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today's howtos

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  • How to Install the Latest MySQL 8 in Ubuntu

    MySQL is a relational database system owned by Oracle Corporation and it has been a part of the Ubuntu repositories right from its earlier versions. The release cycles of Ubuntu and MySQL do not exactly match; hence in some older Ubuntu versions, the latest MySQL version will not be available in the repository.

    Today, we will see how to install and configure the latest MySQL 8 on Ubuntu.

  • How To Install VMware Workstation Player on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install VMware Workstation Player on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, VMware Workstation Player is a desktop virtualization program that allows you to run multiple, isolated working strategies on an unmarried machine. With VMware Player, you can create and run your personal virtual machines and evaluate software dispensed as a virtual appliance from many program vendors accessible from VMware’s Solution Exchange.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of VMware Player on an Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to use the Linux anacron command |

    In 2021, there are more reasons why people love Linux than ever before. In this series, I'll share 21 different reasons to use Linux. Automation is one of the best reasons to use Linux.

    One of my favorite things about Linux is its willingness to do work for me. Instead of performing repetitive tasks that eat up my time, or are prone to error, or that I'm likely to forget, I schedule Linux to do them for me.

  • 2 Ways to Upgrade Nextcloud [Command-Line & GUI]

    It’s important to keep your Nextcloud server up to date with the latest security and bug fixes. This tutorial is going to show you how to upgrade NextCloud using the updater app, which automates many steps of a manual upgrade.

  • How To Install Signal Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04

    Signal is an popular messaging application as an alternative of WhatsApp. It is available as Desktop application for Windows, Linux and macOS systems.

    In order to your Signal desktop application, You must have signup for Signal application with your mobile number. To create new account, install Signal application on your Android or iOS device and create new account.

    This tutorial help you to how to install Signal desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system.

  • Install and Use Guacamole Remote Desktop on CentOS 8

    Apache Guacamole is a free, open-source, web-based, and clientless remote desktop application that supports standard protocols like VNC, RDP, and SSH. It allows you to access Linux and Windows PC from a web browser via RDP, SSH, or VNC. It is clientless so you don't need to install any plugins or client software. It is made from two components Guacamole Server and Guacamole Client. Guacamole server provides server-side and native components required to connect to remote PC while Guacamole client is an HTML 5 web application used to connect to the remote PC.

  • How to use Virt-Manager GUI to manage Multipass Ubuntu VMs

    Virt Manager by RedHat is a popular graphical application developed to manage Virtual Machines running on the KVM hypervisor. Here we will learn the process to install it on Ubuntu 20.04 TLS Linux for managing Multipass VMs.

    The Virtual Machine Manager also called virt-manager or VMM for short offers a uniform user interface for creating and managing virtual machines. VMM is based on libvirt, i.e the virtualization solutions that libvirt also supports are supported. These include QEMU, KVM, and Xen, but not VirtualBox or VMware Player.

    VMM offers both a graphical user interface and several command-line programs. VMM is written entirely in Python.

  • How to install Qemu/KVM and Virt-Manager GUI on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

    When it comes to running virtual machines on home Linux systems or for personal use most of us either go for VirtualBox or Vmware workstation player, however, there is more best option i.e KVM/Qemu. Qemu and KVM both are open source platforms for performing virtualization on Linux platforms. KVM stands for Kernel Virtual Machine, where QEMU is an emulator that can also be used as a virtualizer with the help of KVM to provide a native speed by accessing Intel VT-x or AMD V technology of modern processors.

    KVM is a virtualization module that can easily be installed in any Linux kernel to allow it to function as a type 2 hypervisor.

    Thus, the installation of KVM becomes a lot easier, we only need a Linux-based system such as Ubuntu and a processor with intel-v / VT-x or AMD-v support. All new processors have this instruction set extension. Only the small processors, such as the Atom from Intel, or very old processors may lack this feature.

  • How the oc debug command works in OpenShift | Enable Sysadmin

    Try a new way to connect to and debug your Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes.

today's howtos

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  • How to extract Tar GZ archives in Ubuntu [Guide]

    Not all Linux programs come in DEB or RPM packages. Some programs are distributed to Linux users inside of Tar GZ archive files. These files are compressed and the user must manually extract the contents.

    A whole lot of new Ubuntu users do not understand how to extract Tar GZ archives. As a result, many users give up on Tar GZ archives. This guide will show you various ways you can extract Tar GZ archive files on Ubuntu.

  • How to install Gimp in Ubuntu [Guide]

    Are you using Ubuntu Linux and need to install the latest Gimp for photo editing or graphic work? Can’t figure out how to get the app working on your system? We can help! Follow along as we go over how to get Gimp working on Ubuntu!

  • Useful Tips & Tricks of Kubuntu KNotes

    Kubuntu computer users benefit from its useful tool KNotes that is helpful to use everyday. For example, you can keep frequently used text in it and copy paste them quickly at any time you wish, such as chat group rules (including classrooms) and your online payment information. This is a list of tips and tricks using the sticky notes. Hope you will like it!

  • How to Install and Use PulseAudio-Equalizer on Linux Mint 20 – Linux Hint

    The PulseAudio is an open-source volume control and audio effects tool. It allows us to control and tune the audio settings. The PulseAudio Equalizer has a multi-band interface. Therefore, you can easily adjust the slider when the audio is playing.

    As PulseAudio is a popular open-source tool, it is included in Linux Mint 20 standard repositories installed from there. Moreover, it can also be installed on Linux Mint 20 from the external PPA repository.

    This post explains the installation of PulseAudio-Equalizer on Linux Mint.

  • How to use arithmetic operations in bash

    When you are writing a bash script, sometimes you may want to crunch numbers quickly inside the script. For example, you want to convert a unit of data you are working with, round a divided value to the nearest integer, increment a counter in simple loops, etc. Every programming language has built-in support for basic arithmetic operations against common data types. However, since bash is not a general-purpose programming language, but rather a command-line interpreter, it comes with limited support for arithmetic operations.

    In this tutorial, I present tips on how to perform integer or floating point arithmetic operations in a bash shell script.

  • How to fix “bash: /usr/sbin/ifconfig: No such file or directory” on Linux – Linux Hint

    You were trying to know the IP address of your Linux Operating System, and an error occurred with the message “bash: /usr/sbin/ifconfig: No such file or directory,” and that error has brought you here. Don’t worry; you are reading exactly the right post. But, the question arises that it was working before; what happened?

  • How to Install Git on Linux Mint 20 – Linux Hint

    Git, developed by Linus Torvalds, is the most popular distributed system for version control. Git is a very efficient platform for open-source projects. Using Git, you can collaborate with the other developers, upload the new changes, keep track of the changes, and many more.

  • How To Install And Setup TinyProxy On Your Linux Server – Linux Hint

    Tinyproxy is an HTTP/HTTPS Proxy. It is lightweight, fast, very easy to configure, and an open-source proxy service. Tinyproxy is configurable as a reverse proxy as well. It is good to be used as a small proxy with fewer system resources because it is very lightweight.

  • How to Enable Snap Applications Support in Linux Mint 20 (Recommended Method) – Linux Hint

    Snap is a package manager for Linux-based distributions, and snaps refer to the application packages that are available for IoT, cloud, and desktop. Snaps are multi-platform, easy to install, secure, and dependency-free applications. One of the biggest advantages of snap applications is that they update automatically.

    On Linux Mint 20, the snap support is disabled by default. There could be a situation that you are interested in installing any particular application, and the application version is only available from the snap application manager. In this situation, you will require to enable and install the snap-on Linux Mint 20.

  • How to Undelete Files in Ubuntu: 3 Tools for Linux Data Recovery | IT Pro

    Here's how to undelete files in Ubuntu, although the tools and methods should work on any mainstream Linux distribution.

  • How to Use Two-Factor Authentication with Ubuntu

    Over time, the traditional username and password authentication has proven inadequate in providing robust security to applications and systems. Usernames and passwords can easily be cracked using a plethora of hacking tools, leaving your system vulnerable to breaches. For this reason, any company or entity that takes security seriously needs to implement 2-Factor authentication.

    Colloquially known as MFA (Multi-Factor Authentication), 2-Factor authentication provides an extra layer of security that requires users to provides certain details such as codes, or OTP (One Time Password) before or after authenticating with the usual username and password.

    Nowadays multiple companies such as Google, Facebook, Twitter, and AWS, to mention a few provide users the choice of setting up MFA to further protect their accounts.

  • How to Run the Same Command Multiple Times in Linux – Linux Hint

    When programming, you may encounter a situation in which you need to perform the same task multiple times. A simple solution is to manually repeat the process as many times as it is needed; however, it is not productive to do so. That is why the concept of loops was introduced to programming. The basic goal of a loop is to repeat a task several times, depending upon the value provided for the iterator and the termination condition of the loop. Loops allow programmers to avoid the hassle of repeating processes manually.
    Suppose that there is a command that you wish to run multiple times. There are several important reasons that you might need to run a command repeatedly, so you want to be sure that a certain command produces the correct output every time it is executed. The more you run a command manually, the more certainty you will gain each time you run the command.

    But how do you do this programmatically? Well, there are several methods that can be used to run the same command multiple times, as well as for verifying the output of the repeated command. This article shows you how to create a repeatable command using Linux Mint 20 as the host operating system.

today's leftovers

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  • Wine Launcher 1.4.46 Is Released

    Wine Launcher is a simple front-end for Wine that lets you use separate WINEPREFIX= prefixes and different configurations for each game you install using it.

    Wine Launcher version 1.4.46 is the seventh minor version of it that has been released this month. The Russians are producing new releases on a near-daily basis. A lot of new features have been added in the last dozen releases. The latest versions allow you to compress games to SquashFS images, the PipeWire multimedia server is now supported, VKD3D Proton has been added to the long list of Wine implementations a game can be configured to use, it is now possible to install libraries using Winetricks and the launcher itself has been re-designed.

  • KenShape is a new tool to get easy 3D models from 2D pixel-art by Kenney | GamingOnLinux

    Want a quick way to make 3D models? Here's your fresh tip of the day for prototyping, game development or anything else - check out the new KenShape application from Kenney. For those unaware Kenney is the developer of games like Pixross, Frick, Inc., the Asset Forge application to bash together blocks to make 3D models and — oh, an absolute ton of high quality assets both paid and public domain.

    Their latest work is quite brilliant with KenShape. You draw something in a pixel-art block style, give it some depth based on numbers 1-8 with 1 being thin and 8 being quite large and it will then generate a proper 3D model of it. You can preview it first though of course but the result is quite remarkable. Generated models can be exported to various 3D formats compatible with most game engines (including Unity, Unreal Engine, Godot, Asset Forge, Blender and PlayCanvas), or as .vox files compatible with voxel software like MagicaVoxel.


    Thanks to having easy press access to anything on the platform (as long as developers hit the right checkboxes), I took it for a spin since it offers full Linux support.

  • Khronos and EMVA collaborate on embedded camera standards [Ed: Has an NDA problem]

    The Khronos Group and the European Machine Vision Association have formed an Embedded Camera API Exploratory Group to explore open, royalty-free API standards for controlling embedded cameras and sensors.

    Beaverton, Oregon based The Khronos Group, known for graphic standards such as OpenGL and Vulkan, has announced a collaboration with the European Machine Vision Association to develop guidelines for potential standards governing embedded camera and sensor controls. Their new Embedded Camera API Exploratory Group, which is “open to all at no cost” will bring together sensor and camera manufacturers, silicon vendors, and software developers to explore the potential for camera control standards.

  • SmartNIC Standardizes FPGA Offload

    The latter runs standard Linux distributions like Ubuntu and Yocto Linux. SmartNIC drivers are available for host platforms such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), CentOS, and Ubuntu.

  • 3.5-inch Elkhart Lake SBC offers triple GbE ports

    Ibase’s -40 to 85°C ready “IB836” SBC runs Ubuntu or Windows on an Atom x6000 with up to 32GB DDR4, 3x GbE, 3x USB 3.1, DP, Type-C with DP, 2x SATA, mini-PCIe, and M.2.

    Avalue revealed the first 3.5-inch SBC based on Intel’s Elkhart Lake back in September with its ECM-EHL, and now Ibase has posted a preliminary product page for its own 3.5-inch entry. The IB836 offers triple 1GbE ports instead of the GbE and 2.5GbE ports found on the ECM-EHL or the dual GbE ports on Congatec’s smaller, Elkhart Lake based Conga-PA7 Pico-ITX board.

  • Syslog-ng on BSDs

    My FOSDEM presentation in the BSD devroom showcased what is new in sudo and syslog-ng and explained how to install or compile these software yourself on FreeBSD. Not only am I a long time FreeBSD user (started with version 1.0 in 1994) I also work on keeping the syslog-ng port in FreeBSD up to date. But soon after my presentation I was asked what I knew about other BSDs. And – while I knew that all BSDs have syslog-ng in their ports system – I realized I had no idea about the shape of those ports.


    In this blog I identified many problems related to syslog-ng in various BSD port systems. I also provided some workarounds, but of course these are not real solutions. I cannot promise anything, as I am not an active user or developer of any of these BSD systems and I am also short on time. However, I’m planning to fix as many of these problems at the best effort level, as time allows.

  • Nextcloud Hub 21 Is A Promising Release For Remote Teams With Big Improvements - It's FOSS News

    The Nextcloud team recently unveiled the details and general availability of Nextcloud Hub 21. In case you didn’t know, the Nextcloud Hub is an open-source collaboration platform as a replacement to other proprietary solutions.

    Even the team at It’s FOSS utilizes Nextcloud. You can learn more about Nextcloud in one of our previous articles.

    This is their latest offering and the first major release of 2021 with claims of up to ten times better performance and a host of new features.

  • Ampere Making Progress On Open-Source Firmware For Their CPUs/Platform

    Ampere's Arjun Khare presented earlier this month at the 2021 FOSDEM virtual conference on the company's open-source firmware efforts. Ampere is "committed to supporting open-source in the firmware ecosystem" and have been engaging with the community and their customers from OpenBMC support to TianoCore/EDK2 and LinuxBoot through OCP/OSF efforts. Their relevant code tends to be hosted through AmpereComputing on GitHub.

  • Lessons Learned From the SolarWinds Supply Chain Hack

    In a recent Linux Foundation blog post titled “Preventing Supply Chain Attacks like SolarWinds,” the foundation’s Director of Open Source Supply Chain Security, David A. Wheeler, adamantly pushed the need for software developers to embrace the LF’s security recommendations to prevent even worse assaults on government and corporate data security in the wake of the rampant data breach.

    Wheeler’s post is timely and filled with information to make it harder for hackers to exploit the future systems we all depend on. He includes 11 Linux Foundation recommendations including how organizations can harden their build environments against attackers, the need to begin shifting towards implementing and then requiring verified reproducible builds, and the practice of changing tools and interfaces so unintentional vulnerabilities are less likely.

    According to Wheeler, SolarWinds met some of the foundation’s defensive measures. None of them prevented the successful SolarWinds attack, he said. More software hardening is needed.

    The SolarWinds Orion software product is proprietary. So how can open-source coding methods help create better security?

  • M1 MacBook SSDs are facing a big problem — and it could kill your laptop

    The new M1 chip in Apple's latest MacBooks offers great performance and battery life. It may not be so good for your storage drive, however.

    On Twitter and several other forums, users of the latest MacBook Air, MacBook Pro and Mac Mini models are reporting solid-state-drive (SSD) wear rates far higher than expected. If the figures are accurate and the trend continues, it could mean worryingly short lifespans for Apple's latest batch of laptops.


    In the case of the tested Macs seen in these threads, one Mac Mini user claimed to have written 165TB of data in just two months of use. Compared to equivalent retail SSDs from Toshiba (who supplies the SSDs inside the MacBooks), that's equivalent to 10% of its total warrantied TBW.

    In theory, the SSDs in Apple's M1 MacBooks should guarantee reliable use for around five years. But this rapid rate of use slashes that reliable life to less than two years.

    This 10% figure seems to be an outlier. Most users complaining about this issue are reporting figures of 2-3% usage, as seen on threads on the MacRumors forum and the LinusTechTips forum. That's still higher than you'd expect for a brand-new device, though.

today's howtos

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  • GNU Linux (CentOS8) – how to enable power tools repository and install sshfs
  • Apt Update and Apt Upgrade Commands - What's the difference?

    In an earlier article, we looked at the APT command and various ways that you can make use of the package manager to manage packages. That was a general overview, but in this guide, we pause and shine the spotlight on 2 command usages. These are apt update and apt upgrade commands.

    The apt update and apt upgrade are two of the most commonly used yet misunderstood commands for many Linux users. For some, these play the same role, which is not the case. In this guide, we seek to distinguish the differences between the two and how each one of them is used.

  • Remap custom keyboard keys in Linux - Tutorial

    Modern problems require modern solutions. I've recently got meself a new Linux test laptop, one IdeaPad 3, which I bought (unfortunately, due to market shortages) with the UK keyboard layout instead of the US layout. This means suboptimal physical key placement - even if you do use a different keyboard variant. Namely, the bar and backspace keys and such are placed all wrong, plus the Enter key is too small.

    Moreover, this also means, muscle memory and all, you end up typing \ when you actually want to jump to a new line, and this can be quite annoying. So I thought, perhaps I can remap keyboard keys in a small way? But I didn't want to just remap the backspace key (bearing the UK tilde and hash symbols) to a "second" Enter, thus effectively making a larger Enter key, I still wanted to have the bar and backspace keys available. Hence a more complex exercise. Let me show you how you can this somewhat convoluted but super-nice setup.

  • Linux server certifications becoming a must-have for IT pros | Network World

    Linux certification is increasingly significant for tech workers as the public cloud and software-defined networking become ever more important. A Linux cert can set IT professionals apart from the herd and potentially put a lot more money in their bank accounts.

    Once these certifications were a gauge of reliability, according to CompTIA chief tech evangelist James Stanger. “Twenty years ago, Linux tended to attract people who were a little edgier,” he said. “So certification was traditionally used in the Linux side just to find people you can work with—will they show up on time?”

    Now, these certifications are a demonstration not only of proficiency but also dedication to self-improvement. “You can’t go wrong with a certification,” said Joe Faletra, director of infrastructure services at Modis, a technology staffing and consulting firm. “I’ll lean towards certs over experience [in hiring], because this person has put the effort into learning and passing the exam.”

  • How to install Discord on a Chromebook in 2021 - Desktop version

    Today we are looking at how to install Discord, the desktop version, on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

  • How to fix Ubuntu boot issues

    There can be many reasons behind Ubuntu being unable to boot, like, GRUB error, broken package installation, or even a faulty hardware issue. We will be looking at these issues one-by-one and try to solve it.Here are some of the most common Linux Boot issues and their solutions. Bear in mind that these steps are generally for Ubuntu, but could be applied to any Linux system.

  • How To Install AnyDesk on Manjaro 20 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install AnyDesk on Manjaro 20. For those of you who didn’t know, AnyDesk is the world’s so much completely satisfied remote computing device application. Access all your programs, documents, and documents from anywhere, without needing to entrust your information to a cloud service. You could say it is an alternative to the TeamViewer, that’s available free. Anydesk offers a faster remote connection than any other current distant computer application.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of AnyDesk Remote desktop on a Manjaro 20 (Nibia).

  • How to use scp command in Linux to transfer files securely using ssh

    On Unix or Linux operating systems, the scp utility, stands for secure copy, is similar to the more famous command, cp, but is used to transfer files and directories between hosts on a secure encrypted network.

    Since it relies on ssh for data transfer, it offers the same security and uses the same authentication ssh. The scp command will prompt for passwords for authentication (if needed), unlike rcp.

    In this article, we will dive into the world of secure transfer of files in Linux and learn how to use scp command. You will see how to use this utility through detailed explanations and example use cases of the commonly used scp switches and options.

today's howtos

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  • Encryption at Rest in MariaDB – Linux Hint

    Encryption-at-rest prevents an attacker from accessing encrypted data stored on the disk even if he has access to the system. The open-source databases MySQL and MariaDB now support encryption-at-rest feature that meets the demands of new EU data protection legislation. MySQL encryption at rest is slightly different from MariaDB as MySQL only provides encryption for InnoDB tables. Whereas MariaDB also provides an option to encrypt files such as redo logs, slow logs, audit logs, error logs, etc. However, both can’t encrypt data on a RAM and protect it from a malicious root.
    In this article, we will learn to configure database-level encryption for MariaDB.

  • How To Install ERPNext on CentOS | RoseHosting Blog

    ERPNext is a completely robust ERP framework intended for small and medium-sized businesses. It covers an extensive variety of features, including accounting, CRM, inventory, selling, purchasing, manufacturing, projects, HR and payroll, website, e-commerce, and more – all of which make it profoundly adaptable and extendable.

    ERPNext is developed in Python and depends on the Frappe Framework. It utilizes Node.js for the front end, Nginx for the web server, Redis for caching, and MariaDB for the database.

  • How To Find Out Which Groups A User Belongs To In Linux

    A Linux group is a collection of one or more users with identical permission requirements on files and directories. An user can be a member of more than group at a time. In Linux, each group information is stored in the "/etc/group" file. In this tutorial, we will see all the possible ways to easily find out which groups a user belongs to in Linux and Unix-like operating systems.

    Finding out the groups to which a user account belongs will be helpful in many occasions. For instance, the other day I was installing Dropbox on my Ubuntu server. When configuring Dropbox, I had to enter my current user name and the group name. You could also be in a situation where you need to identify the groups a user belongs to. If so, use any one of the following methods to know what group a user is in.

  • How Do I Perform a Traceroute on Linux Mint 20? – Linux Hint

    Traceroute is a very useful utility that is used to track the path that a packet takes to reach a destination within a network. It can also act as a tool to report network congestion.

    In today’s article, we will discuss different examples that will demonstrate the usage of Traceroute on Linux Mint 20.

  • How do I Completely Remove a Package in Linux Mint 20? – Linux Hint

    The task of removing an installed package from any operating system can surely be a hassle if handled carelessly. It is because whenever you attempt to remove a package, you expect it not to leave any of its traces behind. In other words, you want a clean removal of the desired package. However, such a complete removal cannot be achieved without taking certain measures.

    That is why today’s article will be focused on the method of completely removing a package in Linux.

    Note: The method that we have attempted and shared with you in this article has been performed on a Linux Mint 20 system. However, the very same steps can also be performed on Ubuntu 20.04 and Debian 10.

  • How to Install Spotify in Fedora Linux – Linux Hint

    Spotify is a popular audio and video streaming service used by millions of people. Spotify is available for download on smartphones, tablets, and desktops for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Though Spotify works in Linux, this application is not actively supported, as it is on Windows and Mac. You can also enjoy Spotify on wearable gadgets. For example, if you have a Samsung smartwatch, you can listen to and control Spotify using the watch only. You need only install the app on your smartphone from the Play Store to start listening to tracks on Spotify.

    The free version of the application provides access to limited audio streaming services with advertisements. The premium service offers many features, including the ability to download media, ad-free browsing, better sound quality, and more. There are also other plans offered to specific individuals and groups. Spotify also supports various devices, such as Wireless Speakers, Wearables, Smart TVs, and Streamers.

  • How to Install Official Wallpaper Packs on Fedora? – Linux Hint

    Wallpapers are great for improving the user experience of any operating system. In the case of Fedora, one of its iconic features is the wallpapers it comes with. Every single Fedora release gets its own set of wallpaper, and these are some of the most anticipated components of any of its releases.

    In this guide, check out how to install official wallpaper packs on Fedora.

  • How to Reset Your Gnome Desktop to Default Settings

    Linux is a very versatile platform for not only power users, but also tweakers and tinkerers. With the rise of Linux desktop distros have come a whole new level of options for these users.

    Gnome is one of the most popular desktop environments on Linux and Ubuntu. The most popular desktop Linux distro now comes with Gnome out of the box following the shelving of Ubuntu’s Unity desktop environment. It, therefore, follows that there are countless ways to tweak your Gnome and make it truly yours.

  • How to Find Files Based on Timestamp in Linux

    The find command in Linux is used to search for files and folders based on different parameters. These parameters can be the filename, size, type of file, etc.

  • How to Delete Files Older Than Specified Days in Linux

    As you might already know, we use the rm command in Linux to delete files and folders. The filenames to be deleted have to be passed as arguments to rm. However, rm does not offer other options by itself, like deleting files based on timestamps.

    That’s the reason, we use the find command in Linux, which is used to search for files and folders based on different parameters. It is a complex command which can be used to search with parameters like the filename, size, type of file, etc.

    There is an option in the find command to search for files based on how old they are and today we will see how to use find and rm together to delete files older than the specified number of days.

  • How Can I Sudo Another User Without A Password? – Linux Hint

    In Linux platforms, a sudo user is a tool that implies “superuser do” to run various systems’ commands. A sudo user is typically a root user or any other user who has some privileges. To delegate important tasks like server rebooting or restarting the Apache server, or even to create a backup using the sudo command, you can use the sudo without having to enter the password again and again.

    By default, sudo user needs to provide some user authentication. At times, user requirements are to run a command with these root privileges, but they do not desire to type a password multiple times, especially while scripting. This is easily doable in Linux systems. In this article, we will check the method to sudo another user without entering their password.

  • How to configure Route53 with our DomainName to access a static website from S3 on AWS

    This article will help you with the steps to host a static website on S3 and redirect traffic from your subdomain to the static website on the S3 bucket. For this, you will need a domain purchased on AWS. Once you have the domain on AWS, you can create a subdomain and redirect requests from it to the S3 bucket.

  • How to install Zoom on Ubuntu, Lubuntu (latest version) using terminal

    What is zoom? Zoom is the leader in modern enterprise video communications, with an easy, reliable cloud platform for video and audio conferencing, chat, and webinars. You can use free and payed versios.

  • How to install mutliple Ubuntu VMs using Multipass on Ubunut 20.04 - Linux Shout

    Multipass is a platform developed by Canonical to launch and run Ubuntu virtual machines while offering a user the ability to configure them with cloud-init like a public cloud. Here we learn how to install Multipass on Ubuntu 20.04 Linux and use the same to launch Virtual machine instance.

    Although when it comes to launching lightweight pre-built virtual machine images with just a command, Docker comes to mind, however, Multipass could be another option for those who love to work on Ubuntu Server. Yes, if you want to launch Ubuntu Linux command line server VMs instantly on Windows, Linux and macOS then cross-platform Multipass is one of the good options to consider.

  • How to use the sipcalc Linux command line tool | Enable Sysadmin

    The only network numbers I can keep in my head are now and always have been a Class C network with a 24-bit netmask, such as I know there are 254 usable host addresses available with a broadcast address of, a gateway/router address of or (depending on who's running the network), and a human-readable netmask of That's my standard network. After all, 254 hosts are enough for any subnet, right? Wrong. A few years back, I had to step outside of my standard 254 hosts per subnet scenario when I decided to use a 22-bit netmask ( to get a 1022 usable address space.

    I knew little about this address space, and it was frustrating to try to search for the simple information that I needed without scrolling through forums with all the idle chatter and off-topic rhetoric. I guess some people just need a space in which to air their grievances about everything. I digress.

today's howtos

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  • How to Install Latest Vim Editor in Linux – TecAdmin

    Vim (Vi Improved) is a highly configurable command line text editor for Unix like systems. It is originally cloned with VI POSIX standard editor with additions.

    Vim comes standard with most modern Linux distributions, but some of the minimal installation doesn’t include vim editor default. This tutorial will help you to install Vim text editor on your Linux system.

  • How To Install XFCE Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install XFCE Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, XFCE is one of the most popular desktop environments for Linux desktop. XFCE is a free lightweight, fast, and easy to use software desktop environment for Unix/Linux-like operating systems. It is designed for productivity and aims to be fast and low on system resources. Unlike GNOME and KDE desktops which are heavier, but XFCE uses fewer system resources. Furthermore, it offers better modularity and fewer dependencies to install and takes less time and low disk space on your hard drive.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step by step installation of the XFCE lightweight desktop environment on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to read column data from a text file in a bash shell script

    One common task in day-to-day shell scripting jobs is to read data line by line from a file, parse the data, and process it. The input file can be either a regular text file (e.g., logs or config files) where each line contains multiple fields separated by space, or a CSV file that is formatted with delimiter-separated values in each row. In bash, you can easily read columns from a file and store them into separate variables for further processing. In this tutorial, let me demonstrate with examples how you can write a shell script that reads columns into variables in bash.

  • How To Prevent PHP-FPM From Consuming Too Much RAM in Linux

    If you have deployed a LEMP (Linux, NGINX, MySQL/MariaDB, and PHP) stack, then you are probably using FastCGI proxying within NGINX (as an HTTP server), for PHP processing. PHP-FPM (an acronym of FastCGI Process Manager) is a widely-used and high-performance alternative PHP FastCGI implementation.

  • Set your path in FreeDOS |

    Generally, you probably want to keep C:\PDOS\BIN in your path because it contains all the default applications distributed with FreeDOS.

    Unless you change the path in AUTOEXEC.BAT, the default path is restored after a reboot.

    Now that you know how to manage your path in FreeDOS, you can execute commands and maintain your working environment in whatever way works best for you.

  • David Tomaschik: Is Reusing an Old Mac Mini Worth It?

    The last version of Mac OS that was supported is Mac OS X 10.7 “Lion”, which has been unsupported since 2014. Since I’m a Linux guy anyway, I figured I’d see about installing Linux on this. Unfortunately, according to the Debian wiki, this device won’t boot from USB, and I don’t have any blank optical media to burn to. This was the first point where I nearly decided this wasn’t worth my time, but I decided to push on.

    Linux is pretty good about booting on any hardware, even if it’s not the hardware you installed on, as kernel module drivers are loaded based on present hardware. I decided to try installing to a disk and then swapping disks and seeing if the Mac Mini would boot. The EFI on the Mac Mini supports BIOS emulation, and that seemed the more likely to work out of the box.

    I plugged a spare SSD into my SATA dock and then used a virtual machine with a raw disk to install Debian testing on the SSD. I then used the excellent iFixIt teardown and my iFixit toolkit to open the Mac Mini and swap out the drive. I point to the teardown because opening a Mac Mini is neither obvious nor trivial.


    During all of these tests, I had the Mac Mini plugged into a Kill-A-Watt Meter to measure the power consumption. Idling, it’s around 20 watts. Under one of these load tests, it reaches about 45-49 watts. Given that the Raspberry Pi 4B only uses around 5W under full load, the Pi 4B absolutely destroys this Mac Mini in performance-per-watt. (Note, again, this is an old Mac Mini – it’s no surprise that it’s not an even comparison.)


    Given the lack of expandability, the mediocre baseline performance, and the very poor performance per watt, I can’t see using this for much, if anything. Running it 24/7 for a home server doesn’t offer much over a Raspberry Pi 4B, and the I/O is only slightly better. At this point, it’s probably headed for the electronics recycling center.

today's howtos

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  • How to Use Multiple Node.js Versions using NVM - Cloudbooklet

    How to Use Multiple Node.js Versions using NVM. NVM stands for Node.js Version Manager which is more flexible tool to install and manage multiple versions of Node.js and the associated packages at the same time.

    In this guide you are going to learn how install specific version of Node.js using NVM. This setup is tested on Google Compute Engine running Ubuntu 20.04 OS

  • How To Install OpenLiteSpeed on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install OpenLiteSpeed on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. For those of you who didn’t know, OpenLiteSpeed is an open-source HTTP server developed by LiteSpeed Technologies. OpenLiteSpeed is a high-performance and lightweight HTTP server which comes with a Web Gui administration interface. As far as Linux web servers are concerned, OpenLiteSpeed has some interesting features that make it a solid choice for many installations. It features Apache compatible rewrite rules, a web administration interface, and customized PHP processing optimized for the server.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step-by-step installation of the OpenLiteSpeed on Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa). You can follow the same instructions for Ubuntu 18.04, 16.04, and any other Debian-based distribution like Linux Mint.

  • How to install the Brave Browser on a Chromebook in 2021

    Today we are looking at how to install the Brave Browser on a Chromebook. Please follow the video/audio guide as a tutorial where we explain the process step by step and use the commands below.

    We recommend that you start with a new instance of Linux Apps and have at least 6GB of space available for the game.

  • Install LEMP Stack on Ubuntu 20.04

    LEMP is an acronym for Linux, NGINX (pronounced as Engine X,) MySQL, and PHP. These are all popular open-source tools typically used in web development. LEMP stack is commonly used to host dynamic websites. Most content management systems such as WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla create dynamic web pages.

    When a request comes, the server will run the PHP code to put together the HTML version and query the backend database to get content to insert into HTML.

  • How to Install and Use Ansible on Debian 10

    Whenever we talk about configuration management tools, the name that we hear most often is Ansible. It is a cross-platform tool that is designed to handle system configurations while working with Linux, macOS, and Windows operating systems. Today, we will try to throw light on the procedure of installing Ansible on Debian 10.

today's howtos

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  • Selectively reusing commands on Linux | Network World

    The Linux command line allows your system to remember commands that you use—up to a limit set by your HISTSIZE variable. Since each user’s HISTSIZE is generally set to 1000, that means Linux can remember the last 1000 commands you entered and make it easy to reuse them without retyping them.

  • Using Irssi inside a Linux tmux session | Enable Sysadmin

    Irssi is a terminal-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client for *nix systems. From the Irssi man page: Irssi is a modular Internet Relay Chat client. It is highly extensible and very secure. Being a fullscreen, termcap based client with many features, Irssi is easily extensible through scripts and modules.

  • Fix Nginx Error: 413 Request Entity Too Large

    When Nginx is used as a backend server for web apps like WordPress, Drupal, etc. (which are usually PHP and MySQL Database based), many users come across the error: ‘413 – Request Entity Too Large’.

    This error occurs whenever a user tries to upload a file that is greater than the configured maximum upload file size. The default limit for file upload size is 1 MB as defined in the Nginx configuration.

  • How to get started with FUZIX on Raspberry Pi Pico

    FUZIX is an old-school Unix clone that was initially written for the 8-bit Zilog Z80 processor and released by Alan Cox in 2014. At one time one of the most active Linux developers, Cox stepped back from kernel development in 2013. While the initial announcement has been lost in the mists because he made it on the now defunct Google+, Cox jokingly recommended the system for those longing for the good old days when all the source code still fitted on a single floppy disk.


    Since then FUZIX has been ported to other architectures such as 6502, 68000, and the MSP430. Earlier in the week David Given — who wrote both the MSP430 and ESP8266 ports — went ahead and ported it to Raspberry Pi Pico and RP2040.

    So you can now run Unix on a $4 microcontroller.

  • How To Install The Default GNOME Shell Theme (Adwaita) On Ubuntu 20.04, 20.10 And 21.04 - Linux Uprising Blog

    This article explains how to install the default GNOME Shell theme, Adwaita, on Ubuntu 20.04, 20.10 and 21.04 (hint: it's trickier than you would think).

    The GNOME Shell theme is the theme used for the top panel, activities overview, system dialog and notifications. GNOME uses Adwaita as its default theme for both GTK and GNOME Shell.

    You may want to use the default GNOME Shell theme not only because you don't like Yaru GNOME Shell theme, or you're a fan of Adwaita, but also because you may want to test things using the default GNOME Shell theme (this is why I needed this actually).

    Ubuntu ships with Yaru as the default GTK and GNOME Shell theme. While Adwaita GTK theme comes preinstalled on Ubuntu, the Adwaita GNOME Shell theme is trickier to install, even though you actually already have it, but it doesn't show up in GNOME Tweaks / can't be used by default.

  • A guide to Python virtual environments with virtualenvwrapper

    For some time, Python has included support for managing virtual environments. Python 3.3 even added the built-in venv module for creating environments without third-party libraries. Python programmers use several different tools to manage their environments, and the one I use is called virtualenvwrapper.

    Virtual environments are a way of separating your Python project and its dependencies from your system-installed Python. If you use a macOS or Linux-based operating system, it very likely comes with a version of Python as part of the installation, and in fact, it will probably be dependent on that particular version of Python to function properly. But it's your computer, and you may want to use it for your own purposes. You may need to install another version of Python than the operating system provides. You may need to install some additional libraries, too. Although it's possible to upgrade your system Python, it's not recommended. It's also possible to install other libraries, but you must take care not to interfere with anything the system relies on.

  • Oracle Linux 8 Advanced System Administration Certification Exam

    In response to increasing interest from the Oracle Linux user community in an updated certification exam, we are pleased to announce the availability of the certification exam for Oracle Linux 8. The Oracle Linux 8 Advanced System Administration Certification Exam is now available:

    By passing this exam, a certified individual proves fluency and a solid understanding of the skills required to deploy, configure, and administer an Oracle Linux 8 production server environment. Reap the benefits of earning an Oracle Certification. Expand your knowledge base and validate your skills to appeal to potential employers. Broaden your network and join 1.8 million Oracle Certified professionals. Gain exposure to a wide variety of important features, functions and tasks to use on the job.

today's howtos

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  • How To Install Wireshark on Debian 10 - idroot

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Wireshark on Debian 10. For those of you who didn’t know, Wireshark is a free and open-source network protocol analyzer. With Wireshark, you can capture incoming and outgoing packets of a network in real-time and use it for network troubleshooting, packet analysis, software and communication protocol development, and many more.

    This article assumes you have at least basic knowledge of Linux, know how to use the shell, and most importantly, you host your site on your own VPS. The installation is quite simple and assumes you are running in the root account, if not you may need to add ‘sudo‘ to the commands to get root privileges. I will show you through the step by step installation of Wireshark open-source network analysis and packet investigation on a Debian 10 (Buster).

  • How to Block a Port Using a Firewall in Linux

    A firewall is either a software-based or, in some cases, a hardware-based security system for networks. It automatically monitors traffic inflow and outflow on the system and blocks certain kinds of data flow based on rules, which are pre-configured.

    In Linux, Firewalld and UFW are two of the most popular Firewall software. They are used for all kinds of traffic blocking; from blocking a certain website, to blocking a specific server.

    Today we will learn how to use these two Firewalls to block a specific port in Linux.

  • How to Install Mattermost Desktop on Ubuntu 20.04 – TecAdmin

    Mattermost Desktop is the client application for the Desktop systems to user their mattermost account.

    You must have Mattermost server installed in your self-managed instance or signup for the Mattermost cloud. For this tutorial, I have created an account on Mattermost cloud free version. You can go with professional or enterprise edition as per your requirements.

    This tutorial describe you to how to install Mattermost desktop client on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux system.

  • How To Install Fildem Global Menu And HUD For GNOME Shell On Debian / Ubuntu, Fedora Or Arch Linux / Manjaro

    Fildem is a global menu and HUD for GNOME Shell. It was forked from the GNOME HUD project, and then made to also support adding a global menu to GNOME Shell. This article explains how to install this on Debian / Ubuntu, Fedora and Arch Linux / Manjaro.

    Using this, the menu that's usually built into the application window is displayed on the top GNOME Shell panel. Thanks to the HUD functionality (which is brought up by using the Alt + Space keyboard shortcut), you can also use this to search through the application menu, very useful for applications with vast menus, like GIMP for example.

    The Fildem global menu is set to automatically hide and only become visible on mouse over, but this can be changed, so you can have an always visible global menu if you want.

  • How to Install OSRM on Ubuntu 20.04 - Open Source Routing Machine

    OSRM (Open Source Routing Machine) is a super fast routing engine for OpenStreetMap (OSM) road networks. In previous tutorials, we explained the process of setting up a self-hosted OpenStreetMap tile server and how to add address lookup functionality to your map with Nominatim. This tutorial is going to show you how to add navigation functionality to your OpenStreetMap with OSRM, which provides car routing, bike routing, and walk routing.

  • How to Install Ruby on Rails on Ubuntu 20.04

    Ruby and Rails commonly known as "Rails" is an open-source web application framework. Ruby and Rails framework is written in Ruby programming language which helps you to create highly powerful websites and applications. Rails is a server-side web application framework that follows the MVC concept.

    In the previous article, we discussed Ruby installation on Ubuntu 20.04. In this article, we are going to learn how to install the Ruby and Rails framework on Ubuntu 20.04.

  • How to Install Shopware 6 with NGINX and Let's Encrypt on CentOS 8

    Shopware is a free and open-source platform that helps you to start your own e-commerce website to power your online business. It provides a lot of useful tools that help you to build and customize a fully responsive online store. It is very similar to Magento. Compared to Magento, Shopware is a very powerful, easy-to-use, and flexible application. It helps you to create and manage content and products easily from any device with its modern user interface.

    In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Shopware with Nginx and Let's Encrypt SSL on CentOS 8.

  • How to install Cockpit Server manager on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS - Linux Shout

    Manage your command-line Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 LTS server using the web-based graphical user interface of the Cockpit server Manager.

    With Cockpit, a Linux system can be conveniently administered and controlled remotely using a browser. Among other things, the admin can take a look at the systemd journal, checks the load, starts and stops services, access terminal with root rights, and more. Thanks to responsive design, the user interface automatically adapts to different screen sizes, which in turn enables convenient access via smartphones.

  • How to install WoeUSB on Debian 10 Buster- Bootable USB creator

    WoeUSB on Debian can be used to create Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, or XP bootable USB drives with just a few clicks, Here we will learn how to install WoeUSB-ng on Debian 10 Buster or 11 Bullseye.

    Although there are many USB bootable creator software such as Etcher, Unetbootin, and more for Linux distros, however, if you want to have a dedicated one to create a bootable pen drive for Windows DVD or image then WoUSB is here. Because when it comes to writing Windows ISO images, many USB bootable creator programs don’t work as they should, that’s the reason why WoeUSB is popular. You can check our out 7 Best Ubuntu live USB creators to Download & Use.

  • How to lock & unlock multiple users in Linux

    ‘usermod’ & ‘passwd’ commands are used to lock or unlock one user account at a time, but you may need to write some small shell scripts to perform this action in multiple user accounts.

    In this tutorial, we will explain how to lock and unlock multiple user accounts simultaneously in Linux using a shell script.

  • Installing Red Hat OpenShift API Management - Red Hat Developer

    Red Hat OpenShift API Management is a new managed application service designed as an add-on to Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated. The service provides developers with a streamlined experience when developing and delivering microservices applications with an API-first approach.

    OpenShift API Management was built on the success of 3scale API Management and designed to let developers easily share, secure, reuse, and discover APIs when developing applications. This article shows you how to install OpenShift API Management as an add-on to your OpenShift Dedicated cluster. As you will see, it takes less than 10 minutes to install, configure, administer, and be up and running with OpenShift API Management. Check the end of the article for the included video demonstration.

  • Killing frozen applications in Ubuntu 20.0

    At times, in a computer system when applications are running the system might freeze and does not respond. This seems annoying since users are not even able to close the program by using the X icon on the UI of the application. This is because the processes/applications are not responding and they will not simply be closed by the UI method. Even continuous rebooting of your system does not seem to be a suitable solution. Sometimes, users have many critical data that could be unsaved. There are solutions to such problems that are easily adaptable and will cover them in this article.

    In Ubuntu, there are many methods used to kill such frozen applications in which users are not required to reboot their systems. xkill, and system monitor utility are the famous methods used along with kill, pkill, and killall commands. In this article, I will show you 3 different ways of killing frozen applications on an Ubuntu 20.04 system using GUI as well as the command line.

  • Check Your Disk Usage Using ‘duf’ Terminal Tool [Friendly Alternative to du and df commands]

    Before I knew about this utility, I preferred using a GUI program like Stacer or the pre-installed GNOME Disk usage app to check free disk space and the disk usage numbers for my system.

    However, duf seems to be a useful terminal tool to check disk usage and free space that is written in Golang. Even though Abhishek suggested me to give this a try, I found it more interesting, especially considering that I’m currently learning Golang, what a coincidence!

    It is fairly easy to use no matter whether you are a terminal guru or just a beginner not comfortable with the terminal. It is certainly easier to understand than the df command for checking disk space utilization.

    Let me highlight some of the key features and its usage before you get it installed on your system.

  • 5 steps to manage your first API using Red Hat OpenShift API Management - Red Hat Developer

    Companies are increasingly using hosted and managed services to deliver on application modernization efforts and reduce the burden of managing cloud infrastructure. The recent release of Red Hat OpenShift API Management makes it easier than ever to get your own dedicated instance of Red Hat 3scale API Management running on Red Hat OpenShift Dedicated.

    This article is for developers who want to learn how to use Red Hat’s hosted and managed services to automatically import and manage exposed APIs. We’ll deploy a Quarkus application on OpenShift Dedicated, then use OpenShift API Management to add API key security. See the end of the article for a video demonstration of the workflow described.

today's howtos

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  • Linux 101: What is the SUID permission? - TechRepublic

    If you're new to Linux administration, you've probably already started learning about file permissions. If I said "drwxrwxr-x," you'd know what that meant. It's simple: A directory with owner and group read, write, execute permissions, but only read and execute permissions for everyone else.

    That's not the be-all, end all for permissions. There are actually three more permissions, one of which I'm going to teach you about right now. Said permission is called SUID, which stands for Set owner User ID. This is a special permission that applies to scripts or applications. If the SUID bit is set, when the command is run, it's effective UID becomes that of the owner of the file, instead of the user running it.

  • What is the Vim Editor in linux?

    If you are working in the command line mode, you may need to become familiar with a text editor that will be operating in a Linux console. The vim editor is the original editor that Unix uses. It makes use of the console graphics mode for the emulation of a text-editing window, which allows you to see different lines of the file, move around across the files, and edit, insert or replace a piece of text. The vim editor works well with the data that is in a memory buffer. You have to type vim and the name of the file that you have to edit to open the editor with the desired file.

    If the editor is started without a filename being supplied, it opens but with no file. The vim editor detects the session’s terminal type and uses full-screen mode so the console window can use the editor area. The initial window will show the file contents and a message line at the bottom of the window. If the contents don’t take up the entire screen, a tilde is placed on the lines excluded from the file. The vim editor has two operational modes — normal and INSERT mode. When you open a file for editing, vim goes into normal mode, and certain keystrokes are interpreted as commands.

  • How to Schedule File Backups to Google Drive in Linux - Putorius

    Google Drive is a cloud storage service that allows us to backup the files and access them securely from any device. In Linux, you can easily mount the Google drive using the Gnome online accounts utility. After mounting the Google drive, you can upload any data you want to backup to your Google Drive storage. But what if you want to automatically backup certain data to online cloud storage service at regular intervals so that you have an up to date backup at all times? With Gnome online accounts and Deja-dup, you can easily schedule file backups to Google Drive in just 6 steps.

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More in Tux Machines

Free Software Leftovers

  • From Clean & Green Mockup to OpenBSD cwm(1) desktop

    If the words CGA or Hercules raise sweet memories from your far away youth, the Mockup Clean & Green from u/awareofdistractions may hit you right in the heart. And if you like it so much, it may be used for real-life desktop environment using OpenBSD stock and ports material.

  • Learning more about our users

    At the Tor Project we practice user-centered design. This means we put our users at the heart of our development process, making a conscious effort to understand the contexts in which people use our tools and paying particular attention to the bumps they encounter along the way.

    Many digital product companies rely heavily on data gathered from invasive tracking scripts to better understand their users’ behavior, further fueling the surveillance economy. However that’s not how we do things at Tor – instead, we aim to conduct research that respects the basic principles of privacy and consent.

  • New Release: Tor Browser 10.5a11

    Tor Browser 10.5a11 is now available from the Tor Browser Alpha download page and also from our distribution directory.

    Note: This is an alpha release, an experimental version for users who want to help us test new features. For everyone else, we recommend downloading the latest stable release instead.

  • FSFE20 +++ IloveFS +++ Job vacancy

    In our February Newsletter, we interview our founding president Georg Greve as part of our publication series to celebrate 20 Years FSFE, we reflect on I love Free Software Day and our FOSDEM participation, we advertise our new job vacancy and as usual we report on our diverse community activities.

  • Keeping platforms open

    My previous article, Whatsapp and the domestication of users, got more attention than I was expecting. Some responses gave me a lot to think about,1 especially regarding actions we can take. I suggest reading that article first; it explained what “user domestication” is and why it’s a problem. It enumerated three countermeasures: FOSS, simplicity, and open platforms.

    Hard problems, by definition, lack easy solutions. Simply choosing (or creating) a platform that avoids user domestication isn’t enough if that platform can change. The price of freedom is eternal vigilance; in addition to settling on the right platform, we must ensure that it honors its users in both the present and the future. Keeping a platform FOSS and simple is more straightforward2 than keeping a platform “open”.

    How do we keep an open platform from becoming a closed platform in the future?

Programming Leftovers

  • 6 Top Data Analysis Tools for Big Data

    Big Data is an all-inclusive term that refers to data sets so large and complex that they need to be processed by specially designed hardware and software tools. The data sets are typically of the order of tera or exabytes in size. These data sets are created from a diverse range of sources: sensors that gather climate information, publicly available information such as magazines, newspapers, articles. Other examples where big data is generated include purchase transaction records, web logs, medical records, military surveillance, video and image archives, and large-scale e-commerce. There is a heightened interest in Big Data and Big Data analysis and the implications they have for businesses. Big Data analysis is the process of examining huge quantities of data to find patterns, correlations, and other useful information that can help firms become more responsive to change, and to make better informed decisions. Big Data analysis can be performed with data mining software. However, the unstructured data sources used for big data analysis are not necessarily suitable for investigation by traditional data mining software.

  • 50 Years of Pascal

    Pascal was easy to teach, and it covered a wide spectrum of applications, which was a significant advantage over Algol, Fortran, and Cobol. The Pascal System was efficient, compact, and easy to use. The language was strongly influenced by the new discipline of structured programming, advocated primarily by E.W. Dijkstra to avert the threatening software crisis (1968).

  • How to use Django Serializers – Linux Hint

    Serializer is used in Django to convert the model instances or querysets into python supported data types that can be easily rendered into JSON, XML, or other formats. The deserialization can also be done by serializers to get back the original data from the serialized data. This feature is available in Django REST Framework. So, the users have to install this framework to use the serializers. Any webpage of the website may contain HTML, CSS, and data from the database tables. But the API does not understand these types of content, and it can understand the raw data only, that is, JSON data. How the serializers can be used to convert the model instance into JSON format has shown in this tutorial.

  • How to use queryset in django – Linux Hint

    Most of the web applications are implemented with the database now. queryset is used in the Django application to retrieve records by filtering or slicing or ordering the database table without changing the original data. The model used Django to create the table in the database. So, the knowledge of using the model in Django is necessary to understand the use of queryset. The main function of the queryset is to iterate the records of database tables by converting them into SQL queries. It can be used from the python command line or by writing the python script to display the browser’s output. The uses of queryset for retrieving data from a database table in different ways have been explained in this tutorial.

  • This Week In Rust: This Week in Rust 379 [Ed: The usual paradox of developing "openly" while requiring people to get an account with Microsoft and then use proprietary software of Microsoft, which attacks Free software.]

    This Week in Rust is openly developed on GitHub.

  • What Is BC in a Bash Script? – Linux Hint

    BC, which stands for Basic Calculator, is a command in Bash that is used to provide the functionality of a scientific calculator within a Bash script. This can be useful for scripting with various arithmentic use cases and scenarios. This article shows you how to use BC in a Bash script.

Security Leftovers

  • How often should I rotate my ssh keys?

    My story for today is about ssh and how even public keys, while much better than simple passwords, are still not a perfect solution.

    The danger is credential theft, which is a fancy way of saying “someone stole your private keys.” Back in the 1990s, that problem was pretty far from our minds; Windows 98 didn’t even have the concept of a separate administrator account, never mind the idea of app sandboxing or the inkling that someone might intentionally want to load malware onto your computer and encrypt all your files for ransomware. Those were the days when some people thought ActiveX controls (essentially loading .exe files from web sites) might be a good idea. Actually, maybe even a great idea as long as there was an “are you sure?” dialog box first.

  • 4 of the Best LastPass Alternatives

    LastPass has recently changed its free account usage policy to be only available on one device, and a lot of its users are not happy about it. If you are a LastPass Free user and are looking to switch, here are four great LastPass alternatives you should check out. These services reserve their pricing tiers for more advanced, business-oriented users while still leaving free users with a powerful set of features to safeguard their online accounts data.

  • Security updates for Thursday

    Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (ansible-base, keycloak, mumble, and postgresql), Debian (firefox-esr and nodejs), Fedora (dotnet3.1, dotnet5.0, keylime, php-horde-Horde-Text-Filter, radare2, scap-security-guide, and wireshark), openSUSE (postgresql, postgresql13 and python-djangorestframework), Red Hat (Ansible, firefox, and thunderbird), Scientific Linux (firefox and thunderbird), SUSE (php7, postgresql-jdbc, python-cryptography, rpmlint, and webkit2gtk3), and Ubuntu (dnsmasq, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-5.4, linux-azure, linux-azure-5.4, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-5.4, linux-gke-5.4, linux-gkeop, linux-gkeop-5.4, linux-hwe-5.4, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-oracle-5.4, linux-raspi, linux-raspi-5.4, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-hwe, linux-azure, linux-azure-4.15, linux-dell300x, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-4.15, linux-gke-4.15, linux-hwe, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-raspi2, linux-snapdragon, linux, linux-aws, linux-azure, linux-gcp, linux-hwe-5.8, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-raspi, linux, linux-aws, linux-kvm, linux-lts-xenial, linux-raspi2, linux-snapdragon, linux-oem-5.10, linux-oem-5.6, screen, and xterm).

  • Biden signs executive order calling for semiconductor supply chain review

    President Biden signed an executive order Wednesday addressing growing concern over a global semiconductor shortage hampering the production of goods like automobiles and smartphones.

    The White House’s executive order directs the federal government to conduct 100-day reviews of supply chains in four sets of products, including computer chips and large capacity batteries, like those used in electric vehicles, according to administration officials.

  • Biden Orders Review to Shore Up Supply Chain Resiliency

    On top of the 100-day review of the four key industries, Biden’s order will also direct yearlong reviews for six sectors: defense, public health, information technology, transportation, energy and food production.

    Biden said his administration will implement the recommendations as soon as they are available. “We're not going to wait for the review to be completed before we start closing the existing gaps,” he said.

  • Technology Executives Say All Evidence Points To Russia In Major Hack Of Computer Networks

    Smith told the committee that the true scope of the intrusions is still unknown because most victims are not legally required to disclose attacks unless they involve sensitive information about individuals.

  • Finnish IT Giant Hit with Ransomware Cyberattack [iophk: Windows TO]

    Norwegian business journal E24 reported the attack on Espoo, Finland-based TietoEVRY on Tuesday, claiming to have spoken with Geir Remman, a communications director at the company. Remman acknowledged technical problems with several services that TietoEVRY provides to 25 customers, which are “due to a ransom attack,” according to the report.

    Remman told E24 that the company considers the attack “a serious criminal act.” TietoEVRY turned off the unspecified services and infrastructure affected “as a preventative measure” until it can recover relevant data, and restart systems “in a controlled manner,” he said.

Ubuntu Leftovers

  • Ubuntu Aims For Higher Quality LTS Point Releases - Phoronix

    New restrictions will be in place beginning with Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS this summer to try to enforce better quality releases with less regressions by enforcing better quality control. The change beginning with Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS will require that stable release update (SRU) procedures are followed even for release blockers. This will require that every fix follows the same verification, regression analysis, and aging period process. The tighter quality controls will likely lead to slips in release targets if bugs are found in the release candidates for new point releases, as it will first need to go through the verification and aging process.

  • DFI Partners With Ubuntu For IoT Hardware, OTA Updates - Phoronix

    Most of you probably haven't heard of DFI much in nearly two decades since the days of their colorful "LanParty" motherboards that were well known at the time, but these days they are focused on the industrial computer industry and have now teamed up with Canonical to partake in the Ubuntu IoT Hardware Certification Partner Program. DFI is the first industrial computer vendor joining the Ubuntu IoT Hardware Certification Partner Program for Ubuntu-certified hardware focused on the Internet of Things and embracing over-the-air software updates.

  • What is MEC ? The telco edge.

    MEC, as ETSI defines it, stands for Multi-access Edge Computing and is sometimes referred to as Mobile edge computing. MEC is a solution that gives content providers and software developers cloud-computing capabilities which are close to the end users. This micro cloud deployed in the edge of mobile operators’ networks has ultra low latency and high bandwidth which enables new types of applications and business use cases. On top of that an application running on MEC can have real-time access to a subset of radio network information that can improve the overall experience.