet Pro M156a, HP Color LaserJet Pro M155nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro M156nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M282nw, and HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M284nw. Additionally, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M283fdn, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M285fdn, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M283fdw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M285fdw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M283cdw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M285cdw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M182n, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M184n, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M182nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M184nw, HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M183fw, and HP Color LaserJet Pro MFP M185fw are also supported by the new version. Read more Also: HPLIP 3.19.12 Released with New Printers Support

AMD Radeon RX 5500 XT Linux Performance

AMD today is shipping the Radeon RX 5500 XT as the new sub-$200 Navi graphics card. This 7nm graphics card offers 22 compute units, 1408 stream processors, up to 5.6 TFLOPS of compute power, 4GB or 8GB GDDR6 video memory options, and built atop their modern RDNA architecture and supporting features in common with the RX 5700 series like PCIe 4.0 support. Here is a look at the initial Linux gaming performance of the AMD Radeon RX 5500 XT with various gaming benchmarks and Steam Play tests as well. The Radeon RX 5500 XT 4GB version is launching at $169 USD while the Radeon RX 5500 XT 8GB version will command $199 USD. These price points put them comparable to the current Radeon RX 580 / 590 retail cards. AMD markets the RX 5500 XT as offering 1.6x the performance-per-Watt of the original Polaris Radeon RX 480 and designed for 1080p gaming to go up against NVIDIA's GeForce GTX 1650 SUPER graphics card. Read more

KDE's December 2019 Apps Update

The release of new versions for KDE applications is part of KDE’s continued effort to bring you a complete and up-to-date catalog of fully-featured, beautiful and useful programs for your system. Available now are new versions of KDE’s file browser Dolphin; Kdenlive, one of the most complete open source video editors; the document viewer Okular; KDE’s image viewer, Gwenview; and all of your other favorite KDE apps and utilities. All of these applications have been improved, making them faster and more stable and they boast exciting new features. The new versions of KDE applications let you be productive and creative, while at the same time making use of KDE software easy and fun. We hope you enjoy all the novel features and improvements worked into all of KDE’s apps! Read more Also: KDE Applications 19.12 Open-Source Software Suite Released, Here's What's New KDE Applications 19.12 Released With Big Improvements To Kdenlive + Other KDE Programs

Games: Feral Interactive, Fantasy Strike, GNU/Linux as Gaming Platform

  • Seems like Feral Interactive may have a few surprises for Linux in 2020

    Porting studio Feral Interactive [Official Site] have already given Linux a lot of games and it sounds like more are coming. While this year they've already released Shadow of the Tomb Raider Definitive Edition, a Vulkan beta for Shadow of Mordor, Total War: THREE KINGDOMS and DiRT 4 plus plus big updates/expansions to Company of Heroes 2 and Total War: WARHAMMER II. Still to come is Life is Strange 2, which Feral previously teased to arrive sometime soon.

  • Fighting game Fantasy Strike adds full cross-platform online play with PC and Consoles

    The very pretty fighting game Fantasy Strike from Sirlin Games just got a great update, enabling cross-platform online play between Linux/macOS/Windows and the Nintendo Switch and Playstation 4 consoles. Apply to all online modes including Casual and Ranked, find a match should be a lot easier now. You can also challenge or spectate others from your in-game friends list, which also works across all platforms too as you can add people from any platform based on tags.

  • Looking towards other operating systems

    Learning a new operating system from scratch is a daunting experience for many people. Fortunately, there are a few Linux distributions that come with a Windows-like desktop environment such as a form of a star bar at the bottom. However, Windows and Linux operating on vastly different philosophies, to the way that they are organized to the way that the files are handled. Linux employs the traditional monolithic kernel and it provides a hierarchical view of the files. Because it is modular, most of the necessary drivers can be loaded and unloaded dynamically. One of the major appeals of Linux is that it is open-source, compared to Microsoft which is a closed and inaccessible environment. Windows is made for simple and out of the box use and directed toward inexperienced users, a reason why the OS has been adopted by so many people. Linux puts more emphasis on the user, who has the possibility of customizing the desktop environment to suit their needs. Windows also offer a few, but fairly limited customization options. The main reason why people avoid switching to Linux is their gaming habits. Linux is known for not playing well with most PC games. Most PC games are being developed with Windows as the main platforms with some companies providing Linux support sometime after the original release. Games that do not have a Linux release require third party compatibility applications to run Windows games. The major application that is used to play Windows games on Linux is Wine. The developers of Wine have specified that the software is not an emulator but more of a compatibility layer for Linux to run Windows programs, not just games. In the world of programming, Wine is considered a masterpiece and one of the greatest feats of open source development that allows most Windows binaries to run on Linux without relying on any of Microsoft’s dependencies. Most of the Wine resources are dedicated to running the complicated frameworks of various DirectX components. [...] Many people prefer to enjoy online gaming, especially casino games. The beauty of these games is that most are available and can be played directly in the browser. The default browser that Linux uses is Mozilla Firefox, which itself, is a powerful browser. Because online casinos are played directly in the browser, there is almost no difference between playing them on Linux and playing them in Windows. There are also casino games that can be downloaded with most of them being made to run only on Windows due to a large number of people using the OS. As mentioned before, to run most Windows software, players have the option to use WINE. However, since because playing the casinos using the browser, most people are better off sticking with that version. Many games from online roulette to poker, and other table games are available online. Almost all online casinos found online have the option to play instantly with no download required, which is why any OS that can run a browser is perfectly capable to run casino games. Linux has been around for a long time, but it was only in the last 10 years that people have started noticing the operating system becoming more friendlier and easy to learn. Besides the many desktop environments, customizability, community and growing compatibility of games, as well as more security, many have started the transition from Windows to Linux.